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152 invasive species found

Alien Species

1. Abrus precatorius (shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Abrus precatorius a legume, is a nitrogen fixer and where present in large stands can alter soil nutrient status. It is also suspected to have allelopathic effects that could alter native species recruitment.
Common Names: alcaçuz-da-américa, assacumirim, coral bead plant, crab's eye, fuefue laulili‘i, guen léglise, Indian-licorice, jequerity, jequiriti, jequirity-bean, kaikes en iak, kirikiri rangi, kolales halomtano, koviriviri mata-tako, lele, lere ndamu, licorice-vine, love-bean, lucky-bean, mata‘ila, matamoe, matamoho, matamoso, minnie-minnies, moho, ndiri ndamu, nggiri ndamu, ojos de cangrejo, olho-de-cabra-miúdo, olho-de-pombo, peronías, pipi tio, pitipiti‘o, pitipitio, pois rouge, pomea mataila, prayer-beads, precatory, precatory bean, pukiawe, pukiawe lei, pukiawe lenalena, pupukiawe, red-beadvine, rosary pea, rosarypea, tento, tento muido, uiui, weather plant, weather vine
Synonyms: Abrus abrus (L.) W. Wight, Glycine abrus Linnaeus
2. Acacia farnesiana (tree, shrub) English  français     
Probably a native of tropical America, Acacia farnesiana was introduced to many tropical countries for its bark, gum, seed and wood. It is often planted as an ornamental or to check erosion, and is also used in the perfume industry because of its scented flowers. This thorny, deciduous shrub grows to 4m in height forming impenetrable thickets or sometimes a more open cover and prefers dry habitats between sea level and 1000 m. In Australia it occurs along watercourses on rangeland and farmland limiting access to water. It has also become an invasive species in Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
Common Names: acacia jaune, aroma, aromo, ban baburi, carambuco, cashia, cassie, debena, Ellington curse, espino blanco, espino ruco, esponja, esponjeira, huisache, huisache dulce, kandaroma, klu, klu bush, kolu, mimosa, mimosa bush, needle bush, oki, opoponax, popinac, popinac, rayo, Small's acacia, sweet acacia, tekaibakoa, titima, vaivai vakavotona, Westindische akazie
Synonyms: Acacia acicularis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Acacia densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Cory, Acacia edulis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.  var. pedunculata (Willd.) Kuntze, Acacia ferox M. Martens & Galeotti, Acacia indica (Pers.) Desv., Acacia lenticellata F.Muell., Acacia minuta (M.Jones) Beauchamp subsp. densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Beauchamp, Acacia pedunculata Willd., Acacia smallii Isely, Farnesia odora Gasp., Mimosa acicularis Poir., Mimosa farnesiana L., Mimosa acicularis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir., Mimosa edulis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir., Mimosa farnesiana L., Mimosa indica Pers., Mimosa pedunculata (Willd.) Poir., Vachellia densiflora Alex. ex Small, Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn., Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. var. typica Speg., Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. forma typica Speg.
3. Adenanthera pavonina (tree) English  français     
A medium-sized tree up to 15m high, Adenanthera pavonina is native to India and Malaysia. It has been planted extensively throughout the tropics as an ornamental and has become naturalised in many countries. It invades intact, undisturbed hardwood forests as well as disturbed sites and can quickly form large colonies.
Common Names: arbre collier, bead tree, bois de condori, bois noir de Bourbon, bois noir rouge, carolina, colales, coral bean tree, culalis, false wili wili, falso-sândalo, kaikes, kolales, kulales, kulalis, la'aulopa, lera, lerendamu, lopa, metekam, metkam, metkem, mwetkwem, olho-de-pavão, paina, peacock flower-fence, peacock tree, pitipitio, pomea, red bead tree, red sandalwood tree, segavé, telengtúngd, telentundalel, vaivai, vaivainivavalangi
Synonyms: Adenanthera gersenii Scheffer, Adenanthera polita Miq
4. Aedes aegypti (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is very common in urban and suburban areas in the tropic and subtropic regions. It is adapted to close association with humans and the female feeds almost exclusively on human blood. A. aegypti is the domestic vector of the yellow fever virus, caused epidemics of yellow fever in the Americas (before the 1940's) and recently in West Africa, and is responsible for 'urban yellow fever' - direct transmission of the virus between humans. A. aegypti is also the most important carrier of the dengue virus, although it is not paticularly susceptible to viral infection compared with other mosquito species.
Common Names: stégomyie, yellow fever mosquito
Synonyms: Culex aegypti Linnaeus, 1762, Culex albopalposus Becker, 1908, Culex anguste-alatus Becker, 1908, Culex annulitarsis Macquart, 1844 , Culex argenteus Poiret, 1787 , Culex augens Wiedemann, 1828, Culex calopus Meigen, 1818, Culex elegans Ficalbi, 1889 , Culex exagitans Walker, 1856 , Culex excitans Walker, 1848, Culex fasciatus Fabricius, 1805, Culex frater Robineau-Desvoidy, 1827 , Culex inexorabilis Walker, 1848 , Culex insatiabilis Bigot, 1859 , Culex kououpi Brulle, 1833 , Culex rossii Giles, 1889 , Culex taeniatus Wiedemann, 1828, Culex toxorhynchus Macquart, 1838 , Culex viridifrons Walker, 1848 , Duttonia alboannulis Ludlow, 1911 , Mimeteomyia pulcherrima Taylor, 1919 , Stegomyia atritarsis Edwards, 1920 , Stegomyia canariensis Pittaluga, 1905 , Stegomyia luciensis Theobald, 1901 , Stegomyia nigeria Theobald, 1901 , Stegomyia queenslandensis Theobald, 1901
5. Agave sisalana (succulent)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Agave sisalana is a member of the Agavaceae family and is native to Mexico. It is known primarily for its fibre production, and is grown commercially worldwide for the fibre industry. It is a large and fast-propagating plant, which can cause problems in areas where it is invasive as it can exclude and outcompete native plant species. A. sisalana is invasive in Australia, Madagascar, South Africa, the United States and on multiple islands in the Pacific.
Common Names: agave, century plant, dali, garingboom, hemp-plant, Maguey de Sisal, malina, mescal, natali, ndali, sisal, sisal agave, sisal hemp, te rob', te robu
Synonyms: Agave rigida var. sisalana (Perrine) Engelm.
6. Ageratum conyzoides (herb) English     
Ageratum conyzoides is a weed distributed in many tropical and subtropical countries and is often difficult to control. It is an established weed in the Himalayas where several invasion research studies have been conducted in the Shiwalik Ranges. It has been found that Ageratum significantly reduces total biomass and species number, that is, biodiversity. It also changes vegetation community structure and modifies the soil regieme.
Common Names: a‘amia, agerato, agerato, ageratum, ageratum, asipukpuk, asipukpuk, azier françois, bahu-bahu, bahug-bahug, bandotan, barba de chivo, baume, baume blanc, baume mauve, belohanua, berokan, billy goat weed, blue Ageratum, blue flowered groundsel, blue top, boko-boko-wiwiri, botebotekoro, botekoro, bouton, bouton blan, bouton ble, budbuda, budbuda, bulak-manok, bulak-manok, camará apeba, camará iapó, camará japê, camará-opela, catinga de barrão, catinga de bode, catinga de bode, celestina, chuva, co cut-heo, efoe momoe, erva de santa maria, erva de santa-lúcia, erva de são joão, erva de são josé, goat weed, gobu, gundhaubon, herbe a femme, herbe a pisser, herbe a sorcier, herbe de bouc, hierba del perro, hierba del zorro, hierbe de chivo, huarmi, huarmi, hwo-hsiang-ji, imiesu, jambo-serila, kakalding, kakalding, kakkoazami, kamabuag, kamabuag, kolokong-kabanyo, kolokong-kabayo, kulong-kogong-babae, lau taioti, Leberbalsam, macela de são joão, macela francesa, mahakaua, maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula, maire vaihi, maria preta, mata mothemothe, matruço, mbotembotekoro, mentrasto, mother brinkly, mumutung, Neela Phulnu, ngmak, olloowaisiip, oochunt, pain doux, petit pain doux, Phulkuri, pica roxo, picão roxo, ruput tahi-ayam, sekose sea, sogovanua, songovanua, tae‘oti, tamasondji bata, te‘ehosi, tekote tea, tropic ageratum, tropical whiteweed, white weed, winter weed, ya-sap-raeng, ya-tabsua, zerisson blanc
Synonyms: Ageratum album Willd. Ex Steud. 1821, Ageratum caeruleum Hort. ex. Poir., Ageratum coeruleum Desf., Ageratum conyzoides var hirtum (Lam.) DC. 1836, Ageratum cordifolium Roxb. 1832, Ageratum hirsutum Lam. 1810, Ageratum hirtum Lam. 1783, Ageratum humile Salisb. 1796, Ageratum latifolium Car., Ageratum maritimum H.B.K., Ageratum mexicanum Sims., Ageratum nanum Hort. Ex Sch. Bip. 1858, Ageratum obtusifolium Lam., Ageratum odoratum Vilm. 1866, Ageratum suffruiticosum Regal 1854, Cacalia mentrasto Vell.
7. Alpinia zerumbet (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Alpinia zerumbet is a lush, coarse-textured, clumping evergreen planted for its heavy rosette of arching stems and green leaves arising from a large loose center. A. zerumbet forms dense thickets in suitable habitats, for example on stream banks and shady slopes. It produces as many as a 1000 seeds per square foot. Seeds have fleshy appendages and are bird dispersed; they may be carried by water when it grows near streams. It also reproduces by rhizome division.
Common Names: kaopu‘i, kaopui, Kopi ‘enua, light galangal, pink porcelain-lily, shell flower, shell-ginger, teuila, teuila
Synonyms: Alpinia nutans (L.) Roscoe, Alpinia speciosa (Wendl.) K. Schum., Catimbium speciosum (Wendl.) Holttum, Languas speciosa (Wendl.) Merr., Zerumbet speciosum J. C. Wendl.
8. Alternanthera philoxeroides (aquatic plant, herb) English     
Alternanthera philoxeroides, commonly known as alligator weed, is a perennial stoloniferous herb that can be found in many parts of the world, infesting rivers, lakes, ponds and irrigation canals, as well as many terrestrial habitats. The aquatic form of the plant has the potential to become a serious threat to waterways, agriculture and the environment. The terrestrial form of Alternanthera philoxeroides grows into a dense mat with a massive underground rhizomatous root system. The canopy can smother most other herbaceous plant species. It has proven to be extremely expensive to attempt controlling Alternanthera philoxeroides.
Common Names: alligator weed, pig weed, xi han lian zi cao
Synonyms: Achyranthes philoxeroides (Mart.) Standl., Alternanthera paludosa Bunbury, Alternanthera philoxerina Suess., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. forma angustifolia Suess., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. acutifolia (Mart. ex Moq.) Hicken, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. lancifolia Chodat, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. luxurians Suess., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. obtusifolia (Mart. ex Moq.) Hicken, Bucholzia philoxeroides Mart., Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq., Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq. var. acutifolia Mart. ex Moq., Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq. var. obtusifolia Mart. ex Moq.
9. Alternanthera sessilis (herb) English     
Alternanthera sessilis is a weed that inhabits many areas of the world. It occupies moist areas and can be found from sea level to over 2000m. Alternanthera sessilis is a pest of sugarcane, a weed of rice in tropical areas, and an agricultural weed that invades disturbed wet areas in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been used widely around the world for its medicinal uses, as well as for food. The plant has been readily used for food partly due to its abundance.
Common Names: bhirangijhar, brède chevrette, brede embellage, common roadside weed, dwarf copperleaf, fisi'i'ano, galuti, horng-tyan-wu, joyweed, lianzi cao, magloire, mata kura, mukunuwanna, okula beluulechad, palewawae, periquito-sessil, phak pet thai, sessile joyweed, ti, vao sosolo
Synonyms: Achyranthes linearifolia Sw. ex Wikstr., Achyranthes sessilis (L.) Desf. Ex. Steud, Achyranthes triandra Roxb., Achyranthes villosa Blanco, Achyranthes polygonoides (L.) Lam., Allaganthera forskalii Mart., Alternanthera achyranthes Forssk., Alternanthera angustifolia R. Br., Alternanthera decipiens Benth., Alternanthera denticulata R. Br., Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) P. Beauv., Alternanthera glabra Moq., Alternanthera major (Benth.) Domin, Alternanthera micrantha (Benth.) Domin , Alternanthera nana R. Br., Alternanthera nodiflora R. Br., Alternanthera polygonoides (L.) R. Br., Alternanthera prostrata D. Don., Alternanthera repens J.F.Gmel., Alternanthera sennii Mattei, Alternanthera sibirica (de Vest ex Schult.) Steud., Alternanthera tenella Moq., Alternanthera tenuissima Suess., Alternanthera trianda Lam., Alternanthera uliginosa (Domin) Dinter, Bucholzia polygonoides (L.) Mart., Gomphrena polygonoides (L.), Gomphrena sessilis L., Illecebrum angustifolium (R.Br.) Spreng., Illecebrum denticulatum(R.Br.) Spreng., Illecebrum nanum (R.Br.) Spreng, Illecebrum polygonoides (L.) L., Illecebrum sessile (L.) L., Illecebrum sibiricum de Vest ex Schult., Illecebrum triandrum Llanos, Paronychia sessilis (L.) Desf., Paronychia tetragona Moench, Steiremis repens Raf., Telanthera polygonoides (L.) Moq.
10. Ameiurus nebulosus (fish) English   
Ameiurus nebulosus, the brown bullhead, is a species of catfish native to North America and introduced to a number of other countries around the world as a game fish. It is a hardy species that can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, including water pollution, allowing it to successfully establish outside of its native range. Some concern has been raised over its invasive potential, but there is a lack of information on its effects.
Common Names: barbotte brune, bici-cu-coarne, Brauner katzenwels, brown bullhead, bruine Amerikaanse dwergmeerval, brun dværgmalle, brun dvärgmal, bullhead, catfish, common bullhead, common catfish, dværgmalle, dvärgmal, dvergmalle, horned pout, hornpout, kanalnyi somik, Katzenwels, marbled bullhead, minister, mudcat, northern brown bullhead, piikkimonni, poisson chat, somn American, somn pitic, sumcek krpatý, sumecek americký, sumik karlowaty, Zwergwels
Synonyms: Ameirus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Ameirus nebulosus Lesueur, 1819, Ameiurus lacustris (Walbaum, 1792), Ameiurus vulgaris (Thompson, 1842), Amiurus catus (Linnaeus, 1758), Amiurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Amiurus vulgaris (Thompson, 1842), Ictalurus nebulosus marmoratus (Holbrook, 1855), Ictalurus nebulosus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Ictalurus nebulosus pannonicus Harka & Pinter, 1990, Ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Pimelodus atrarius DeKay, 1842, Pimelodus catus (Linnaeus, 1758), Pimelodus felis Agassiz, 1850, Pimelodus nebulosus Lesueur, 1819, Pimelodus vulgaris Thompson, 1842, Silurus coenosus Richardson, 1836, Silurus felis Linnaeus, 1766, Silurus nigrescens Lesueur
11. Anredera cordifolia (vine, climber) English     
Anredera cordifolia, commonly known as Madeira vine is a succulent climbing vine. The combination of fleshy leaves and thick aerial tubers makes this a very heavy vine. It smothers trees and other vegetation it grows on and can easily can break branches and bring down entire trees on its own. A. cordifolia is notoriously difficult to control.
Common Names: anredera, enredadera del mosquito, filikafa, Gulf madeiravine, heartleaf madeiravine, lamb's tails, Madeira vine, mignonette vine, parra de Madeira, tapau, 'uala hupe
Synonyms: Boussingaultia cordifolia, Boussingaultia gracilis, Boussingaultia pseudobasselloides
12. Apis mellifera scutellata (insect) English   
Warwick Kerr brought Apis mellifera scutellata from Africa to South America in 1957 to help revive the failing Brazilian beekeeping industry, which was using various European subspecies of Apis mellifera L., unsuitable for the South American environment. The queens and workers of several colonies were accidentally released, and these aggressive bees hybridized with local colonies. A. m. scutellata has been gradually spreading ever since, causing economic, social, and ecological problems, due to the more agressive behaviour shown by these hybrid bees.
Common Names: Africanized honeybee, Brazilian bee, killer bee
13. Aulacaspis yasumatsui (insect)
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)) or the Asian cycad scale, is highly damaging to cycads, which include horticulturally important and endangered plant species. The cycad scale is an unusually difficult scale insect to control, forming dense populations and spreading rapidly, with few natural enemies in most localities where it has been introduced. The scale has the potential to spread to new areas via plant movement in the horticulture trade.
