Resources that may assist risk assessment practitioners.
1. Risk Assessment: Models
1.1a Risk assessment for
the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates in Australia
This report examines the
factors that can be used to distinguish between species that pose a high risk
of becoming a new pest and those that pose a lower risk. This information is
used to construct a scientifically based risk assessment model to evaluate the
risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic species in Australia. This
report provides information and guidance that will assist those responsible for
assessing and managing the risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic
vertebrates, including government policy makers, quarantine officials and
Citation: Bomford, M. (2003).
Risk assessment for the import and keeping of exotic vertebrates in Australia
Australian Government Bureau of Rural Sciences: Canberra.
Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/PC12803.pdf
assessment models for establishment of exotic vertebrates in Australia and New
The report provides
information to assist government agencies increase public awareness and assess
the risks posed by the import and keeping of exotic species.
Citation: Bomford, M. (2008).
Risk assessment models for establishment of exotic vertebrates in Australia and
New Zealand. Invasive Animals Cooperative Research Centre, Canberra.
Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/Risk_Assess_Models_2008_FINAL.pdf
identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes (Technical Report
Citation: Copp, G.H.,
Garthwaite, R. & Gozlan, R.E. (2005). Risk identification and assessment of
nonnative freshwater fishes: concepts and perspectives on protocols for the UK.
Cefas Science Technical Report
Available from: http://www.cefas.co.uk/publications/techrep/tech129.pdf
I.3 Alien Species in
Aquaculture: Considerations for Responsible Use
This publication aims to first
provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing
international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in
aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses
to this issue.
Citation: Hewitt, C.L.,
Campbell, M.L. and Gollasch, S. (2006). Alien Species in Aquaculture.
Considerations for responsible use. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
viii + 32 pp.
Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2006-036.pdf
Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms
The ICES Code of Practice sets
forth recommended procedures and practices to diminish the risks of detrimental
effects from the intentional introduction and transfer of marine (including brackish
water) organisms. The Code is aimed at a broad audience since it applies to
both public (commercial and governmental) and private (including scientific)
interests. In short, any persons engaged in activities that could lead to the
intentional or accidental release of exotic species should be aware of the
procedures covered by the Code of Practice.
Citation: ICES. (2005). ICES
Code of Practice on the Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms 2005.
Available from: http://www.ices.dk/reports/general/2004/ICES%20Code%20of%20Practice%202005.pdf
The CLIMATE software package
matches the climates of selected regions around the world to the climate of
other selected regions. The potential range of a species within the analysis
site is produced as images and text.
Authors: Bureau of Rural
Sciences (BRS) Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. Australian
Available from: http://adl.brs.gov.au/brsShop/html/brs_prod_90000003434.html
import list (Australia)
The import of live plants and
animals into Australia is regulated under the Environment Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act). All species permitted for import
into Australia are included on the list of specimens suitable for live import
(the live import list). Species not identified on this list cannot be legally
imported into Australia.
Any one, whether a member of
the public, a public institution or a commercial enterprise, can apply to the
Minister for the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts to amend the live
import list to include a new species. The purpose for applying to amend the
live import list to include a new species may be either commercial or
Follow this link for the
process to apply to import new animal species into Australia.
methodology to assess the risks from non-native species considered possible
problems to the environment (UK)
In response to a key
recommendation from the Defra Review of Non-Native Species Policy in 2003, this
project has developed a scheme for assessing the risks posed by any non-native
organism to species, habitats or ecosystems in all or part of the UK. The UK
non-native risk assessment scheme is based on internationally recognised
procedures developed by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection
Organisation (EPPO) following International Plant Protection Convention
standards for pest risk analysis.
Available from: http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Document.aspx?Document=WC04004_2971_EXE.pdf
support tools: Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and
freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians. Centre for
Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas)
The electronic tool kits
(listed below) available for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As
such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is
retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy
themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance.
These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational
programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi (with contributions from David Cooper, Andy
South and Gordon H. Copp), based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk
Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy
• Freshwater Fish Invasiveness
Scoring Kit (FISK)
• Marine Fish Invasiveness
Scoring Kit (MFISK)
• Marine Invertebrate
Invasiveness Scoring Kit (MI-ISK)
• Freshwater Invertebrate
Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FI-ISK)
• Amphibian Invasiveness
Scoring Kit (AmphISK)
Available from: http://www.cefas.co.uk/projects/risks-and-impacts-of-non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx
I.9 The Weed Risk Assessment
The weed risk assessment (WRA)
process is a science-based quarantine risk analysis tool for determining the
weed potential of proposed new plant imports.