Common Names: Asian cycad scale, cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS), cycad scale, sago palm scale, snow scale, Thai scale
14. Bambusa vulgaris (grass, tree) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bambusa vulgaris is the most widespread member of its genus, and has long been cultivated across the tropics and subtropics. It prefers lowland humid habitats, but tolerates a wide range of climatic conditions and soil types. It commonly naturalises, forming monospecific stands along river banks, roadsides and open ground.
Common Names: agarabà, aur beting, aur gading, bacáu, bakal, balé, bambou, bambu, bambu ampel, bambu blenduk, bambú común, bambu kuning, bambu kuning, bambú patamba, bambúa, bambu-verde, bambu-vulgar, bannada bidiru, baran, basini bans, basinibans, bolinao, bolinau, boo, buloh aur, buloh gading, buloh kuning, buloh minyak, buloh minyak has, buloh pau, buluh aur, buluh minyak, buluh pau, burirau, butong, caña brava, caña India, cañambú, cañaza, chan kham, common bamboo, cupamu, dai-san-chiku, davike, domar, feathery bamboo, gemeiner bambus, golden bamboo, grand bambou, haladi bidiru, haur, i ngol, igbon ikirai, itikna, kabaloan, kaho palangi, kaho papalangi, kalaka, kanale, kasul, kauayan, kauayan-china, kauayan-kiling, kawayan, kawayan-china, kawayang-kiting, kawayang-tsina, kawayan-kiling, ken, kenye, kewe, kiling, kinshi-chiku, ko-tatami, labong, lefyog, limas, linetso, lulasi, lunas, mai-luang, mambu kakar, mambu yang, maribal, marobal, mfele, mlasi, musyombe, ngmalu, nsungwi, otate, patong, patung, phai cheen, phai chin, phai lueang, phai-bongkham, phai-luang, phai-ngachang, pilanda, pito, ponmungil, rai yai, ree sai, ri sai, russèi kaèw, s'a:ng kh'am', saang kham, sacaú, sang kham, seemamula, semi, sen, seni, senye, sii, simine, sinambang, soft bamboo, striped bamboo, sunderkania bansa, taiu-anak, tamalang, tamalang silau, tambalang, tamelang, taring, tatami, tatami-na, teuanak, tewanak, tiling, vyo, wanet, wok, wusle, yellow bamboo
Synonyms: Arundarbor arundinacea (Retz.) Kuntze, Arundarbor bambos Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2, 1891, Arundarbor blancoi (Steudel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera (Miquel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera Rumphius 1743, Arundarbor monogyna (Blanco) Kuntze 1891, Arundo bamboa Miller 1768, Arundo bambos L., Arundo fera Oken 1841, Bambos arundinacea Retz., Bambusa arundinacea var. picta Moon 1824, Bambusa auriculata Kurz ex Cat. Hort. Bot. Calc., 1864, Bambusa balcooa Roxburgh 1832, Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss, Bambusa blancoi Steudel 1854, Bambusa capensis Rupr., Bambusa fera Miquel 1857, Bambusa humilis Reichenbach ex. Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa madagascariensis hort. ex A. & C. Rivière 1878, Bambusa mitis Blanco 1837, Bambusa monogyna Blanco 1837, Bambusa sieberi Grisebach 1864, Bambusa striata Lodd., Bambusa surinamensis Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa thouarsii Kunth 1822, Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Bambusa vasaria Herbier Hamilton, Dendrocalamus balcooa (Roxburgh) Voigt 1845, Leleba vulgaris (Schrader ex Wendland) Nakai 1933, Nastus thouarsii (Kunth) Raspail 1825, Nastus viviparus Raspail 1825, Phyllostachys striata (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Nakai
15. Bemisia tabaci (insect) English  français     
Bemisia tabaci has been reported from all continents except Antarctica. Over 900 host plants have been recorded for B. tabaci and it reportedly transmits 111 virus species. It is believed that B. tabaci has been spread throughout the world through the transport of plant products that were infested with whiteflies. Once established, B. tabaci quickly spreads and through its feeding habits and the transmission of diseases, it causes destruction to crops around the world. B. tabaci is believed to be a species complex, with a number of recognised biotypes and two described extant cryptic species.
Common Names: cotton whitefly, mosca blanca, sweet potato whitefly, Weisse Fliege
Synonyms: Aleyrodes inconspicua Quaintance, Aleyrodes tabaci Gennadius, Bemisia (Neobemisia) hibisci Visnya, Bemisia (Neobemisia) rhodesiaensis Visnya, Bemisia achyranthes Singh, Bemisia bahiana Bondar, Bemisia costa-limai Bondar, Bemisia emiliae Corbett, Bemisia goldingi Corbett, Bemisia gossypiperda Misra and Lamba, Bemisia gossypiperda var. mosaicivectura Ghesquiere, Bemisia hibisci Takahashi, Bemisia inconspicua Quaintance, Bemisia longispina Priesner and Hosny, Bemisia lonicerae Takahashi, Bemisia manihotis Frappa, Bemisia minima Danzig, Bemisia miniscula Danzig, Bemisia nigeriensis Corbett, Bemisia rhodesiaensis Corbett, Bemisia signata Bodnar, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) Takahashi, Bemisia vayssierei Frappa
16. Boa constrictor imperator (reptile)
The common Boa constrictor imperator is a top nocturnal predator that kills its prey by constriction. Although it prefers small mammals such as rodents and bats, it also eats birds, amphibians, lizards, iguanas, and other snakes. It may thrive in forested areas, savannahs, cultivated sites, and suburbs. It exhibits both terrestrial and arboreal habits. It may enter caves to catch bats on flight. This species represents a threat to humans, particularly small children. It may affect agricultural activities. For example, causing damage to chicken farms. It threatens native species of amphibians, birds, lizards, snakes, and bats. It may even outcompete the two native boa species: the Puerto Rican boa Epicrates inornatus and the Mona Island boa Epicrates monensis, which are smaller in size than the common boa constrictor.
Common Names: boa, boa colombiana, boa constrictora, central American boa, Colombian boa, Colombian redtail boa, common boa constrictor, common northern boa
Synonyms: Boa constrictor imperator Daudin, 1803, Boa constrictor imperator Forcart, 1951, Boa constrictor imperator Stimson, 1969, Boa constrictor ithsmica Garman, 1883, Boa diviniloquax mexicana Jan, 1863 , Boa eques Dumeril & Bibron, 1844 , Boa eques Eydoux & Souleyet, 1842, Boa imperator Boulenger, 1893, Boa imperator Daudin, 1803, Boa imperator Dumeril & Bibron, 1844 , Boa mexicana Boulenger, 1893 , Constrictor constrictor imperator Ihering, 1911, Constrictor constrictor sigma Smith, 1943
17. Bothriochloa pertusa (grass)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bothriochloa pertusa is a perenial grass that has been introduced to many Caribean islands and Australia. It has established itself in many native savannah, shrubland and riparian biotas where it is able to out compete many native species due to its ability to establish new individuals via stolon growth. In these areas it establishes dense mats and shades out any slower establishing species. In Australia it is used as a stock feed due to its ability to establish in the poor dry soils of Northern Queensland.
Common Names: Antigua hay, Barbados sour grass, Comagueyana, hurricane grass, Indian couch grass, pitted beard grass, pitted bluestem
Synonyms: Andropogon pertusus (L.) Willd, Holcus pertusus L.
18. Bubulcus ibis (bird) English   
Bubulcus ibis are small stocky herons that associate with grazing species of mammals both domestic and wild. They have strong migratory instincts and disperse thousands of miles in the direction of their choosing. They are, for the most part, self-introduced. They have been observed 'feeding on' native species of birds. They are known to host ticks that could introduce and spread certain tick-borne diseases.
Common Names: Afrikaanse koereiger, buff-backed heron, cattle egret, depulgabuey, elephant bird, garcilla bueyera, garcilla garrapatera, garcita de ganado, garrapatera, garrapatosa, garza de ganado, garza de vaquèra, garza ganadera, héron garde-boeufs, hippopotomus egret, Indian cattle egret, rhinoceros egret
Synonyms: Ardea ibis, Ardeola ibis, Bulbucus ibis
19. Buddleja madagascariensis (vine, climber, shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Buddleja madagascariensis commonly known as smokebush, is a shrub native to Madagascar; it has been introduced outside its native range as an ornamental plant. Easily dispersed bird or wind-borne seeds and the ability to regenerate from stem fragments has led to the naturalisation of B. madagascariensis in many tropical and sub-tropical areas. As B. madagascariensis forms thick, impenetrable thickets, native vegetation can be smothered and excluded. As well as this, B. madagascariensis can cause throat allergies and coughing, nose swelling and eyelid blisters when dry. The sap of B. madagascariensis is also known to be toxic, potentially causing burning rashes and blisters. The need to exclude livestock from B. madagascariensis has resulted in an economic impact in some areas, especially as it is difficult to control.
Common Names: buddleia bush, butterfly bush, Madagascar buddleia, Madagascar butterfly bush, smoke bush
Synonyms: Adenoplea madagascariensis Lam., Buddleia madagascarienses Lam., Buddleja heterophylla Lindl., Buddleja madagascariensis, Buddleja nicodemia, Buddleya madagascarienses Lam., Nicodemia madagascariensis
20. Bugula neritina (bryozoan)
Bugula neritina (brown bryozoan) is an erect, bushy bryozoan. It is an abundant fouling organism that colonises any freely available substratum, including artificial underwater structures and vessel hulls.
Common Names: brown bryozoan, bryozoan, common bugula
Synonyms: Anamarchis neritina, Sertularia neritina
21. Cactoblastis cactorum (insect) English  français 
Cactoblastis cactorum is a moth that preys specifically on cacti species. It has been introduced in various locations around the globe to provide biological control of invasive cacti species and has proved itself successful in Australia and some Caribbean islands. However, from the Caribbean it spread into Florida and has attacked non-target cacti species. It is feared that it will cause large scale losses of native cacti diversity in North America and possibly have a large economic, social and ecological impact in Opuntia rich areas of southwestern USA and Mexico.
Common Names: cactus moth, prickly pear moth
Synonyms: Zophodia cactorum Berg
22. Caiman crocodilus (reptile)
The common caiman (Caiman crocodilus), is currently the most abundant crocodilian species and is the most harvested crocodile in the hide industry. Native to South and Central America, C. crocodilus has been introduced and has established in America, Puerto Rico, and Cuba. It poses a threat to native crocodilians through competition and is believed to be responsible for the introduction of the exotic parasite known as "caiman tongueworm" which infects local fish species in Puerto Rico.
Common Names: baba, babiche, babilla, cachirré, caimán, caiman blanco, caimán de anteojos, caiman de Brasil, caimán sudamericano, cascarudo, cocodrilo, common caiman, guajipal, jacaretinga, jacaré-tinga, lagarto, lagarto blanco, ocoroche, polulo, punamnah, spectacled caiman, tinga, tulisio, yacaré, yacaré blanco
Synonyms: Alligator (Jacare) chiapasius Bocourt 1876, Alligator sclerops Dumeril & Bibron 1836: 79, Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis Medem 1955, Caiman crocodilus apaporiensis Nickel & Auliya 2004, Caiman crocodilus chiapasius (Bocourt 1876), Caiman crocodilus fuscus (Cope 1868), Caiman crocodilus fuscus Nickel & Auliya 2004, Caiman crocodilus Conant & Collins 1991: 40, Caiman crocodilus Gorzula & Senaris 1999, Caiman crocodilus Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 666, Caiman crocodylus Lehr 2002: 69, Caiman sclerops apaporiensis Medem 1955, Caiman sclerops (Schneider, 1801), Crocodilus sclerops Schneider 1801 (fide Wwemuth & Mertens 1977), Lacerta crocodilus (Linnaeus, 1758), Perosuchus fuscus Cope 1868, Perosuchus fuscus Gray 1869: 171
23. Capra hircus (mammal) English  français     
The goat (Capra hircus) was domesticated 10,000 years ago in the highlands of western Iran. These herbivores have a highly varied diet and are able to ultilise a larger number of plant species than other livestock. Goats alter plant communities and forest structure and threaten vulnerable plant species. The reduction of vegetation reduces shelter options for native animals and overgrazing in native communitties leads to ecosystem degradation. Feral goats spread disease to native animals. Native fauna on islands are particularly susceptible.
Common Names: goat, Hausziege
24. Carassius auratus (fish) English  français   
Native to Asia, goldfish (Carassius auratus) have been introduced worldwide due to their popularity as pond and aquarium fish. Releases, both intentional and unintentional, have meant that this species has formed wild populations in many new locations. Concerns have been raised about the impacts that goldfish have on the aquatic community, including increasing turbidity, predation upon native fish, and helping to facilitate algal blooms.
Common Names: aranyhal, caras rosu, caras-auriu, carassin doré, carassio dorato, carpa dorada, cheisopsaro, chernyi teleskop, chrysopsaro, chryssopsaro, ciprino dorato, cyprin doré, dorade de Chine, edible goldfish, funa, gibel carp, gold crucian carp, golden carp, Goldfisch, goldfish, goudvis, Goudvis, Guldfisk, guldfisk, gullfisk, I'a'ula'ula, ikan mas, kam tsak, kam ue, kapr zlatý, kaprík zlatý, karas, karas cinsky, karas stríbritý, karas stribrity vychodoasijsky, karas vetší, karas zlatý, karas zlocisty, karas zlocisty a. chinski, karuss, kin-buna, kirmizi balik, kultakala, mahi-e-hoz, native carp, ngan tsak, peixe dourado, peixe encarnado, peixe-dourado, pesce dorato, pesco rosso, peshk i kuq, pez dorado, pez rojo, pimpão, poisson rouge, serebryanyi karas', sølvkaruds, sølvkarusse, tawes, tsak ue, zlatnakarracuda, zolotaja rybka
Synonyms: Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Carassius auratus cantonensis (Tchang, 1933), Carassius carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Carassius chinensis (Gronow, 1854), Carassius encobia (Bonaparte, 1845), Carassius gibelioides (non Cantor, 1842), Cyprinus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Cyprinus langsdorfi (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1842), Cyprinus maillardi (Guichenot, 1863), Cyprinus mauritianus (Bennett, 1832), Cyprinus thoracatus (Valenciennes, 1842), Leuciscus auratus (Mauduyt, 1849-51)
25. Cardamine flexuosa (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Woodland bittercress, Cardamine flexuosa is a highly variable perrenial herb which flowers vigourously and forms dense root mats that can exclude other species. Seeds possibly remain viable in the seed bank for up to seven years requiring intensive management for control/eradication.
Common Names: wavy bittercress, wavy-leaved bittercress, wood bittercress, woodland bittercress
Synonyms: Cardamine hirsuta ssp. flexuosa (With.), Cardamine konaensis (St. John)
26. Casuarina equisetifolia (tree) English  français     
Casuarina equisetifolia is an evergreen conifer-like angiosperm. It has been introduced to new locations for coastal landscaping and erosion control. It has become invasive in Florida (USA) where it interferes with prime reptile nesting sites. Casuarina aggressively colonizes sandy beaches where it forms monocultures and degrades habitat in the Cayman Islands.
Common Names: agoho, arbol de hierro, Australian beefwood, Australian-pine, beach she-oak, beef wood-tree, bois de fer, casuarina, coast she-oak, Eisenholz, filao, horsetailtree, ironwood, nokonoko, pin d'Australie, pinheiro-da-Austrália, pino australiano, Strandkasuarine, whistling-pine
Synonyms: Casuarina litorea L. var. litorea, Casuarina litorea Rumpheus ex Stickman, Casuarina littorea L. ex Fosberg & Sachet
27. Cenchrus ciliaris (grass) English     
Cenchrus ciliaris (Pennisetum ciliare), commonly known as buffel grass, is a perennial bunchgrass that forms thick mats. It is also known by its basionym Cenchrus ciliaris. Buffel grass has been widely introduced in the dry tropics and subtropics as a pasture grass, for erosion control and revegetation of arid areas. The characteristics of buffel grass which make it suitable for erosion control are rapid germination, high propogation and establishment rates on poor and infertile soils. Buffel grass's dominance and resistance to fire, drought and heavy grazing on arid soils make it a suitable arid zone pasture grass. In Australia, the south-western United States and Mexico (where it has been introduced as a pasture grass and for erosion control) Buffel grass often forms extensive dense monocultures excluding native species and promoting intense and frequent fires. It is widely distributed and is resilient to a number of harsh environmental conditions. It changes plant communities by encouraging and carrying wildfires through communities that are not adapted to fire. It burns readily and recovers quickly after fire. Buffel grass has a robust root system; its swollen stem base accumulates carbohydrate reserves, so the loss of leaf surface area after a fire or drought is not fatal to the plant and allows regrowth in favourable conditions.
Common Names: African foxtail grass, Büffelgras, buffelgrass, cenchrus cilié, dhaman, pasto buffel, zacate buffel
Synonyms: Cenchrus ciliaris L., Cenchrus glaucus C. R. Mudaliar & Sundararaj, Pennisetum cenchroides Rich., Pennisetum incomptum Nees ex Steud.
28. Cenchrus setaceus (grass) English  français     
Cenchrus setaceus (Pennisetum setaceum) was introduced to the United States as an ornamental grass. It reproduces high numbers of wind-dispersed seeds that have spread outside of planted areas. C. setaceus is a desert plant that is prevalent along roadsides, washes and canyons where the annual rainfall is less than 127cm. C. setaceus interferes with natural fire regimes and competes with native species for limited resources.
Common Names: fountaingrass, yerba de fuente
Synonyms: Pennisetum ruppelii Steud., Phalaris setacea Forsk.
29. Cichla ocellaris (fish) English   
Cichla ocellaris is a piscivorus fish that has been introduced for sport fishing. Studies have concluded that where introduced this species predates on native species, competes for resources with others, and causing a cascading effect throughout the entire trophic food chain, but there are also contradictory studies that attribute increases in native fish populations to the introduction of C. ocellaris.
Common Names: aboné, aborrecichlide, butterfly peacock bass, eyespot cichlid, Grüner Augenfleck-Kammbarsch, isokikla, isokirjoahven, kounanni, kunan, lukanani, malisamba, matawalé, pavon, peacock bass, peacock cichlid, sargento, toekoenari, toukounalé, toukounaré, tuc, tucunare, tucunaré açu, tucunare comun, tukunali
Synonyms: Acharnes speciosus, Cichla argus, Cichla atabapensis, Crenicichla orinocensis, Cychla argus, Cychla trifasciata
30. Cinnamomum camphora (tree) English  français     
Cinnamomum camphora is native to Japan, China, Taiwan and northern Vietnam. C. camphora has become widely naturalised in Australia. In the United States, it grows along the Gulf Coast and in California. C. camphora seeds are easily spread by birds from cultivated yards to open forests, and it is also spread to new locations through plant nursery sales. C. camphora fruits, leaves, and roots are toxic to humans in large doses.
Common Names: alcanfor, alcanforero, arvore da camphora, campher, camphor laurel, camphor tree, camphre, camphrier, canfora, Japanese camphor, kampferbaum, kuso-no-ki
Synonyms: Laurus camphora (L.)
31. Columba livia (bird) English  français   
Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.
Common Names:  pombo-doméstico, agreste, b? câu, bákteduvvá, balandis, bareski-golumbaika, baresko-golumbo, bjargdúfa, bládúgva, bládúva, bydue, calman-creige, calmane creggey, carrier pigeon, colm aille, colom roquer, colom roquer, colom wyls, colomba salvaria, colomen ddôf, colomen y graig, colomp salvadi, columba da chasa, columba selvadia, columbu agreste, columbu aresti, columbu de is arrocas, colu'r aille, common pigeon, didu, div gulab, divlji golub, dobato, domaci golob, domestic dove, domestic pigeon, dubet, dziwi holb, Felsentaube, feral pigeon, feral rock pigeon, golab miejski¦Golab skalny, golab skalny, golub pecinar, golub pecinar, gradski Golub, güvercin, haitz-uso, Haustaube, Strassentaube, holub domácí, holub skalní, homing pigeon, húsdúfa, kaljutuvi, kalliokyyhky, kawarabato, kawara-bato, kesykyyhky, kieminis, klinšu balodis, klippduva, klippedue, kolombo, kolomm an garrek, naminis karvelis, paloma, paloma bravia, paloma casera, paloma común, paloma de castilla, paloma doméstica, pecinar, pëllumbi i egër i shkëmbit, piccione, piccione domestico, piccione selvatico, piccione selvatico semidomestico, piccione terraiolo, piccione torraiolo, pichon, pigeon, pigeon biset, pigeon biset domestique, pigeon de ville, pigeon domestique, pomba brava, pombo da rocha, pombo o pombo-doméstico, pombo-das-rochas, porumbel de stânca, pustynnik, rock dove, rock dove pigeon, rock pigeon, rotsduif, ruve, sizij golub, sizy Golub, sizyj golub', skalen g'l'b, šyzy holub, szirti galamb, tamduva, tidori, tidu, Tkhakapuyt Aghavni, tudun tal-gebel, tzidu, Verwilderte Haustaube, Xixella, yuan ge, ziwy golub
32. Cryptostegia madagascariensis (vine, climber)
Cryptostegia madagascariensis a native of Madagascar, is found in tropical climates world-wide where it is has naturalized. It has been dispersed widely largely due to its popularity as an ornamental; and for extraction of its latex content for rubber manufacture. Despite not being as invasive as its drier counterpart, Cryptostegia grandiflora, C. madagascariensis is considered highly invasive in Hawaii, Australia and Brazil. Due to its close similarities to C. grandiflora, many of the management techniques are able to be used on C. madagascariensis.
Common Names: Indian rubber vine, lèt makak, Madagascar rubber vine, palay rubber vine, purple allamanda, rubber vine, zong makak
Synonyms: Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. glaberrima, Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. madagascariensis, Cryptostegia madagascariensis var. septentrionalis
33. Ctenopharyngodon idella (fish) English   
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a large cyprinid introduced worldwide as a biological control of aquatic vegetation as well as a food fish. It is a voracious feeder which is incredibly efficient at removing aquatic weeds. However they can completely eliminate vegetation from water systems, resulting in widespread ecological effects. Grass carp are also known to compete with native fish, carry parasites such as Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis), and induce other harmful effects to introduced waters.
Common Names: amur, amur bialy, amur biely, amur i bardhe, amurkarpfen, beli amur, belyi amur, bílý amur, byal amur, Cá Châm Treng, carpa China, carpa do limo, carpa erbivora, carpa herbivora, carpe de roseau, carpe herbivore, Chinese carp, Chinese graskarper, chortofagos kyprinos, crap-de-iarba, gardd carp, græskarpe, graskarp, gräskarp, gräskarp, graskarpe, graskarpen, graskarper, graskarpfen, grass carp, hullu, hullugende, kap makan rumput, kap rumput, Pla Chao Hea, Pla Chao Heu, pla van heu, ruohokarppi, silver orfe, sôgyo, tongsan, trey srokchen, waan ue, white amur
Synonyms: Ctenopharingodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844), Ctenopharyngodon laticeps (Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus idella (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus idella (Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus idellus (Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus tschiliensis (Valenciennes, 1844), Pristiodon siemionovii (Valenciennes, 1844), Sarcocheilichthys teretiusculus (Valenciennes, 1844)
34. Cyperus rotundus (sedge) English     
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge) is a weed in over 90 countries and the world's worst invasive weed based on its distribution and effect on crops. Its complex underground network of tubers, basal bulbs, roots and rhizomes ensure its ability to survive and reproduce during adverse conditions. Further biological features, such as its adaptation to high temperatures, solar radiation and humidity, have turned this weed into a serious problem in subtropical and even arid regions.
Common Names: ‘oniani lau, ‘oniani rau, ‘oniani tita, alho-bravo, almendra de tierra, balisanga, boto-botonis, brown nut sedge, capim-alho, capim-dandá, castanuela, castañuela, cebollín, chaguan humatag, chufa, coco, coco grass, coquillo, coquillo purpura, coquito, cortadera, hamasuge, herbe à oignons, ivako, junça, juncia, juncia real, kili‘o‘opu, kili'o'opu, mala-apulid, malanga, matie ‘oniani, matie'oniani, mau‘u mokae, mau‘u mokae, mauku ‘oniani, mauku'oniani, mot ha, mothe, mumuta, mutha, nut grass, nut sedge, nutgrass, oniani, oniani lau, oniani rau, oniani tita, pakopako, pakopako, pakopako, purple nut sedge, purple nut sedge, purple nutsedge, red nut sedge, Rundes Zypergras, soro ni kabani, soronakambani, souchet à tubercules, souchet d'Asie, souchet en forme d'olive, souchet rond, suo cao, sur-sur, tamanengi, te mumute, tiririca, tiririca-vermelha, tuteoneon, vucesa, vuthesa, xiang fu zi, ya haeo mu, ya khon mu, zigolo infestante
Synonyms: Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla, Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti, Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler, Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler, Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf., Cyperus tuberosus Roxb, Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek
35. Cyprinus carpio (fish) English  français     
The introduction of fish as a source of protein for human consumption into tropical and subtropical lake systems is continuing apace. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been cultured for 2500 years and is also a popular angling and ornamental fish; is the third most frequently introduced species in the world. Its method of feeding churns up the sediments on the bottom of the water and uproots macrophytes, making it an keystone ecosystem engineer that altering habitats for native fish and other native aquatic species.
Common Names: Cá Chép, carp, carpa, carpat, carpe, carpe, carpe commune, carpeau, carpo, cerpyn, ciortan, ciortanica, ciortocrap, ciuciulean, common carp, crapcean, cyprinos, escarpo, Europäischer Karpfen, European carp, fancy carp, feral carp, German carp, grass carp, grivadi, ikan mas, Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli, kapor, kapr obecný, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp dziki a. sazan, karpa, karpar, karpe, Karpe, karpen, karper, karpfen, karpion, karppi, kerpaille, king carp, koi, koi carp, korop, krapi, kyprinos, læderkarpe, lauk mas, leather carp, leekoh, lei ue, mas massan, mirror carp, olocari, Oriental carp, pa nai, pba ni, pla nai, ponty, punjabe gad, rata pethiya, saran, Saran, sarmão, sazan, sazan baligi, scale carp, sharan, skælkarpe, soneri masha, spejlkarpe, sulari, suloi, tikure, trey carp samahn, trey kap, ulucari, weißfische, wild carp, wildkarpfen
Synonyms: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
36. Diaphorina citri (insect)
Diaphorina citri or Asian citrus psyllid is one of the most serious pests of citrus in the world. It causes damage through direct feeding and its toxic saliva, leading to leaf distortion and curling in young tender growth. In addition the copious amounts of honeydew it excretes causes sooty molds to grow which blemish leaves and reduce photosynthesis. However it is the ability of D. citri to vector the Asian and American forms of the huanglongbing (HLB) disease which makes this so damaging. HLB is caused by phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB causes chlorosis resembling zinc deficiency, twig dieback, stunting of growth and reduced fruit size and quality. Trees usually die after several years and entire orchards may be devastated. HLB seriously threatens citrus industries worldwide. At present there are no curative methods for trees infected with the bacteria, so control methods have focused on reducing D. citri populations. Control is achieved through a combination of physical, chemical and biological methods.
Common Names: Asian citrus psyllid, Asiatic citrus psyllid, Citrus psylla, Oriental citrus psyllid, Psilideo de l'aranjeira, Psylle de l'oranger
Synonyms: Euphalerus citri Crawford
37. Egeria densa (aquatic plant) English  français     
Egeria densa is a submersed, freshwater perennial herb that forms dense monospecific stands that restrict water movement, trap sediment, and cause fluctuations in water quality. It has also affected the status of certain threatened species. It has been introduced worldwide through the aquarium trade, and even in its native range can become a nuisance species causing local economic impacts. Chemical control is the most effective option for management of E. densa. Mechanical control is not recommended because fragments of the plant left behind can readily re-colonize and move downstream. The introduction of grass carp offers biological control of this species, but care must be taken because carp can introduce their own negative effects on the environment.
Common Names: Brazilian elodea, Brazilian waterweed, Brazilian-waterweed, common waterweed, dense waterweed, egeria, leafy elodea, South American waterweed
Synonyms: Anacharis densa (Planch.) Victorin, Elodea densa (Planch.) Caspary, Philotria densa (Planch.) Small & St. John
38. Eichhornia crassipes (aquatic plant) English  français     
Originally from South America, Eichhornia crassipes is one of the worst aquatic weeds in the world. Its beautiful, large purple and violet flowers make it a popular ornamental plant for ponds. It is now found in more than 50 countries on five continents. Water hyacinth is a very fast growing plant, with populations known to double in as little as 12 days. Infestations of this weed block waterways, limiting boat traffic, swimming and fishing. Water hyacinth also prevents sunlight and oxygen from reaching the water column and submerged plants. Its shading and crowding of native aquatic plants dramatically reduces biological diversity in aquatic ecosystems.
Common Names: aguapé, bekabe kairanga, bung el ralm, bung el ralm, floating water hyacinth, jacinthe d'eau, jacinto de agua, jacinto-aquatico, jal khumbe, jal kumbhi, lechuguilla, lila de agua, lirio acuatico, mbekambekairanga, riri vai, wasserhyazinthe, water hyacinth, water orchid, wota haisin
Synonyms: Eichhornia speciosa Kunth, Heteranthera formosa, Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Raf., Piaropus mesomelas, Pontederia crassipes Mart. (basionym)
39. Epipremnum pinnatum (vine, climber)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Pothos vine (Epipremnum pinnatum) is a common escaped garden vine. It climbs up tree trunks and into the forest canopy, primarily in disturbed areas and along roadsides, smothering native plants. The plant is poisonous when eaten and can cause minor skin irritation when touched.
Common Names: ara, centipede tongavine, cortina, devil's ivy, enredadera, gefleckte Efeutute, golden pothos, long wei cao, money plant, pothos, selkasohlap, taro vine, Tongavine, variegated-philodendron
Synonyms: Epipremnum mirabile Schott, Philodendron nechodomae Britton, Pothos pinnatus L., Rhaphidophora merrillii Engl., Scindapsus aureus (Lindl. & André) Engl.
40. Erythrocebus patas (mammal)
Erythrocebus patas is a medium sized terrestrial monkey, native to sub-saharan Africa. Wild populations only rarely come into contact with humans. Their shy behaviour, low densities, cryptic pelage, and large home ranges make it hard to observe them in many parts of their natural range. In some parts of their native range, mainly in west Africa, E. patas frequently invade farms, consume produce and are considered pests. The patas monkey is internationally a popular laboratory animal, used for biomedical and behavioural research. Patas monkeys were intentionally released to the Islands of Cueva and Guayacan in Puerto Rico between 1971 and 1981 by the La Parguera Primate Facility. Between 1974-1981 individuals have gradually migrated from the Islands to mainland Puerto Rico and formed free ranging population groups. They are reported to forage in gardens, destroy crops and disturb traffic. The Puerto Rican Department of Natural Resources traps and kills, or translocates individuals in an attempt to control their population.
Common Names: Aïr patas, black-nosed patas, blue nile hussar monkey, dancing red monkey, eastern patas monkey, engabwor, husarapa, husarenaffe, huzaar aap, Ikoma patas, le singe rouge, military monkey, mono patas, nile patas, nisnas, patas monkey, patas monkey, patasapa, red hussar monkey, red monkey, west African patas, west Africans red monkey
Synonyms: albigenus, albo-fasciatus, albosignatus, baumstarki, circumcinctus, formosus, kerstingi, langheldi, nigro-fasciatus, poliomystax, poliophaeus, rubra, rufa, sannio, villiersi, whitei, zechi
41. Estrilda astrild (bird)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The common waxbill, Estrilda astrild is native to tropical and southern Africa, but has been introduced to many island nations where it has shown mixed success in establishment. It feeds mainly on grass seeds and is commonly found in open long grass plains and close to human habitation. E. astrild shows a high reproductive rate which is attributed to its ability to naturalize easily.
Common Names: avadavat, common waxbill, red-cheeked waxbill, waxbill
42. Eugenia uniflora (tree, shrub) English  français     
Eugenia uniflora is an evergreen shrub that can reach tree like proportions. It is a hardy species that can thrive in a variety of habitats, both in its native and introduced range. Eugenia uniflora can quickly reach thick densities which affect understorey light levels, subsequently changing micro-environments. It is also known to host recognised pests and pathogens.
Common Names: Barbados cherry, Brazilian cherry, cayenne cherry, Cayennekirsche, cerese à côtes, cereza quadrada, cerezo de Cayena, cerise carée, cerise créole, cerise de Cayenne, cerise de pays, cerises-cotes, cerisier carré, cerisier de Cayenne, Florida cherry, French cherry, guinda, kafika, kafika palangi, kafika papalangi, menemene, monkie monkie kersie, nagapiry, ñanga-piré, pendanga, pitanga, pitanga-da-praia, red Brazil cherry, Surinaamsche kersh, Surinam cherry, Surinamkirsche, venevene, zoete kers
Synonyms: Eugenia brasiliana (L.) Aubl., Eugenia michelii Lam., Myrtus brasiliana L. , Myrtus brasiliana L. var. normalis Kuntze , Plinia pedunculata L.f. , Plinia rubra L. , Stenocalyx michelii O. Berg , Stenocalyx uniflorus (L.) Kausel
43. Felis catus (mammal) English  français     
Felis catus was domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean c. 3000 years ago. Considering the extent to which cats are valued as pets, it is not surprising that they have since been translocated by humans to almost all parts of the world. Notable predators, cats threaten native birdlife and other fauna, especially on islands where native species have evolved in relative isolation from predators.