Biosecurity Australia conducts
WRAs on all new plant species proposed for introduction into Australia as
seeds, tissue culture or any other material for propagation. WRAs are usually
done at the species level but sub-specific taxa or hybrids are also
The WRA process is a
three-tiered system that involves the importer, Biosecurity Australia and the
Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS).
If the plant is not present in
Australia, the species advances to Tier
2 - weed risk assessment.
Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/ba/reviews/weeds/system
Tools for the Prevention of Biological Invasions
I3N is the invasive species
thematic network of the Inter- American
Biodiversity Information Network (IABIN)
In January 2008 the
development of the first two I3N value added tools was completed: a Risk
Analysis Tool for the prevention of alien plants establishment and invasion,
and a Vectors and Pathways Analysis Tool, both developed to work in association
with the database on invasive alien species in the network.
A manual to use these tools
is available in Excel format, both in English and Spanish
Available from: http://i3n.iabin.net/HerramientasdePrevenciondeInvasionesBiologicasdeI3N.html
II.1 Handbook on Import Risk Analysis Animals and Animal Products [World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)]
Volume 1. Introduction and qualitative risk analysis
Volume 2. Quantitative risk assessment
Risk Analysis Handbook (Australia)
The Import Risk Analysis
Handbook 2011 sets out the process that Biosecurity Australia
follows to undertake an IRA.
Citation: Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry 2011, Import Risk Analysis Handbook 2011, Canberra
Available from: http://www.daff.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0012/1897554/import-risk-analysis-handbook-2011.pdf
III. Training relating to
III.1 Training material on pest risk
analysis based on IPPC standards
Under the IPPC, three
international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPMs) on pest risk
analysis (PRA) have been developed and adopted:
ISPM No. 2 (2007): Framework
for pest risk analysis
ISPM No. 11 (2004): Pest risk
analysis for quarantine pests including analysis of environmental risks and
living modified organisms
ISPM No. 21 (2004): Pest risk
analysis for regulated non-quarantine pests.
To help countries understand
and implement these standards, an international advisory group of PRA experts
was established to develop a training course and training materials designed to
increase countries’ capacity to conduct PRA. Information on this international
advisory group is available by clicking on the link "Advisory group on
PRA" in the sidebar to the left.
The training course is
designed to take place over 5 days, and consists of 14 presentations that
explain PRA concepts and practices and 14 group exercises to demonstrate these.
These materials are freely available for use by any interested party.
Available from: https://www.ippc.int/servlet/CDSServlet?status=ND0xODYyMDgmY3RuX2luZm9fdmlld19zaXplPWN0bl9pbmZvX3ZpZXdfZnVsbCY2PWVuJjMzPSomMzc9a29z
IV. Some examples of National
Approach to the Management of Ornamental Fish in Australia
This report contains seven
recommendations for the future management and regulation of the ornamental fish
trade in Australia.
Citation: Department of
Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry (2006) A strategic Approach to the
Management of Ornamental Fish in Australia Natural Resource Management
Ministerial Council, Canberra
Available from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/288425/Management-of-ornamental-fish-in-Australia.pdf
strategy for the management of vertebrate pest animals in Australia
The Australian Pest Animal
Strategy is a national strategy for the management of vertebrate pest animals
in Australia. The focus of the Strategy is to address the undesirable impacts caused
by exotic vertebrate animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish)
that have become pests in Australia, and to prevent the establishment of new
exotic vertebrate pests.
Citation: Department of the
Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2007) Australian Pest Animal Strategy-A
national strategy for the management of vertebrate pest animals in Australia,
Australian Government and Natural Resource Management Ministerial Council,
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/pubs/pest-animal-strategy.pdf
of the impacts of introduced ornamental fish species that have established wild
populations in Australia
Many ornamental fish are
brought into Australia each year for stocking into home aquaria or garden ponds
and between 12 and 14% of Australians are thought to keep aquaria. It is
inevitable that some of these ornamental fish end up in natural waterways and although
many don’t survive, some have established feral populations. Accordingly, there
has been a rise in the number of exotic freshwater ornamental fish species
establishing wild populations in Australia over the past 20-30 years. Of the 41
alien fish species currently known to have established populations in
Australia, up to 30 are now thought to have arrived in the country via the
ornamental fish trade. This is a relatively large number of new species and
there is growing concern over the potential for one or more of these to create
an expensive environmental problem.