Common Names: cat, domestic cat, feral cat, Hauskatze, house cat, poti, pusiniveikau
44. Ficus microcarpus (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Ficus microcarpa is a woody plant species that is native to the Asia-Pacific region. Commonly known as Chinese banyan and the laurel fig, it is a popular ornamental tree that grows in tropical and temperate regions of the world. F. microcarpa has small, tiny seeds that are easily spread by birds, bats and rodents, and which are capable of germinating almost anywhere they land - even in cracks in concrete. F. microcarpa is considered to be a major invasive species in Hawaii, the Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Florida, Bermuda and Central down to South America.
Common Names: Chinese banyan, curtain fig, figueira-lacerdinha, laurel fig, laurel-da-Índia, Malay banyan, rong shu, Vorhang-Feige
Synonyms: Ficus microcarpa var. latifolia (Miq.) Corner, Ficus nitida auct., Ficus retusa auct., Urostigma accedens var. latifolia Miq.
45. Gambusia affinis (fish) English  français     
Gambusia affinis is a small fish native to the fresh waters of the eastern and southern United States. It has become a pest in many waterways around the world following initial introductions early last century as a biological control agent for mosquitoes. In general, it is considered to be no more effective than native predators of mosquitoes. The highly predatory mosquito fish eats the eggs of economically desirable fish and preys on and endangers rare indigenous fish and invertebrate species. Mosquito fish are difficult to eliminate once established, so the best way to reduce their effects is to control their further spread. One of the main avenues of spread is continued, intentional release by mosquito-control agencies. G. affinis is closely related to he eastern mosquito fish (G. holbrooki), which was formerly classed as a sub-species. Their appearance, behaviour and impacts are almost identical, and they can therefore be treated the same when it comes to management techniques. Records of G. affinis in Australia actually refer to G. holbrooki.
Common Names: Barkaleci, Dai to ue, Gambusia, Gambusie, Gambusino, Gambuzia, Gambuzia pospolita, Gambuzija, guayacon mosquito, Isdang canal, Kadayashi, Koboldkärpfling, Kounoupopsaro, live-bearing tooth-carp, Mosquito fish, Obyknovennaya gambuziya, pez mosquito, San hang ue, Silberkärpfling, tes, Texaskärpfling, Topminnow, western mosquitofish, Western mosquitofish
Synonyms: Fundulus inurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia gracilis Girard, 1859, Gambusia humilis Günther, 1866, Gambusia patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Haplochilus melanops Cope, 1870, Heterandria affinis Baird & Girard, 1853, Heterandria patruelis Baird & Girard, 1853, Zygonectes brachypterus Cope, 1880, Zygonectes gracilis (Girard, 1859), Zygonectes inurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882, Zygonectes patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853)
46. Hemidactylus mabouia (reptile)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Hemidactylus mabouia is a nocturnal, fixed clutch size lizard that is native to continental Africa. However, it is now widespread throughout southern North America, South and Central America since its introduction, thought to have first occurred via slave ships during the European colonisation of Africa. H. mabouia is commonly thought to be a human commensal, and can be found in both natural and altered habitats. It is an agressive species and has been known to displace and eat native geckos.
Common Names: Afroamerican house gecko, Afro-American house gecko, common woodslave, cosmopolitan house gecko, geco-casero tropical, hausgecko, house gecko, tropical house gecko, wood slave
Synonyms: Gecko aculeatus Spix 1825: 16, Gecko cruciger Spix 1825, Gecko mabuia Cuvier 1829: 54 (nomen substitutum pro Gecko mabouia), Gecko tuberculosus Raddi 1823 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Gekko armatus Wied 1824 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Gekko incanescens Wied 1824: 101, Gekko incanescens Wied 1825 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Gekko mabouia Moreau De Jonnes 1818: 138, Hemidactylus (Tachybates) armatus Fitzinger 1846, Hemidactylus (Tachybates) mabuya Fitzinger 1846, Hemidactylus benguellensis Bocage 1893: 115 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Hemidactylus exaspis Cope 1868, Hemidactylus frenatus var. calabaricus Boeteger 1878 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Hemidactylus gardineri Boulenger 1909: 296 (fide Broadley & Howell), Hemidactylus mabouia mabouia Auerbach 1987: 82, Hemidactylus mabouia Boulenger 1885: 122, Hemidactylus mabouia Dumeril & Bibron 1836: 362, Hemidactylus mabouia Guichenot 1855:12, Hemidactylus mabouia Pauwels et al. 2004, Hemidactylus mabouia Cei 1993, Hemidactylus mabouia Glaw & Vences 1994: 278, Hemidactylus mabouia Jacobsen et al. 2010, Hemidactylus mabouia Liner 1994, Hemidactylus mabouia Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 414, Hemidactylus mandanus Loveridge 1936: 167 (fide Broadley & Howell 1991), Hemidactylus mercatorius Gray 1842: 58 (fide Broadley & Howell 1991), Hemidactylus persimilis Barbour & Loveridge 1928 (fide Broadley & Howell 1991), Hemidactylus platycephalus Peters 1854: 615 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Hemidactylus sakalava Grandidier 1867: 233 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Hemidactylus tasmani Hewitt 1932: 120 (syn. fide Loveridge 1947), Hemidactylus tuberculosus Fitzinger 1826: 105
47. Herpestes auropunctatus (mammal) English  français     
The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) has been introduced to many islands worldwide for control of rats and snakes, mainly in tropical areas, but also to islands in the Adriatic Sea. Moreover, it has been introduced successfully in two continental areas: the northeast coast of South America and a Croatian peninsula. Mongooses are diurnal generalist carnivores that thrive in human-altered habitats. Predation by mongoose has had severe impacts on native biodiversity leading to the decline and extirpation of native mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. At least seven species of native vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians, have almost disappeared on Amami-oshima Island since the introduction of the mongoose in 1979. In addition, mongoose carries human and animal diseases, including rabies and human Leptospira bacterium.
Common Names: beji, Kleiner Mungo, mangouste, mangus, mweyba, newla, small Indian mongoose
48. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (fish) English   
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is a carp, native to Asia. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have been introduced around the world for aquaculture purposes and also for controlling excessive growth of phytoplankton in natural waters. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have the potential to reduce native diversity by competing for and depleting zooplankton populations, altering the food web. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have also been found to carry and transmit the disease Salmonella typhimurium.
Common Names: amour argenté, asimokyprinos, ballgjeri i bardhe, belli-gende, belyi tolstolob, belyi tolstolobik, bin ue, byal tolstolob, carpa argentata, carpa plateada, carpa-prateada, carpe argentée, carpe asiatique, carpe chinoise, Chinese schemer, cho ue, crap argintiu, crap-chinezesc-argintiu, fehér busa, fytofag, hakuren, hopeapaksuotsa, kap perak, kasaf, kopur noqreai, lin ue, phytophague, pla leng hea, pla leng heu, pla lin, pla pae long, pla pin hea, pla pin heu, silberkarpfen, silver carp, silverkarp, silwerkarp, sølvkarpe, Sølvkarpe, tolpyga, tolpyga biala, tolstolob, tolstolob biely, tolstolobik, tolstolobik bílý, tolstolobik obecný, tongsan putih, toplyga biala, tovstolob zvychajnyi, zilverkarper
Synonyms: Abramocephalus microlepis Steindachner, 1869 , Cephalus mantschuricus Basilewsky, 1855 , Hypophthalmichthys dabry Guichenot, 1871 , Hypophthalmichthys dybowskii Herzenstein, 1888 , Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Hypothalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Hypothamicthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Leuciscus hypophthalmus Richardson, 1945 , Leuciscus molitrix Valenciennes, 1844 , Onychodon mantschuricus Basilewsky, 1872
49. Iguana iguana (reptile) English  français 
The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is native to tropical parts of Latin America and grows to around 1.5m in length and 4 to 5kgs in weight. It is associated with warm coastal regions, low elevations and waterways, especially where trees extend over water. It inhabits mangrove forests and saltwater habitats, but requires access to freshwater. Popular as pets throughout America and Europe, green iguana owners often do not realise the lizard's space requirements and release them into urban areas when they grow too big. I. iguana is reported as an exotic pest in Puerto Rico. It also occurs in high concentrations in urban areas of southern Florida. It consumes and defecates the fruits of invasive plants, thereby acting as a potential dispersal agent. It has been cited as the source of a number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis.
Common Names: common iguana, gallina de palo, green iguana, grön leguan, iguana verde, iguane commun, iguane vert
Synonyms: Hypsilophus tuberculatus Fitzinger 1843, Hypsilophus tuberculatus Wagler 1830, Iguana coerulea Daudin 1802, Iguana coerulea Spix (non Daudin) 1825, Iguana emarginata Spix 1825, Iguana Hernandessi JAN 1857 (nomen nudum fide Smith & Taylor 1950), Iguana iguana Conant & Collins 1991: 95, Iguana iguana Liner 1994, Iguana iguana Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 419, Iguana lophryoides Spix 1825, Iguana minima Laurenti 1768, Iguana sapidissima Merrem 1820, Iguana sapidissima Wied 1824, Iguana squamosa Spix 1825, Iguana tuberculata Boulenger 1885: 189, Iguana tuberculata Cope 1886: 270, Iguana tuberculata Dumeril & Bibron 1837: 203, Iguana tuberculata Gunther 1885: 56, Iguana tuberculata Laurenti 1768, Iguana viridis Spix 1825, Iguana vulgaris Link 1806, Lacerta Igvana Linnaeus 1758: 206, Prionodus iguana Wagler 1828
50. Ipomoea aquatica (vine, climber) English  français     
Ipomea aquatica is rich in iron and is used traditionally to treat gastric and intestinal disorders. However, Ipomea aquatica is highly invasive, forming dense mats over the surface of water bodies, such as lakes, ponds, marshes, canals and ditches. It is also found in very moist soils, such as the muddy banks along streams. Ipomea aquatica spreads rapidly from plant fragments and its floating seeds allow effective colonisation of new areas. Aquatic herbicides, whilst generally effective, are not specific enough to be used in many sensitive areas, making eradication very difficult.
Common Names: akankong, aquatic morning glory, aseri, cancon, Chinese waterspinach, kang kong, kangking, kangkong, kangkun, kangum, kankan, kankum, kongkong, lili vai, liseron d’eau, lorenzo, luve ne tombithi, ndrinikava, ota karisa, seeri, seri, swamp cabbage, swamp morning glory, te kang kong, ung-choi, wa kumala, water bindweed, water spinach
Synonyms: Convolvulus repens Vahl, Ipomoea repens Roth, Ipomoea reptans Poiret, Ipomoea subdentata Miq.
51. Launaea intybacea (shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bitter lettuce (Launaea intybacea) is a native of Africa and has been introduced to parts of lower Northern America, the West Indies, Central America, South America, temperate and tropical Asia. A cosmopolitan weed it is adapted to dry conditions. It is reported to be spreading rapidly in disturbed areas on Grand Cayman.
Common Names: achicoria azul, bitter lettuce
Synonyms: Lactuca intybacea Jacq., Bracyrhamphus intybaceus (Jacq.) DC., Lactuca intybacea Jacq.
52. Lepidium virginicum (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Lepidium virginicum is a weed of agronomic, vegetable, orchard, and nursery crops. It is reported to have naturalised on disturbed sites in Hawaii and the western United States, and spreading rapidly on Grand Cayman.
Common Names: cresón, cresson sauvage, cresson savane, culantrillo, escobilla, lentejilla, lépidie de Virginie, mancuerno, mastruço, mastruz, mastuerzo, mastuerzo silvestre, menstruz, momili, naunau, passerage de Virginie, peppergrass, poorman pepperweed, poorman's pepper, poorman's-pepperwort, Virginia cress, Virginia pepperweed, Virginian peppercress, wild peppercress
53. Leucaena leucocephala (tree) English  français     
The fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing tree/shrub Leucaena leucocephala, is cultivated as a fodder plant, for green manure, as a windbreak, for reforestation, as a biofuel crop etc. Leucaena has been widely introduced due to its beneficial qualities; it has become an aggressive invader in disturbed areas in many tropical and sub-tropical locations and is listed as one of the ‘100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species’. This thornless tree can form dense monospecific thickets and is difficult to eradicate once established. It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible and threatens native plants.
Common Names: acacia palida, aroma blanca, balori, bo chet, cassis, false koa, faux mimosa, faux-acacia, fua pepe, ganitnityuwan tangantan, graines de lin, guaje, guaslim, guaxin, horse/wild tamarind, huaxin, ipil-ipil, jumbie bean, kan thin, kanthum thect, koa-haole, kra thin, kratin, lamtoro, lead tree, leucaena, leucaena, liliak, lino criollo, lopa samoa, lusina, nito, pepe, rohbohtin, schemu, siale mohemohe, subabul, tamarindo silvestre, tangantangan, tangan-tangan, te kaitetua, telentund, tuhngantuhngan, uaxim, vaivai, vaivai dina, vaivai ni vavalangi, wild mimosa, wild tamarind, zarcilla
Synonyms: Acacia leucocephala (Lamark) Link 1822, Leucaena glabrata Rose 1897, Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. 1842, Mimosa leucocephala Lamark 1783
54. Ligustrum sinense (tree, shrub) English     
Ligustrum sinense, or Chinese privet, is a shrub or small tree native to China, Vietnam and Laos that can grow up to 9 meters tall. Its flowers are small and somewhat unpleasantly fragrant and its fruits are dark blue or bluish-black. L. sinense has been reported in floodplains, wetlands and bogs, as well as in dry, moist and wet forests, waste places, roadsides and open stream systems. It is widespread and common, especially near towns, where it is deliberately planted. It may displace shrubs of alluvial forests and remain persistent in these areas. Chinese privet fruits are consumed by wildlife, particularly birds, which often excrete the seeds unharmed at distant locations where they may germinate and become established. L. sinense can easily escape cultivation to invade adjacent areas and can form dense monospecific thickets.
Common Names: Chinese liguster, Chinese ligustrum, Chinese privet, common chinese privet, hedge privet, small-leaf privet, troène de Chine, xiao la
Synonyms: Ligustrum calleryanum Decne., Ligustrum indicum (Lour.) Merr., Ligustrum microcarpum Kaneh. & Sasaki, Ligustrum sinense Lour. var. multiflorum Bowles, Ligustrum sinense Lour. var. villosum (May) Rehder, Ligustrum sinense var. stauntonii (DC.) Rehder, Ligustrum stauntonii DC., Ligustrum villosum May, Olea consanguinea Hance, Olea walpersiana Hance, Phillyrea indica Lour.
55. Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana) (amphibian) English     
The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana)) is native to North America. It has been introduced all over the world to over 40 countries and four continents. Many introductions have been intentional with the purpose of establishing new food sources for human consumption. Other populations have been established from unintentional escapes from bullfrog farms. Consequences of the introduction of non-native amphibians to native herpetofauna can be severe. The American bullfrog has been held responsible for outbreaks of the chytrid fungus found to be responsible for declining amphibian populations in Central America and elsewhere. They are also important predators and competitors of endangered native amphibians and fish. The control of this invasive in Europe partly relies upon increasing awareness, monitoring and education about the dangers of releasing pets into the wild. Strict laws are also in place to prevent further introductions. Eradication is achieved largely by physical means including shooting, spears/gigs, bow and arrow, nets and traps.
Common Names: bullfrog, grenouille taureau, North American bullfrog, Ochsenfrosch, rana toro, Stierkikker
Synonyms: Rana catesbiana Shaw, 1802
56. Lonicera japonica (vine, climber) English  français     
Lonicera japonica is an extremely vigorous vine which grows up through the canopy, smothering and ultimately killing the host tree. It competes with native plants for light and nutrients and prevents the understorey and small trees from developing, causing a reduction in forest diversity. Lonicera japonica is shade and drought tolerant, though it needs full to partial sunlight to grow successfully. It spreads rapidly via above-ground runners that root at nodes and its seeds may be eaten by birds and then dispersed. It is planted in gardens and along roadsides for landscaping purposes and can also be spread by the dumping of garden waste.
Common Names: chèvrefeuille, chèvrefeuille du Japon, Chinese honeysuckle, Hall's honeysuckle, Japanese honeysuckle, Japanisches Geissblatt, madreselva, madressilva
Synonyms: Caprifolium hallianum Hort., Lonicera brachypoda DC., Lonicera flexuosa Thun., Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, Lonicera japonica var. chinensis (P.W. Wats.) Baker, Nintooa japonica , Nintooa japonica (Thunb.) Sweet
57. Ludwigia peruviana (aquatic plant) English  français     
Ludwigia peruviana is a wetland species that has been introduced as an ornamental for its bright yellow and showy flowers. Once established, however, it forms dense, monotypic stands along shorelines and banks and then begins to sprawl out into the water and can form floating islands of vegetation. At this point, Ludwigia peruviana can clog waterways, damage structures and dominate native vegetation.