In summary, this review has
identified a number of key issues for the future management of feral ornamental
fish in Australia that need to be urgently addressed.
Citation: Corfield, J., Diggles,
B., Jubb, C., McDowall, R. M., Moore, A., Richards, A. and Rowe, D. K. (2008).
Review of the impacts of introduced ornamental fish species that have
established wild populations in Australia’. Prepared for the Australian
Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts
Available from: http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/invasive/publications/pubs/ornamental-fish.pdf
V. Resources on invasive
alien species management in general -with good risk assessment related content
V.1 Invasive Alien
Species: A Toolkit for Best Prevention and Management Practices
Citation: Wittenberg R. &
Cock M.J.W. (2001) (eds) Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit for Best Prevention
and Management Practices. Publisher GISP
English, French and Spanish
V.2 A Toolkit for the
Economic Analysis of Invasive Species
Citation: Emerton L. & Howard G. (2008) A Toolkit for the Economic Analysis of Invasive Species. Publisher
English and French
V.3 Toolkit for
developing legal and institutional frameworks for invasive alien species
Citation: Shine C. (2008) A
Toolkit for Developing Legal and Institutional Frameworks for Invasive Alien
Species. Publisher GISP
English and Portuguese
V.4 Guide to Designing
Legal and Institutional Frameworks on Alien Invasive Species
Citation: Shine C., Williams
N. & Gündling L. (2000). A Guide to Designing Legal and Institutional Frameworks on Alien
Invasive Species. Environmental Policy and Law Paper No. 40 IUCN -
Environmental Law Centre A Contribution to the Global Invasive Species
Programme IUCN - The World Conservation Union.
English, French and Spanish
and regional legislation for promotion and support to the prevention, control,
and eradication of invasive species
Citation: Young T., R. (2006).
National and Regional Legislation for Promotion and Support to the Prevention,
Control, and Eradication of Invasive Species. Biodiversity series, Paper No
108. 98 pp. Published by The World Bank Environment Department (2006).
The publication addresses
different aspects of the invasive alien species issue, but has a lot of content
relating to prevention. Part I provides a conceptual and scientific summary and
introduction, and Part II provides a very brief overview of some of the key
global developments in the field, while Part III examines in greater detail the
legislative tools available for use in the control of species introduction, and
invasive species. Part IV discusses some of the special concerns relating to
the process of building one, or more legislative frameworks utilizing the
legislative tools described in Part III, and, provides, in some cases, a brief
identification of how the selection and use of those tools might differ within
the developing country context.
Available from: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/03/08/000012009_20060308141046/Rendered/PDF/354330REV0EDP01ive0species01PUBLIC1.pdf
V.6 Assessment and control
of biological invasion risks
Biological invasion, an issue
of growing importance due to the significant increase in international
transportation and trade, can disturb the balance of local ecosystems and even
destroy them. This collection of papers presented at the International
Conference on Assessment and Control of Biological Invasion Risks held in
August 2004 at Yokohama National University discusses risk assessment, risk
management and eradication.
It also includes contributions
reporting on the current status of invasion and the properties of alien species
in East Asia.
Citation: Koike, F., Clout, M. N., Kawamichi, M.,
De Poorter, M. and Iwatsuki, K. (eds) (2006). Published by SHOUKADOH Book
Sellers, Kyoto, Japan and the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland,
Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2006-061.pdf
Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive
Species, approved by the 51st Meeting of the IUCN Council, February 2000.
English, Spanish and French versions are available from: http://data.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/policy/invasivesSp.htm
Guidelines for Re-introductions
This is a comprehensive set of
policy guidelines that ensure that the re-introductions effectively achieve
their intended conservation benefit, and do not cause unfavorable environmental
These guidelines were approved
by the 41st Meeting of IUCN Council in May 1995. They were translated into
different languages that include French, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Russian,
Chinese, Arabic and German as well as English and produced in a booklet form in
English, Spanish and French versions are available from: http://data.iucn.org/themes/ssc/publications/policy/invasivesSp.htm