Common Names: ludwigia, Peruvian primrose, Peruvian primrosebush, Peruvian primrose-willow, water-primrose
Synonyms: Jussiaea grandiflora Ruiz & Pav. , Jussiaea hirta (L.) Sw., Jussiaea macrocarpa Kunth , Jussiaea peruviana L. , Jussiaea peruviana L. forma hirsuta Hassl. , Jussiaea peruviana L. forma tomentosa Hassl. , Jussiaea peruviana L. var. australis Hassl. , Jussiaea peruviana L. var. glaberrima Donn.Sm., Jussiaea peruviana L. var. macrocarpa (Kunth) Bertoni , Jussiaea peruviana L. var. typica Munz , Jussiaea speciosa Ridl. , Jussiaea sprengeri L. H. Bailey , Ludwigia hirta (L.) M.Gómez , Ludwigia peruviana (L.) Hara var. glaberrima (Donn.Sm.) Alain , Oenothera hirta L.
58. Lygodium japonicum (vine, climber, fern) English     
Lygodium japonicum is a vine-like fern with a highly developed ability to climb herbs, shurbs and trees. Its invasiveness arises from its ability to climb to heights of 30m and can smother vegetation by forming dense mats which displace native species, alters fire ecology and impacts rare, threatened and endangered species.
Common Names: Japanese climbing fern, kani-kusa, tsuru-shinobu
Synonyms: Hydroglossum japonicum, Lygodium chaerophylloides Desv. , Lygodium dissectum, Lygodium mearnsii Copel. , Lygodium microstachyum Desv. var. glabrescens Nakai , Lygodium pubescens Kaulf. , Lygodium tenue Blume , Ophioglossum japonicum Thunb.
59. Macaca mulatta (mammal)
Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaques) are very popular as laboratory animals and are used for biomedical and behavioural research in the internatonal trade. In Puerto Rico, the introduction and trade with any species of primates is lllegal. Wild populations of rhesus macaques represent a potential threat to humans, due to their strength and agressiveness, and that they carry diseases that can be transmitted to humans. Rhesus macaques invade fruit farms and eat the produce. Being omnivorous and intelligent, they will catch and eat natives birds (and their eggs), lizards, snakes and other species.
Common Names: macaco, macaque, macaque rhésus, mangiki, mono rhesus, rhesus macaque, rhesus monkey, rhesusapa, rhesusmakak
60. Maconellicoccus hirsutus (insect)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus or the pink hibiscus mealybug, is a polyphagous pest on a wide range of ornamental and agricultural plant species. Native to tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa, M. hirsutus forms colonies covered by a white waxy, elastic ovisac material. Feeding causes plant deformation and lowered aesthetics, which can result in heavy economic losses. The overall potential annual cost of control and damages to the US economy from M. hirsutus has been estimated to be around US$ 700 million, with the global estimate being around US$ 5 billion. While chemical and physical control methods are generally ineffective, effective biological control of M. hirsutus has been acheived in a number of countries.
Common Names: cochenille de l’hibiscus, guava mealybug, hibiscus mealybug, hibiscus-schmierlaus, pink hibiscus mealybug, pink mealybug
Synonyms: Phenacoccus hirsutus (Green)
61. Melaleuca quinquenervia (tree) English  français     
The broad-leaved paperbark tree or melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) can reach heights of 25 meters and hold up to 9 million viable seeds in a massive canopy-held seed bank. This fire-resistant wetland-invader aggressively displaces native sawgrass and pine communities in south Florida, alters soil chemistry and modifies Everglades ecosystem processes. Melaleuca is notoriously difficult to control, however, bio-control (integrated with herbicidal and other methods) holds a promising alternative to traditional control methods.
Common Names: aceite de cayeput, ahambo, balsamo de cayeput, belbowrie, bottle brush tree, broadleaf paperbark tree, broadleaf teatree, broad-leaved paperbark tree, cajeput, capeputi, corcho, five-veined paperbark tree, itahou, Japanese paper wasp, kayu putih, kinindrano, Mao-Holzrose, melaleuca, niaouli, niaouli, numbah, oli, paper bark tree, paperbark teatree, punk tree, white bottlebrush tree
Synonyms: Melaleuca leucadendron ß angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca leucadendron var. albida, Melaleuca leucadendron var. coriacea Poir., Melaleuca leucadendron var. rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca maideni R.T. Baker, Melaleuca rubriflora Vieillard ex Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca smithii R.T. Baker, Melaleuca viridiflora var. angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca viridiflora var. ß rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Metrosideros coriacea Poir., Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav.
62. Melia azedarach (tree, shrub) English  français     
Melia azedarach is a tree of the mahogany family that is native to Australasia and often planted as an ornamental shade tree. It invades along roadways, fencerows and other disturbed areas. Melia azedarach has also been found in upland grasslands, woodlands, pastures and riparian areas. Melia azedarach requires open sun, but adapts to a wide range of soil moisture conditions. It grows between sea level and 700 metres in open dry habitats and is highly resistant to insects and other pathogens. It produces much fruit, which is consumed by birds that disperse the seeds. Melia azedarach also reproduces vegetatively by forming root suckers, which allows it to spread and form dense, thickets.
Common Names: ‘ilinia, ‘inia, alelaila, amargoseira-do-Himalaio, arbre à chapelets, bakain, chinaberry , chuan liang zi, dake, Indian lilac, indischer Zedrachbaum, jazmin, lelah, lilas, lilas de l'Inde, lilas de Perse, lilas des Indes, margosa tree, margosier, melia, para‘isu, paraíso, Persian lilac, persischer Flieder, petit lilas, prais, pride-of-India, sendan, Sichuan pagoda-tree, sili, sita, syringa berrytree, tili, tira, umbrella tree, white cedar
Synonyms: Antelaea javanica Gaertn. , Azedarach amena Raf. , Azedarach deleteria Medik. , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma arguta (DC.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma longifoliola Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma sambucina (Blume) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma squamulosa (C.DC.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma subdentata Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma typica Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze var. australasica (Juss.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze var. dubia (Cav. ex M.Roem.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze var. glabrior Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma incisodentata Kuntze , Azedarach speciosa Raf. , Azedarach vulgaris M.Gómez , Melia angustifolia Schumach. , Melia arguta DC. , Melia australasica Juss. , Melia australis Sweet, Melia azedarach L. forma albiflora Makino , Melia azedarach L. forma umbraculifera (G.Knox) Rehder, Melia azedarach L. subvar. intermedia Makino , Melia azedarach L. subvar. semperflorens (Makino) Makino, Melia azedarach L. var. acuminatissima Miq. , Melia azedarach L. var. australasica (Juss.) C.DC., Melia azedarach L. var. biglandulosa Pierre ex Pellegr. , Melia azedarach L. var. cochinchinensis (Pierre) Pellegr., Melia azedarach L. var. floribunda (Carrière) Morren, Melia azedarach L. var. glabrior C.DC. , Melia azedarach L. var. glandulosa Pierre , Melia azedarach L. var. incisa Miq. , Melia azedarach L. var. intermedia (Makino) Makino, Melia azedarach L. var. japonica (G.Don) Makino, Melia azedarach L. var. javanica Koord. & Valeton , Melia azedarach L. var. sambucina (Blume) Miq., Melia azedarach L. var. sempervirens L. , Melia azedarach L. var. squamulosa C.DC. , Melia azedarach L. var. subtripinnata Miq. , Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculifera G.Knox , Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculiformis Berckmans & L.H.Bailey , Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculifera Knox , Melia azedarach var. japonica (G. Don) Makino , Melia birmanica Kurz , Melia bogoriensis Koord. & Valeton , Melia candollei Juss. , Melia cochinchinensis M.Roem. , Melia commelinii Medik. , Melia composita Willd. , Melia composita Willd. var. cochinchinensis Pierre , Melia dubia Cav. ex M.Roem. , Melia floribunda Carrière , Melia florida Salisb. , Melia guineensis G.Don , Melia hasskarlii K.Koch , Melia japonica G.Don , Melia japonica G.Don var. semperflorens Makino , Melia japonica G.Don var. squamulosa C.DC. , Melia japonica Hassk. , Melia japonica var. semperflorens Makino, Melia javanica M.Roem. , Melia orientalisM.Roem. , Melia robusta Roxb. ex G.Don , Melia sambucina Blume , Melia sempervirens Sw., Melia superba Roxb. , Melia toosendan Siebold & Zucc.
63. Merremia tuberosa (vine, climber) English  français     
Merremia tuberosa is a climbing vine that is native to Mexico and parts of central America that has become invasive on various Pacific islands and parts of the United States. The vine overgrows tall hardwood forest canopies and smothers native trees and shrubs. Its population on Niue is reported as especially aggressive.
Common Names: bara- asa-gao, bejuco de golondrin, Brazilian jalap, Ceylon morning glory, foco de luz, Hawaiian wood rose, liane à tonelle, liane Gandelour, liane sultane jaune, liane-jaune, quiebra caje- te, quiebra machet, quinamacal, rosa de barranco, rose des bois, Spanish arborvine, Spanish woodbine, wood rose, xixcamátic, yellow morning-glory
Synonyms: Batatas tuberosa (L.) Bojer, Ipomoea tuberosa L., Operculina tuberosa (L.) Meisn.
64. Micropterus salmoides (fish) English  français     
Micropterus salmoides (bass) has been widely introduced throughout the world due to its appeal as a sport fish and for its tasty flesh. In some places introduced Micropterus salmoides have affected populations of small native fish through predation, sometimes resulting in the their decline or extinction. Its diet includes fish, crayfish, amphibians and insects.
Common Names: achigã, achigan, achigan à grande bouche, American black bass, bas dehanbozorg, bas wielkogeby, bass, bass wielkgebowy, biban cu gura mare, black bass, bolsherotnyi amerikanskii tscherny okun, bol'sherotyi chernyi okun', buraku basu, fekete sügér, forelbaars, forellenbarsch, green bass, green trout, großmäuliger Schwarzbarsch, huro, isobassi, khorshid Mahi Baleh Kuchak, lakseabbor, largemouth bass, largemouth black bass, lobina negra, lobina-truche, northern largemouth bass, okounek pstruhový, okuchibasu, Öringsaborre, Ørredaborre, ostracka, ostracka lososovitá, perca Americana, perche d'Amérique, perche noire, perche truite, persico trota, stormundet black bass, stormundet ørredaborre, tam suy lo ue, zwarte baars
Synonyms: Aplites salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Grystes megastoma Garlick, 1857, Huro nigricans Cuvier, 1828, Huro salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Labrus salmoides Lacepède, 1802, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Perca nigricans (Cuvier, 1828)
65. Microstegium vimineum (grass) English     
Microstegium vimineum is an annual grass native to Asia. It grows quickly, produces abundant seed and easily invades habitats that have been disturbed by natural and anthropogenic sources. Microstegium vimineum occupies riparian habitats, lawns, woodland thickets, damp fields and roadside ditches. It is usually found under moderate to dense shade in moist conditions, but it does not persist in areas with periodic standing water, or in full sunlight. The coldest winter temperature at which invasive populations occur is approximately -21° to -23° C. It occurs in soils of average potassium and phosphorus levels but high in nitrogen. Soil acidity, however, may limit nutrient availability. It spreads by rooting at nodes along the stem, and fruits and seeds disperse by water and on animals. Also, fruits have been transported on vehicles, and in hay and soil.
Common Names: annual jewgrass, Asian stilt grass, bamboo grass, Chinese packing grass , flexible sesagrass, Japanese grass, Japanese stilt grass, Mary's grass, Nepal grass, Nepal microstegium, Nepalese browntop, Vietnamese stilt grass
Synonyms: Andropogon vimineium, Eulalia viminea (Trin.) Kuntze, Eulalia viminea (Trin.) Kuntze var. imberbis (Nees ex Steud.) Kuntze , Eulalia viminea (Trin.) Kuntze var. variabilis Kuntze , Microstegium aristulatum Robyns & Tournay , Microstegium imberbe (Nees ex Steud.) Tzvelev, Microstegium vimineum var. imberbe, Microstegium willdenovianum Nees ex Lindl., Pollinia imberbis Nees var. genuina Hack. , Pollinia imberbis Nees var. willdenoviana (Nees) Hack. , Pollinia imberbis Nees ex Steud., Pollinia viminea (Trin.) Merr., Pollinia willdenoviana (Nees ex Lindl.) Benth.
66. Molothrus bonariensis (bird) English  français   
Molothrus bonariensis (shiny cowbird) is a brood parasite, relying on a host to incubate its eggs and rear its chicks. It is not host-specific, laying eggs in the nests of other species of birds, some of which will accept and rear the chicks. Molothrus bonariensis has expanded its range in its native South America and West Indies, reaching the North American continent and negatively affecting some threatened bird species that are already at risk due to habitat loss.
Common Names: shiny cowbird, tordo lustroso, tordo renegrido, tordo vaquero, vacher luisant
Synonyms: Molothrus bonariensis subspecies maxillaris Lafresnaye
67. Monomorium destructor (insect)
Monomorium destructor (the Singapore ant) is described as a tramp ant as it is renowned for transporting itself around the world via human commerce and trade. Monomorium destructor is known to cause extensive economic damage in urban environments by gnawing holes in fabric and rubber goods, removing rubber insulation from electric and phone lines and damaging polyethylene cable.
Common Names: destructive trailing ant , Mizo-hime-ari, Singapore ant
Synonyms: Atta destructor Jerdon, Monomorium basale (Smith)., Monomorium ominosa (Gerstaecker), Myrmica atomaria Gerstaecker, Myrmica basalis Smith, Myrmica gracillima Smith, Myrmica ominosa Gerstaecker, Myrmica vexator Smith
68. Monomorium floricola (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The primarily arboreal flower ant (Monomorium floricola) is one of the world's most broadly distributed tramp ants. Most occurrence records of M. floricola are in tropical and sub-tropical regions from latitudes above 30 degrees; populations in latitudes above 35 degrees are found in heated buildings or inside greenhouses. M. floricola has been identified as a significant arboreal predator of insect eggs; in Guam it is recognised as one of three most important ant species attacking eggs of native butterflies resulting in their reduced populations.
Common Names: bicoloured trailing ant, Braunrote Blutenameise, brownish-red flower ant, floral ant , flower ant, futairo-hime-ari
Synonyms: Monomorium angusticlava Donisthorpe, 1947, Monomorium cinnabari Roger, 1863, Monomorium floreanum Stitz, 1932, Monomorium impressumSmith, 1876, Monomorium poecilum Roger, 1863, Monomorium specularis Mayr, 1866
69. Myiopsitta monachus (bird) English   
Myipositta monachus (monk parakeets) are popular in the pet trade business. Their distinction as the only nest-building parrot has allowed them to adapt to cold climates and urban areas, thus increasing their range when intentionally or unintentionally released. In Argentina, where Myipositta monachus are native, they are reported to cause one billion dollars worth of crop damage annually. They have, as yet, not significantly harmed any other invaded region.
Common Names: burátpapagáj, catita com?n, caturra-da-argentina, convue veuve, cotorra argentina, grey-breasted parakeet, grey-headed parakeet, matto grasso, mniszka, Mönchssittich, monk parakeet, monniksparikiet, munkkiaratti, munkparakit, papo branco, parrocchetto monaco, perruche-souris, quaker conure, quaker parakeet, quaker parrot
Synonyms: Psittacus monachus (Boddaert, 1783)
70. Oncorhynchus mykiss (fish) English  français     
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) are one of the most widely introduced fish species in the world. Native to western North America, from Alaska to the Baja Peninsula, Oncorhynchus mykiss have been introduced to numerous countries for sport and commercial aquaculture. Oncorhynchus mykiss is highly valued as a sportfish, with regular stocking occurring in many locations where wild populations cannot support the pressure from anglers. Concerns have been raised about the effects of introduced trout in some areas, as they may affect native fish and invertebrates through predation and competition.
Common Names: Alabalik, Alabalik türü, Amerikaniki Pestrofa, Aure, Baiser, Baja California rainbow trout, Brown trout, Coast angel trout, Coast rainbow trout, Coast range trout, Dagova pastarva, Forel rajduzhna, Forelle, Hardhead, Kamchatka steelhead, Kamchatka trout, Kamloops, Kamloops trout, Kirjolohi, K'wsech, Lord-fish, Masu, Nijimasu, Orret, Pastrva, Pestropha, pstrag teczowy, Pstrag teczowy , Pstruh duhový, Pstruh dúhový, rainbow trout, Rainbow trout , Redband, redband trout, Regenbogenforelle, Regenbogenforelle , Regenboogforel, Regnbåge, Regnbågslax, Regnbogasilungur, Regnbueørred, Regnbueørret, Salmon trout, Salmones del Pacífico, Silver trout, Stahlkopfforelle, Stålhovedørred, Steelhead, steelhead trout, Steelhead trout , Summer salmon, Sxew'k'em, Trofta ylberi, Trofte ylberi, Trota, Trota iridea, Trucha, trucha arco iris, Trucha arco iris , Trucha arcoiris, truite arc-en-ciel, Truta , Truta-arco-iris, Urriöi
Synonyms: Fario gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Onchorrhychus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Oncorhynchus kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo gairdneri irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdneri shasta (Jordan, 1894), Salmo gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gilberti (Jordan, 1894), Salmo iridea (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo irideus argentatus (Bajkov, 1927), Salmo irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo kamloops whitehousei (Dymond, 1931), Salmo kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo masoni (Suckley, 1860), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) , Salmo nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Salmo purpuratus (Pallas, 1814), Salmo rivularis kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo rivularis (Ayres, 1855), Salmo stellatus (Girard, 1856), Salmo truncatus (Suckley, 1859)
71. Opuntia cochenillifera (tree, shrub, succulent) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
An Opuntia sp. is reported to be growing in important habitats for endemic vascular flora of Ascension Island.
Common Names: cacto-de-cochonilha, cochenillekaktus, cochenillier, cochineal cactus, cochineal cactus, cochineal nopal cactus , cochineal nopal cactus , cochineal-plant, English tungy, French prickle, nopal cactus, nopal chamacuero, nopal de cochinilla , nopal de la cochinilla, nopal nochetzli, nopalea grande, nopales opuntia, Opuntia, palma, palma-de-engorda, palma-doce, palma-miuda, palmatória, prickly pear, prickly pear, raquette espagnole, velvet opuntia, warm hand, white tungi , white tungy, wooly joint prickly pear
Synonyms: Cactus cochenillifer L. (basionym), Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck
72. Oreochromis aureus (fish) English   
Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia) is native to parts of Africa and the Middle East and is an important food source throughout the world. Oreochromis aureus are easily raised as they are resilient and prolific and have a high grain-to-feed conversion rate. Worldwide introductions for use in aquaculture have provided an essential source of protein to many nations. However, these characteristics have allowed them to dominate many of their introduced ranges by displacing native species and restructuring aquatic communities in areas where they have established by means of escape from confinement or deliberate release.
Common Names: abiad hasani, amnon hayaor, amnun hayarden, amnun yarden , an-boh boh, biering-pill , blue tilapia, bolti azrak, epia, fartere, gargassa, gargaza, Goldtilapia, guldtilapia, holinga, Ifunu, Israeli tilapia, Israelse tilapia, Jordan St. peter's fish, karpassa, karwa, kpeloi, kultatilapia, kurpertilapia, mpupa, musht lubbad, partere, sale, sayray, sohn-pill, tilapia, tilapia azul, tome, tsokungi, ukuobu, waas, wass khoss, wass xos, wass-bor
Synonyms: Chromis aureus (Steindachner, 1864), Sarotherodon aureus (Steindachner, 1864), Tilapia aurea exul (Steindachner, 1864), Tilapia aurea (Steindachner, 1864), Tilapia kacherbi (Wunder, 1960), Tilapia kashabi (Elster, 1958), Tilapia lemassoni (Blache & Milton, 1960), Tilapia monodi (Daget, 1954)
73. Oreochromis mossambicus (fish) English  français     
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has spread worldwide through introductions for aquaculture. Established populations of Oreochromis mossambicus in the wild are as a result of intentional release or escapes from fish farms. Oreochromis mossambicus is omnivorous and feeds on almost anything, from algae to insects.
Common Names: blou kurper, common tilapia, fai chau chak ue, Java tilapia, kawasuzume, kurper bream, malea, mojarra, mosambik-maulbrüter, Mozambikskaya tilapiya, Mozambique cichlid, Mozambique mouth-breeder, Mozambique mouthbrooder, Mozambique tilapia, mphende, mujair, nkobue, tilapia, tilapia del Mozambique, tilapia du Mozambique, tilapia mossambica, tilapia mozámbica, trey tilapia khmao, weißkehlbarsch, wu-kuo yu
Synonyms: Chromis dumerilii Steindachner, 1864, Chromis natalensis Weber, 1897, Chromis vorax Pfeffer, 1893, Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters, 1852), Tilapia arnoldi Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917, Tilapia mossambica (Peters, 1852)
74. Osteopilus septentrionalis (amphibian) English  français 
The Cuban treefrog, Osteopilus septentrionalis is a voracious, nocturnal predator that eats any prey that it can grab, including members of its own species, other frogs, lizards, insects, spiders, and small snakes. It is an arboreal species, but it can also survive in moist areas. It is an excellent climber and is variable in color. This species is a threat to native species primarily through predation and competition. The Cuban treefrog is easily distinguishable from other frogs by its comparably large size and warty skin. This species is very successful in colonizing and has a long life span, which can make it a very significant problem in regions where it is introduced.
Common Names: Cuban Treefrog, Giant Tree-frog, Marbled Tree-toad, rainette de Cuba, rana cubana, rana platernera
Synonyms: Dendrohyas septentrionalis Tschudi, 1838, Hyla dominicensis insulsa Mittleman, 1950, Hyla dominicensis septentrionalis Mertens, 1939, Hyla insulsa Mittleman, 1950, Hyla lesueurii Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1828, Hyla microterodisca Werner, 1921, Hyla schebestana Werner, 1917, Hyla sueurri Bory de Saint-Vincent, 1831, Osteopilus septentrionalis Duméril & Bibron, 1841, Trachycephalus insulsus Cope, 1864 , Trachycephalus marmoratus Duméril & Bibron, 1841, Trachycephalus septentrionanlis Barbour, 1904, Trachycephalus wrightii Cope, 1864
75. Paratrechina longicornis (insect) English  français 
Paratrechina longicornis (the crazy ant) is a tramp ant, which, by definition, is an ant that is widely dispersed through commerce and other human-assisted avenues. It is extremely easy to identify by observing its rapid and erratic movements. Paratrechina longicornis is highly adaptable to various environments and can be a major pest. It occurs in large numbers in homes or outdoors and is capable of displacing other ants and possibly other invertebrates. Paratrechina longicornis forages over long distances away from its nest, making the nest hard to find and the ants difficult to control.
Common Names: crazy ant , hairy ant , higenaga-ameiro-ari , long-horned ant, slender crazy ant
Synonyms: Formica gracilescens Nylander (1856) , Formica longicornis Latreille (1802) , Formica vagans Jerdon (1851) , Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky (1863) , Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (1925), Prenolepis (Nylanderia) longicornis Emery (1910) , Prenolepis longicornis Roger (1863) , Tapinoma gracilescens F. Smith (1858)
76. Pheidole megacephala (insect) English  français     
Pheidole megacephala is one of the world's worst invasive ant species. Believed to be native to southern Africa, it is now found throughout the temperate and tropical zones of the world. It is a serious threat to biodiversity through the displacement of native invertebrate fauna and is a pest of agriculture as it harvests seeds and harbours phytophagous insects that reduce crop productivity. Pheidole megacephala are also known to chew on irrigation and telephone cabling as well as electrical wires.
Common Names: big-headed ant, brown house-ant, coastal brown-ant, Grosskopfameise, lion ant
Synonyms: Atta testacea Smith 1858, Formica edax Forskal 1775, Formica megacephala Fabricius 1793, Myrmica laevigata F. Smith, Myrmica suspiciosa Smith 1859, Myrmica trinodis Losana 1834, Oecophthora perniciosa Gerstacker 1859, Oecophthora pusilla Heer 1852, Pheidole janus F. Smith, Pheidole laevigata Mayr
77. Phyllorhiza punctata (jellyfish)
The jellyfish, Phyllorhiza punctata, has been introduced to North America from the Western Pacific Ocean and is threatening large commercial fisheries by feeding on the eggs and larvae of fish, crab and shrimp; clogging fishing nets; damaging boat intakes and fishing gear; and causing the closure of productive areas to fishing activities.
Common Names: Australian spotted jellyfish, spotted jellyfish, white-spotted jellyfish
Synonyms: Cotylorhiza pacifica Mayer, 1915, Cotylorhizoides pacificus Light, 1921, Mastigias albipunctatus Stiasny, 1920, Mastigias andersoni Stiasny, 1926, Mastigias ocellatus Modeer, 1791, Mastigias scintillae Soares Moreira, 1961
78. Phymatosorus scolopendria (herb, fern)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: creeping fern, maile-scented fern, monarch fern
Synonyms: Microsorum scolopendria (Burm. f.) Copel., Phymatosaurus scolopendria (Burm. f.) Pic. Serm., orth. var., Polypodium phymatodes L., Polypodium scolopendria Burm. f.
79. Pistia stratiotes (aquatic plant) English  français     
Pistia stratiotes is a freshwater invasive weed that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is a free-floating plant that is capable of forming dense mats on the surfaces of lakes, ponds, rivers and other bodies of water. Pistia stratiotes is a popular garden pond plant and is often spread by the dumping of aquarium or ornamental pond plants. Fragments, or whole plants, can be spread via boats or fishing equipment from an infested area to a clean body of water.
Common Names: laitue d'eau, Lechuguilla de agua, lechuguita de agua, pistie, repollo de agua, salade d’eau, tropical duckweed, water lettuce
80. Procambarus clarkii (crustacean)
Procambarus clarkii is a highly adaptable, tolerant, and fecund freshwater crayfish that may inhabit a wide range of aquatic environments. It is native to parts of Mexico and the United States and has established throughout the world as a result of commercial introductions for harvest as a food source. Invasive populations have been reported from Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. Impacts include aggressive competition with native crayfish, introduction of the crayfish plague, reduction of macrophyte assemblages, alteration of water quality, predation on and competition with a variety of aquatic species, and negative impacts on agricultural and fishing industries. Management strategies for P. clarkii include trapping and removing populations, creating barriers to prevent its spread, prohibiting the transport of live crayfish, and improving public education about it risks to the environment. Encouraging farming of native species as well as research on economically productive harvesting of native crayfish has the potential to reduce further introductions.
Common Names: Louisiana crayfish, red swamp crayfish
81. Psidium guajava (tree, shrub) English  français     
Psidium guajava is a tropical tree or shrub. It is native to central America from Mexico to northern South America. It has been introduced to most tropical and sub-tropical locations around the world for its edible fruit. In some countries the harvesting, processing and export of the fruit forms the basis of a sizeable industry. Due in part to its ability to grow on a variety of soils and across a range of climates, P. guajava has become invasive . Pastures and fields are overrun and native plants are outcompeted by this species, which has the ability to form dense thickets. This has led to its designation in many areas as a noxious weed to be controlled or eradicated. It is ranked by some authorities amongst the highest invasive categories.
Common Names: abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, farang, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, ku'ava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa momona, kuhfahfah, kuma, kuwawa, lemon guava, ma-kuai, ma-man, ngguava ni India, nguava, oi, pauwa, perala, petokal, quwawa, sapari, si da, te kuava, te kuawa, tokal, trapaek sruk, tuava, tu'ava, tu'avu, tumu tuava, tuvava, xalxocot
Synonyms: Guajava pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava var. pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava (L.) Kuntze, Psidium aromaticum, Psidium cujavillus Burm. f., Psidium guajava var. cujavillum (Burman) Krug and Urb., Psidium guajava var. guajava, Psidium guava Griseb., Psidium guayava Raddi, Psidium igatemyensis Barb. Rodr., Psidium pomiferum L., Psidium pumilum var. guadalupense, Psidium pumilum Vahl, Psidium pyriferum L.
82. Psittacula krameri (bird)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri, is native to central Africa and Asia and is a colourful, distinctive-looking bird. It is known as one of the most successful avian invaders in the world, with established populations in over 35 countries outside its native range. P. krameri has been shown to have adverse impacts on native bird species and carry diseases. It is thought that its reproductive success, establishment and range expansion in non-native areas is related to climate similarities of non-native areas to that of its native range.
Common Names: Perruche À Collier, ring-necked parakeet, rose-ringed parakeet, rose-ringed Parrakeet
83. Pterois volitans (fish) English   
The Indo-Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is a beautiful but dangerous tropical fish that has spread to new marine environments through the aquarium trade. The lionfish has invaded the Northwestern Atlantic and the Caribbean in one of the most rapid marine finfish invasions in history. In some areas, it has the potential to displace commercially important species such as the grouper and reduce recruitment of juvenile fishes, which in turn disrupts marine ecosystem processes.
Common Names: butterfly cod, cá Mao Tiên, chale, firefish, hana-minokasago, Indo-Pacific red lionfish, laffe volant, lepu-penganten, lionfish, lionfish scorpion, ominokasago, ornate butterfly-cod, ornate butterfly-cod, peacock lionfish, poisson scorpion, poisson volant, poisson-dindon, red firefish, red lionfish, sausau-lele, scorpion fish, scorpion volitans, skrzydlica pstra, turkey fish, turkeyfish, volitan lion, zebrafish
Synonyms: Brachirus zebra (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825), Gasterosteus volitans, Pterois cristatus, Pterois geniserra, Pterois muricata, Pterois zebra Quoy and Gaimard, 1825, Scorpaena volitans (Linnaeus, 1758)
84. Pterygoplichthys multiradiatus (fish)
Common Names: carachama, long-fin armored catfish, orinoco sailfin catfish, plecóstoma del Orinoco, radiated ptero, sailfin catfish, sailfish catfish, sejlfinnet sugemalle, tummaleväpleko
Synonyms: Ancistrus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828), Hypostomus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828), Hypostomus pardalis (non Castelnau, 1855), Liposarcus jeanesianus (non Cope, 1874), Liposarcus multiradiatus (Hancock, 1828), Liposarcus pardalis (non Castelnau, 1855), Liposarcus varius (non Cope, 1872), Plecostomus pardalis (non Castelnau, 1855), Pterygoplichthys jeanesianus (non Cope, 1874), Pterygoplichthys pardalis (non Castelnau, 1855)
85. Pterygoplichthys pardalis (fish)
Common Names: acari, acari bodó bodó, ajas, Amazon sailfin catfish, cachga, cachpas, carachama, cascudo, pantterileväpleko, peru-riesenschilderwels, vieja
Synonyms: Hypostomus pardalis (Castelnau, 1855), Liposarcus jeanesianus (Cope, 1874), Liposarcus pardalis (Castelnau, 1855), Liposarcus varius (Cope, 1872)
86. Pterygoplichthys spp. (fish)
Pterygoplichthys spp. are popular aquarium catfish native to South America that have established in locations throughout the world as a result of aquarium trade and their release or escape. Invasive populations of Pterygoplichthys spp. have been reported from Mexico, Puerto Rico, India, the Philippines, Taiwan, Panamá, Trinidad, Guyana, Japan, Peru, Singapore, Sumatra, Malaysia, Java, Hawai'i, Florida, and Texas with impacts including competition and displacement of native fish, alteration food webs, increasing siltation and bank erosion, damage fishing equipment, and reduction of fishing yields.
Common Names: catfish, janitor fish, radiated ptero, sailfin catfish, suckermouth armored catfish
87. Puccinia psidii (fungus)
The Eucalyptus rust (Puccinia psidii) is a pathogenic fungus with a very broad host range in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It was first described from common guava (Psidium guajava) in Brazil in the 1880s and is also known as guava rust. P. psidii is native to South and Central America, but has spread to a number of Caribbean islands, Hawai'i, Florida and California. The fungus attacks young tissues of plants and can cause deformation of leaves, heavy defoliation of branches, dieback, stunted growth and sometimes death. The rust disease has caused serious damage in Eucalyptus plantations in South and Central America, the Caribbean and North America with significant economic impacts. Eucalyptus rust also threatens to disrupt ecosystems by causing damage to dominant forest trees, such as the ohia in Hawai'i. There is concern that it may spread to New Zealand, Australia, South Africa and Brazil where many native species in the Myrtaceae family are widely distributed.
Common Names: eucalyptus rust, guava rust, myrtaceae rust, ohi`a rust
Synonyms: Aecidium glaziovii P. Henn., Bullaria psidii G. Winter (Arthur & Mains), Caeoma eugeniarum Link, Puccina grumixamae Rangel, Puccina rochaei Putt., Puccinia actinostemonis H.S. Jackson & Holway, Puccinia barbacensis Rangel, Puccinia brittoi Rangel, Puccinia camargoi Putt., Puccinia cambucae Putt., Puccinia eugeniae Rangel, Puccinia jambolana Rangel, Puccinia jambosae P. Henn., Puccinia neurophila Speg., Uredo cambucae P. Henn., Uredo eugeniarum P. Henn., Uredo flavidula Wint., Uredo goeldiana P. Henn., Uredo myrciae Mayor, Uredo myrtacearum Paz., Uredo neurophila Speg., Uredo puttemansii P. Henn., Uredo rangelii. J.A. Simpson, K. Thomas & C.A. Grgurinovic, Uredo rochaei Putt., Uredo seclua H.S. Jackson & Holway
88. Python molurus bivittatus (reptile)
The Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus) is a nocturnal predator that kills its prey by constriction. It is the largest and most water-dependent of the Python molurus complex, though it lives on land or on trees when juvenile. It threatens native species of amphibians, birds, lizards, snakes and bats. P. molurus bivittatus represents a threat to humans, particularly small children as well as pet animals, and it may damage agricultural activities, such as chicken farms. Worldwide, there are documented attacks of adult pythons on full-grown pigs, goats, caimans and even pet-owners. In Puerto Rico there are concerns that the Burmese python may out-compete the two native boa species: the Puerto Rican boa (Epicrates inornatus) and the Mona Island boa (Epicrates monensis), which are smaller in size than the Burmese python.
Common Names: Burmese python, piton, piton albina, piton birmana
Synonyms: Python bivittatus bivittatus Jacobs et al., 2009, Python bivittatus Kuhl 1820, Python bivittatus Werner, 1910, Python molurus bivittatus Mertens 1921, Python molurus Boulenger, 1893
89. Raoiella indica (arachnid)
Raoiella indica (the red palm mite) is a parasitic mite invasive in the Caribbean region; it poses a serious threat to many plant industries. Its recent invasion is referred to as the biggest mite explosion in the Americas. Already taking serious tolls on coconut, ornamental palm and orchid crops, its infestation of new species and spread to new locations makes it one the most menacing pests to the Western tropics.
Common Names: coconut mite, coconut red mite, frond crimson mite, leaflet false spider mite, red date mite, red palm mite, scarlet mite
90. Rattus rattus (mammal) English  français     
  See eradication or other absence information
A native of the Indian sub-continent, the ship rat (Rattus rattus) has now spread throughout the world. It is widespread in forest and woodlands as well as being able to live in and around buildings. It will feed on and damage almost any edible thing. The ship rat is most frequently identified with catastrophic declines of birds on islands. It is very agile and often frequents tree tops searching for food and nesting there in bunches of leaves and twigs.
Common Names: black rat, blue rat, bush rat, European house rat, Hausratte, roof rat, ship rat
Synonyms: Mus alexandrinus Geoffroy, 1803, Mus novaezelandiae Buller, 1870, Mus rattus Linnaeus, 1758, Musculus frugivorus Rafinesque, 1814
91. Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (amphibian) English  français     
Cane toads were introduced to many countries as biological control agents for various insect pests of sugarcane and other crops. The cane toads have proved to be pests themselves. They will feed on almost any terrestrial animal and compete with native amphibians for food and breeding habitats. Their toxic secretions are known to cause illness and death in domestic animals that come into contact with them, such as dogs and cats, and wildlife, such as snakes and lizards. Human fatalities have been recorded following ingestion of the eggs or adults.
Common Names: Aga-Kröte, bufo toad, bullfrog, cane toad, crapaud, giant American toad, giant toad, kwapp, macao, maco pempen, Maco toro, marine Toad, Suriname toad
Synonyms: Bufo agua Clark 1916, Bufo marinis [sic] Barbour 1916, Bufo marinus marinus Mertens 1972, Bufo marinus Mertens 1969, Bufo marinus Schneider 1799, Bufo strumosus Court 1858, Chaunus marinus Frost et al. 2006
92. Ricinus communis (tree, shrub) English  français     
Ricinus communis is a perennial shrub that can assume tree-like status if it establishes in a suitable climate. It is frequently found invading riparian areas where it displaces native vegetation. The seed of this species is toxic to variety of species including humans. Consuming only a few seeds can be fatal.
Common Names: agaliya, agaliya , belenivavalagi, castor, castor bean, castor-oil-plant , gelug, higuerilla, ka'apeha, kamakou, kasterolieboom, koli, la'au 'aila, lama palagi, lama palagi, lama papalagi, lepo , maskerekur, maskerekur, mbele ni vavalagi, pa'aila , pakarana, pakarani, palma-christi, pititu , ricin, rícino, Rizinus, tiairi , tiairi papa'a, tiairi popa'a, tiarili, toto ni vavalagi, toto ni vavalagi, tuitui, tuitui fua ikiiki , tuitui papa'a, uluchula skoki, uluchula skoki , utouto
Synonyms: Ricinus africanus Willd. , Ricinus angulatus Thunb. , Ricinus armatus Haw. , Ricinus badius Rchb. , Ricinus chinensis Thunb. , Ricinus digitatus Noronha , Ricinus europaeus T.Nees , Ricinus glaucus Hoffmanns. , Ricinus hybridus Besser , Ricinus inermis Mill. , Ricinus japonicus Thunb. , Ricinus laevis DC. , Ricinus leucocarpus Bertol. , Ricinus lividus Jacq. , Ricinus macrophyllus Bertol. , Ricinus medicus Forssk. , Ricinus megalospermus Delile , Ricinus minor Mill. , Ricinus nanus Balbis , Ricinus peltatus Noronha , Ricinus purpurascens Bertol. , Ricinus rugosus Mill. , Ricinus sanguineus Groenland , Ricinus scaber Bertol. ex Moris , Ricinus speciosus Burm.f. , Ricinus spectabilis Blume , Ricinus tunisensis Desf. , Ricinus undulatus Besser , Ricinus urens Mill. , Ricinus viridis Willd. , Ricinus vulgaris Mill.
93. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (grass) English  français     
Rottboellia cochinchinensis is an erect annual grass that reaches heights of 4 metres. It is a weed of warm-season crops around the world, preferring tropical and subtropical climates. It grows along roadsides and in other open, well-drained sites. R. cochinchinensis is an aggressive weed, considered to be one of the 12 worst weeds that infest sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in the world. It is also a very competitive weed with maize crops. R. cochinchinensis has irritating hairs on its stem which makes it difficult to control it manually in small-scale farms. It is tolerant to most herbicides that are applied in cotton and maize fields. Management and removal of R. cochinchinensis requires the use of many man hours and the application of several techniques to ensure control.
Common Names: anguigay, annarai, bandjangan, barsali, bukal, bura, caminadora, capim-camalote, cebada fina, corn grass, dholu, doekoet kikisian, fataque duvet, gaho, girum nagei, graminea corredora, guinea-fowl grass , herbe à poils, herbe de riz, herbe fataque-duvet, herbe queue-de-rat, itch grass, itchgrass , jointed grass, Kelly grass , kokoma grass , konda panookoo, lisofya, paja peluda, prickle grass, Raoul grass, rice grass, sagisi, sancarana, shamva grass, sugarcane weed, swooate, tsunoaiashi
Synonyms: Aegilops exaltata L., Manisuris exaltata (L. f.) Kuntze , Ophiurus appendiculatus Steud., Rottboellia arundinacea Hochst. ex A. Rich , Rottboellia denudata Steud., Rottboellia exaltata L. f., nom. illeg, Rottboellia setosa J.S. Presl ex C.B. Presl , Stegosia cochinchinensis Lour, Stegosia exaltata Nash
94. Rubus niveus (shrub) English     
Rubus niveus is a shrub native to Asia that may form dense, impenetrable, thorny thickets that can displace native species. It produces sweet, palatable fruit enjoyed by birds, rodents, reptiles and humans and has been cultivated in many regions throughout the world for this reason. It is also used as a living fence. Mechanical management of the species is difficult due to its growth form and persistent seedbank, but chemical methods have been developed and biological means of management are being explored.
Common Names: Ceylon raspberry, frambuesa, hill raspberry, hong pao ci teng, Java bramble, kala hinsalu, khiradi, kolalinda, komuli, Mahabaleshwar raspberry, mbolinmomoniyl, mora, Mysore raspberry, Mysorehimbeere, pilai, pinit, snowpeaks raspberry
Synonyms: Rubus pedunculosus D. Don, Rubus albescens Roxb., Rubus bonatii H. Lév., Rubus boudieri H. Lév., Rubus distans D. Don, Rubus foliolosus D. Don, Rubus godongensis Y. Gu & W.L. Li, Rubus horsfieldii Miq., Rubus incanus Sasaki ex Y.C. Liu & Yang, Rubus lasiocarpus Sm., Rubus lasiocarpus var. ectenothyrsus Cardot, Rubus lasiocarpus var. micranthus (D. Don) Hook. f., Rubus longistylus H. Lév., Rubus mairei H. Lév., Rubus micranthus D. Don, Rubus mysorensis F. Heyne., Rubus niveus var. micranthus (D. Don) H. Hara, Rubus pinnatus D. Don, Rubus pyi H. Lév., Rubus tongchouanensis H. Lév.
95. Rumex crispus (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Curled dock (Rumex crispus) is a problematic weed throughout its native and introduced range. It is native to Europe and western Asia, but is now present on all continents and is considered one of the five most widely distributed plants in the world. It is a major weed in agricultural areas.
Common Names: yellow dock, acedera crespa, acedera crispada, acelgas, curled dock, curley dock, curly dock , gualtata, herbe patience, Krauser Ampfer, krultongblaar, labaça-crespa, labaça-selvagem, lengua de caballo, lengua de vaca, língua-de-vaca, nagaba-gishi-gishi, narrowleaf dock, oseille, oseille crépu, paciência, patience, patience crépu, reguette, romaza, romaza crespa, rumex crépu, sour dock, vinagrillo , weeblaar, zhou ye suan mo
96. Salix babylonica (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The weeping willow, Salix babylonica, is native to China but has been introduced around the world as an ornamental and for erosion control. Willows can spread vegetatively and also via seed, and can easily invade streams, rivers and wetlands, as well as other intact areas. Impacts on ecosystems include modifcation of hydrology; decreased water quality and availability; habitat loss; decreased insect population, important prey for some birds and fish species; inhibition of understory plant growth; and changes in species composition. Commonly used management techniques include herbicides, e.g. glyphosphate, picloram, picloram/triclopyr; and/or mechanical control, e.g. felling, cutting, excavating.
Common Names: Babylon weeping willow, sauce de Babilonia, sauce llorón, saule de Babylone, saule pleureur, shidare-yanagi, Trauerweide, treurwilger, weeping willow, Wisconsin willow
Synonyms: Salix babylonica var. crispa hort. ex Loudon [= Salix babylonica forma crispa]
97. Salix humboldtiana (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: sauce, saule peuplier
Synonyms: Salix chilensis Molina, Salix humboldtiana Willd. var. fastigiata André
98. Salmo trutta (fish) English  français     
Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
Common Names: an breac geal, aure, bachforelle, blacktail, breac geal, brook trout, brown trout, denizalabaligi, denizalasi, Europäische Forelle, finnock, forelle, galway sea trout, gillaroo, gwyniedyn, havørred, havsöring, herling, hirling, kumzha, k'wsech, lachförch, lachsforelle, lassföhren, losos taimen, losos' taimen, mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar, meerforelle, meritaimen, morska postrv, morskaya forel', orange fin, öring, orkney sea trout, ørred, ørret, pastrav de mare, peal, pstruh morsky, pstruh obecný, pstruh obecný severomorský, pstruh obycajný, salmo trota, salmon trout, sea trout, sewin, siwin, sjøaure, sjøørret, sjourrioi, taimen, thalasopestrofa, troc, troc wedrowna, trota fario, trout, trucha, trucha común, trucha marina, truita, truite brune, truite brune de mer, truite de mer, truite d'europe, truta marisca, truta-de-lago, truta-fário, truta-marisca, urriði, whiting, whitling, zeeforel
Synonyms: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
99. Sansevieria hyacinthoides (succulent)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Sansevieria hyacinthioides is an extremely durable, and tough rhizomatous perennial. S. hyacinthioides has escaped in Florida, where it is listed by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council as a Category II invasive exotic. On the Cayman Islands where it is introduced forms a dense groundcover which can inhibit native herbaceous species.
Common Names: African bowstring hemp, bowstring hemp, iguanatail
Synonyms: Cordyline guineensis (L.) Britt., Cordyline guineensis (L.) Britton, Sansevieria guineensis (L.) Willd., Sansevieria metallica Horton ex Gerome & Labroy, Sansevieria thyrsiflora Thunb.
100. Schinus terebinthifolius (tree) English  français     
Native to Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil, Schinus terebinthifolius is a pioneer of disturbed sites, but is also successful in undisturbed natural environments. It is an aggressive evergreen shrub or small tree, 3-7 metres in height that grows in a variety of soil types and prefers partial sun. Schinus terebinthifolius produces shady habitats that repel other plant species and discourage colonisation by native fauna and alter the natural fire regime. Its fruit has a 'paralysing effect' on birds and even grazing animals when ingested. Schinus terebinthifolius seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals and it readily escapes from garden environments. It is planted as both an ornamental and shade tree and has many uses.
Common Names: baie rose , Brazilian holly, Brazilian pepper, Brazilian pepper tree, Christmas berry, copal, encent, faux poivrier, Florida holly, Mexican pepper, naniohilo, pimienta de Brasil, poivre du Brésil, poivre marron, poivre rose, poivrier d'Amérique, Rosapfeffer, warui, wilelaiki
101. Solenopsis invicta (insect) English     
Solenopsis invicta is an aggressive generalist forager ant that occurs in high densities and can thus dominate most potential food sources. They breed and spread rapidly and, if disturbed, can relocate quickly so as to ensure survival of the colony. Their stinging ability allows them to subdue prey and repel even larger vertebrate competitors from resources.
Common Names: fourmi de feu, red imported fire ant (RIFA), rote importierte Feuerameise
Synonyms: Solenopsis saevissima var. wagneri (Santschi), Solenopsis wagneri (Santschi)
102. Sonchus asper  English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Sonchus asper is a perennial or annual herb native to Eurasia and Africa. It has been introduced to a wide range of countries around the world, including some sub-Antarctic islands such as Gough Island, Auckland Islands and Campbell Island. It is considered a weed in agricultural systems mainly due to its role in harbouring diseases and pests. It produces large numbers of seeds that are dispersed by wind.
Common Names: chaudronnet, laiteron âpre, laiteron épineux, laiteron piquant, laiteron rude, lastron piquant, perennial sowthistle, prickly sow thistle, prickly sowthistle , prickly sow-thistle, rough sow thistle, serralha áspera, serralha espinhosa, serralha preta, spiny annual sow thistle, spiny sowthistle, spiny-leaf sow-thistle
Synonyms: Sonchus asper (L.) Hill ssp. asper, Sonchus asper (L.) Hill ssp. glaucescens (Jord.) J. Ball, Sonchus asper Linn., Sonchus nymanii Tineo & Guss.
103. Sonchus oleraceus  English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Sonchus oleraceus is an annual herb native to Eurasia and northern Africa. It has been introduced to a wide range of countries around the world. It is a common weed in disturbed areas and is a major problem in agricultural systems mainly due to its role in harbouring diseases and pests. It produces large numbers of seeds that are dispersed by wind.
Common Names: annual sowthistle, colewort, common Milk Sow-thistle, common sowthistle, common sow-thistle, hare's colewort, hare's lettuce, laiteron commun, laiteron maraîcher, laiteron potager, lastron, leita ruga, milk thistle, milky tassel, pualele, serralha branca, serralha macia, smooth sow thistle, soft thistle, sow thistle, sow-thistle, swinies, thalaak
104. Sorghum halepense (grass) English  français     
Sorghum halepense is an extremely invasive noxious weed with a worldwide distribution. High seed production and an extensive rhizomal system makes it difficult to eradicate. This species has a number of detrimental effects including: toxicity to grazing stock, fire risk during summer and competitive exclusion of other plants. It reduces soil fertility, acts as a host for crop pathogens and is a known allergen.
Common Names: Aleppo grass, Aleppo milletgrass, cañuela, Don Carlos, grama China, gumai, herbe de Cuba, Johnson grass, Johnsongrass, kola, sorgho, sorgho d'Alep, sorgo de Alepo, yerba Johnson, zacate Johnson
Synonyms: Andropogon arundinaceus Scop. 1772, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. 1804, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. anatherus Piper 1915, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. genuinus Stapf ex Hook. f. 1896, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. muticus (Hack.) Asch & Graebn. 1915, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. typicus Asch & Graebn. 1898, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. ssp. halepensis (L.) Hack 1889, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. subvar. genuinus Hack 1889, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. subvar. leiostachys Hack 1889, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. subvar. muticus Hack 1889, Blumenbachia halepensis (L.) Koeler 1802, Holcus halepensis L. 1753, Milium halepense (L.) Cav. 1802, Sorghum almum Parodi 1943, Sorghum almum Parodi var. typicum Parodi 1943, Sorghum controversum, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. var. muticum (Hack.) Grossh. 1928, Sorghum miliaceum (Roxb.) Snowden, Sorghum saccharatum (L.) Moench var. halepense (L.) Kuntze 1891
105. Sus scrofa (mammal) English  français     
Sus scrofa (feral pigs) are escaped or released domestic animals which have been introduced to many parts of the world. They damage crops, stock and property, and transmit many diseases such as Leptospirosis and Foot and Mouth disease. Rooting pigs dig up large areas of native vegetation and spread weeds, disrupting ecological processes such as succession and species composition. Sus scrofa are omnivorous and their diet can include juvenile land tortoises, sea turtles, sea birds, endemic reptiles and macro-invertebrates. Management of Sus scrofa is complicated by the fact that complete eradication is often not acceptable to communities that value feral pigs for hunting and food.
Common Names: kuhukuhu, kune-kune, petapeta, pig, poretere, razorback, te poaka, Wildschwein
106. Syngonium podophyllum (vine, climber)
Syngonium podophyllum is an ornamental vine native to Central and parts of South America that has established invasive populations in the United States, South Africa, Singapore, the Carribbean, and on several Pacific islands. It may establish dense populations that displace native plants and grow over native trees.
Common Names: African evergreen, American evergreen, arrowhead vine, goose-foot plant, nephthytis, selkesingketieu
Synonyms: Syngonium angustatum, Syngonium podophyllum var. albolineatum
107. Syzygium cumini (tree) English  français     
Syzygium cumini has been introduced to many different places where it has been utilised as a fruit producer, as an ornamental and also for its timber. It has the ability to form a dense cover, excluding all other species. This characteristic has allowed Syzygium cumini to become invasive in Hawaii where it prevents the re-establishment of native lowland forest and very invasive in the Cook Islands and in French Polynesia. This tree has not been evaluated for biological control, but vigorous efforts to exterminate it with herbicides are taking place in Hawaii.
Common Names: black plum, damson plum, djoowet, doowet, druif, duhat, duhat, faux-pistachier, guayabo pesjua, indian blackberry, jalao, jaman, jambhool, jamblang, jambol, jambolan plum, jambolanier, jambool, jambu, jambul, jambulao, jamelao, jamelong, jamelongue, jamélongue, jamelonguier, jamelon-guier, jammun, jamoen, Java plum, jiwat, Ka'ika, kavika ni India, koeli, koriang, lomboy, lunaboy, ma-ha, Malabar plum, mesegerak, mesekerrak, mesekerrák, mesigerak, paramu, pesjua extranjera, pistati, Portuguese plum, pring bai, pring das krebey, purple plum, salam, va, voi rung, wa
Synonyms: Calyptranthes caryophyllifolia (Lam.) Willd., Calyptranthes oneillii Lundell, Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce, Eugenia jambolana Lam., Eugenia caryophyllifolia Lam., Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce, Eugenia jambolana Lam., Myrtus cumini L., Syzygium jambolana (Lam.) DC., Syzygium jambolanum DC., Syzygium caryophyllifolium (Lam.) DC., Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC.
108. Syzygium jambos (tree) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Syzygium jambos, commonly known as the Malabar plum, is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago. It is a small tree (10 - 15 m), and was primarily introduced into new areas as an ornamental and as a shade tree. S. jambos has been introduced to Southern Africa, Australia and a number of Pacific islands including Micronesia, Hawaii, American Samoa and Pitcairn, where it has become an invasive species, threatening native flora.
Common Names: ‘ohi‘a loke, ahi‘a papa‘a, apel en wai, fa palangi, fekika papalangi, haia, hehea ha‘amoa , iouen wai, iouen wai, jambos, jambosier, jambrosade, jamrosa, jamrosa, jamrosat, jamrosier, ka‘ika, ka‘ika papa‘a, ka‘ika takataka, ka‘ika varani, kavika ni India, kavika ni vavalangi, kavika ni vavalangi, Malabar plum, manzana rosa, pomarrosa, pomme-rose, pommier rose, prunier de Malabar, rose apple, rose-apple, Rosenapfelbaum, seasea palagi, yambo, youenwai
Synonyms: Caryophyllus jambos (L.) Stokes, Eugenia jambos L., Jambosa jambos (L.) Millsp.
109. Tapinoma melanocephalum (insect) English  français 
Tapinoma melanocephalum is known as a tramp ant as its spread around the globe has been assisted by human activities. It is highly flexible in the habitats it occupies, providing there is some form of disturbance allowing it to establish ahead of more dominant ant species, and it nests readily outdoors or indoors. Tapinoma melanocephalum is a household pest, as well as disturbing greenhouse environments and can transport pathogenic microbes in hospitals.
Common Names: albaricoque , awate-konuka-ari , black-headed ant, ghost ant, hormiga bottegaria , house infesting ant , tiny yellow house ant, tramp ant
Synonyms: Formica familiaris Smith, F. 1860, Formica melanocephalum Fabricius, 1793, Formica nana Jerdon, Myrmica pellucida Smith, F. 1857, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius): Mayr, 1862, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australe Santschi 1928, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australis Santschi 1928
110. Tecoma capensis (vine, climber, tree, shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Tecoma capensis consists of two subspecies within its native range; Tecoma capensis subsp. capensis which is found in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique, and Tecoma capensis subsp. nyassae which is found in Tanzania, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. It is not known which subspecies however is that which is becoming invasive worldwide. Various countries have identified the species in their invasive species plans; Anguilla, Australia and New Zealand, however it is only on the island of Rangitoto in Auckland, New Zealand, where specific actions have been identified to contain the species. In Tanzania the species is found to have spread from unknown introduction around the Amani Botanical Gardens. Evidence from this study and from studies in New Zealand and Queensland, Australia suggests that the species spreads and becomes naturalised from being planted as an ornamental within landscaped areas.
Common Names: ‘i‘iwi haole, Bignone, Bouquet, Cape Honeysuckle, chèvrefeuille du Cap, jasmin du Cap, técome
Synonyms: Bigonia capensis, Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach, Tecomaria capensis subsp. capensis, Tecomaria capensis subsp. nyassae
111. Terminalia catappa (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Terminalia catappa is a native plant of Asia that has escaped from cultivation. Due to its ability to cope with sandy, well draining soil, and salt spray it is often found on coastal regions. It is considered invasive in Florida, United States, and several Carribean Islands, including Montserrat, Puerto Rico and the Cayman Islands. Its seeds are highly bouyant which allows it disperse vast distances however they are highly edible so are eaten by bats, crabs and humans. However despite its potential as being an invasive species it is being considered for multiple applications. Due to its extensive and deep-rooting structure it is considered a possible species to use as a dune retention species against proposed climate change and sea-level rise, and in Brazil it is also being considered a potential cultivar to use in bio-fuel creation.
Common Names: alconorque, alite, almendra, almendrillo, almendro, almendro de la india, almendro del pais, almendron, alumpit, amandelboom, amandier de Cayenne, amandier des indies, amandier des tropiques, amendoeira, amendoeira, amendoeira-da-india, badam, badam, badamier, badamier, barbados almond, bastard almond, beach almond, bengal almond, castafiola, castanhola, castania, chapeu-de-sol, country almond, demarara almond, false kamani, fijian almond, guarda-sol, india almond, Indischer Mandelbaum, kamani ‘ula, kamani-haole, Katappenbaum, kauariki, kaukauariki, ketapang, koa‘i‘i, kotamba, koua‘i‘i, ma‘i‘i, malabar-almond, malay almond, natapoa, parasol, saori, sea-almond, singapore almond, story tree, ta‘ie, talie, talisai, talise, taraire, tavola, tavola nut, telie, tipapop, tipop, tivi, tropical almond, west indian almond, white bombway, wilde amandel, zanmande
Synonyms: Badamia comersoni Gaertn., Buceras catappa Hitchc., Juglans catappa Lour., Phytolacca javanica Osbeck, Terminalia badamia Tul., Terminalia dichotoma Miq., Terminalia latifolia Blanco, Terminalia mauritana Blanco, Terminalia moluccana Lam., Terminalia ovatifolia Nor.
112. Thevetia peruviana (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana is a bushy shrub native to tropical America. Seedlings can be found on cultivated ground and ex-pasture land. It is cultivated in gardens as an ornamental where it competes with garden plants. It is an opportunistic plant and is found growing on disturbed habitats. Its fruit, seeds, foliage or sap are poisonous to man and animals. It is a significant weed in Timor-Leste and is listed as a Category 1 weed in South Africa (prohibited and to be controlled).
Common Names: adelfa amarilla, be still tree, cabalonga, chirca, foreigner's tree, geel-oleander, irelepsech , jacapa, kanneeta, koneta, loandro-amarelo, luckynut, nohomalie, oléandre jaune, piti, poupou, pua, Thevetie, venevene, yellow oleander
Synonyms: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippoid, Cerbera thevetia L., Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud.
113. Trachemys scripta elegans (reptile) English  français     
The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) has been the most popular turtle in the pet trade with more than 52 million individuals exported from the United States to foreign markets between 1989 and 1997. Despite the vast worldwide occurrence of the sliders little is known of their impact on indigenous ecosystems, clearly research and education on the dangers of releasing pet turtles into the wild are needed. Their omnivorous diet and ability to adapt to various habitats, gives them great potential for impacting indigenous habitats.
Common Names: Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte, Krasnoukhaya cherepakha, Nordamerikansk terrapin, punakorvakilpikonna, punakõrv-ilukilpkonn, raudonausis vežlys , raudonskruostis vežlys, red-eared slider, red-eared slider terrapin, rödörad vattensköldpadda, rødøret terrapin, rødøreterrapin , Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkroete, Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkröte , sarkanausu brunurupucis, slider, tortue à tempe rouge, tortue de Floride, zólw czerwonolicy, zólw czerwonouchy, zólw ozdobny
Synonyms: Chrysemys scripta (Boulenger 1889), Chrysemys scripta var. elegans Boulenger 1889, Emys elegans Wied 1839, Emys holbrooki Gray 1844, Emys sanguinolenta Gray1855, Pseudemys scripta elegans Stebbins 1985, Pseudemys scripta (Jordan 1899), Testudo scripta Schoepff, 1792, Trachemys lineata Gray 1873
114. Tradescantia fluminensis (herb) English     
Tradescantia fluminensis is endemic to the tropical rainforests of south east Brazil and has naturalised in New Zealand, south-eastern Australia, Portugal, Italy, Russia, Japan and the south-eastern USA. T. fluminensis is a persistent invasive weed of natural areas where it carpets the ground and prevents native regeneration. It alters litter decomposition, nutrient cycling and the successional trajectory of New Zealand lowland podocarp-broadleaf forests and probably native vegetation elsewhere. T. fluminensis propagates and spreads easily from fragments.
Common Names: nohakata karakusa, small-leaf spiderwort, spiderwort, Vandrande Jude, wandering creeper, wandering Jew, wandering Willie, white flowered wandering Jew
Synonyms: Tradescantia albiflora (Kunth)
115. Tubastraea coccinea (coral) English  français 
Tubastraea coccinea (orange-cup coral) has been introduced to all continents except Antarctica and is thought to compete with native benthic invertebrates for space and to compromise their communities. The reduction of native sponges and native corals could also have significant flow-on effects for entire ecosystems.
Common Names: colonial-cup coral, orange-cup coral, orange-tube coral, tubastrée orange
Synonyms: Astropsammia pedersenii , Caryophyllia aurantiaca , Coenopsammia affinis , Coenopsammia aurea , Coenopsammia coccinea , Coenopsammia ehrenbergiana, Coenopsammia manni , Coenopsammia radiata, Coenopsammia tenuilamellosa , Coenopsammia urvillii , Coenopsammia willeyi , Dendrophyllia affinis , Dendrophyllia aurantiaca , Dendrophyllia danae , Dendrophyllia ehrenbergiana , Dendrophyllia manni , Dendrophyllia surcularis , Dendrophyllia turbinata , Dendrophyllia willeyi , Lobophyllia aurea , Placopsammia darwini , Tubastraea aurea , Tubastraea pedersenii , Tubastraea tenuilamellosa, Tubastraea willeyi
116. Urochloa maxima (grass) English  français     
Although Urochloa maxima is the accepted name for this species, it is still widely known as Panicum maximum. Urochloa maxima is a native of tropical Africa where it occurs from sea level to 1,800m. It is used as a forage grass and its ability to tolerate a wide range of habitats make it a very productive species. Urochloa maxima has become prevalent in Samoa and Tonga and it is a problem species in Guam and Hawaii. Although it is a favourable grass in many areas it can also form dense stands and displace native species.
Common Names: buffalograss, capime guiné, fataque, green panic, Guinea grass, herbe de Guinéa, panic élevé, saafa, talapi, tinikarati, vao Kini, vao Kini, yerba de Guinea, zacate Guinea
Synonyms: Panicum gongylodes Jacq., Panicum hirsutissimum Steud., Panicum jumentorum Pers., Panicum laeve Lam., Panicum maximum Jacq., Panicum maximum var. coloratum C.T. White, Panicum maximum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) Döll, Panicum maximum var. maximum, Panicum maximum var. pubiglume K. Schum., Panicum maximum var. trichoglume Robyns, Panicum polygamum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) E. Fourn., Panicum trichocondylum Steud., Urochloa maxima var. trichoglumis (Robyns) R.D. Webster
117. Verbena rigida (herb) English     
Verbena rigida is a perennial herb native to South America. It is popular for garden cultivation due to its conspicuous bright purple flowers that have an extended blooming period. However it has escaped cultivation in a number of countries around the world and has invaded native grasslands, crop fields and roadside areas.
Common Names: creeping verbena, handy garden verbena, jarvao, large-veined verbena, lila vasfu, purple verbena, rigid verbena, sandpaper verbena, slank jernurt, slender vervain, sporýš tuhý, stiff verbena, tuberous vervain, urgebao, veined verbena, verveine
Synonyms: Verbena bonariensis L. forma robustior Chodot, Verbena bonariensis L. forma venosa (Gillies & Hook.) Chodat, Verbena bonariensis L. forma venosa (Gillies & Hook.) Voss, Verbena bonariensis L. var. rigida (Spreng.) Kuntze, Verbena doniana Steud., Verbena rigida forma obovata Hayek, Verbena rigida Spreng. forma paraguayensis Moldenke, Verbena rigida Spreng. var. alba Moldenke , Verbena rigida Spreng. var. glandulosa Moldenke, Verbena rigida Spreng. var. lilacina (Harrow) Moldenke, Verbena rigida Spreng. var. reineckii (Briq.) Moldenke, Verbena rigida var. obovata, Verbena rugosa D.Don, Verbena scaberrima Cham., Verbena venosa Gillies & Hook
118. Vulpia bromoides (grass)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Vulpia bromoides Is an annual weed of native grasslands and pastures in temperate climates of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Weedy annual grasses can reduce biodiversity on native grasslands, impede their restoration, and alter ecosystem processes. As a pasture weed, V. bromoides reduces productivity of grasslands; it has low palatability, and its seeds can damage hides and fleece of grazing animals. It readily invade wherever disturbance occurs. Integrated management which combines pasture rest, herbicide treatment and fertilizer application is shown to reduce seed production and improve control.
Common Names: barren fescue, brome fescue, brome six-weeks grass , cevadinha-braba, desert fescue, festuca-cevadinha , pasto de sedilla , rat's tail fescue, silkygrass, silver grass, squirreltail fescue, vulpie faux brome
Synonyms: Bromus dertonensis All., Festuca bromoides L., Festuca dertonensis (All.) Asch. & Graebn., Vulpia dertonensis (All.) Gola
119. Ziziphus mauritiana (tree, shrub) English  français     
Ziziphus mauritiana is widely cultivated in dry areas throughout the tropics. It tolerates extremely dry habitats and is an extremely valuable tree for people that live in such climates. Ziziphus mauritiana has a multitude of uses, including culinary and medicinal. It can form dense stands and become invasive in some areas, including Fiji and Australia. In Australia Ziziphus mauritiana has the capacity to greatly expand its current range in northern and northeastern Australia. The main industry affected is the cattle industry but Ziziphus mauritiana also has environmental impacts in woodland and savanna ecosystems.
Common Names: appeldam, aprin, baer, baher, bahir, bedara, ber, bor, Chinee apple, Chinese apple, Chinese date, coolie plum, crabapple, dindoulier, dunk, dunks, dunks, gingeolier, Indian cherry, Indian jujube, Indian plum, jujube, jujube, jujube du pays, jujubier, jujubier, jujubier indien, liane croc chien, Malay jujube, mangustine, manzana (apple), manzanas, manzanita, manzanita (little apple), masson, ma-tan, perita haitiana, petit pomme, phutsa, pomme malcadi, pomme surette, ponsigne, prune Saint Paul, putrea, tao, tao nhuc, widara, widara, yuyubi, yuyubo
Synonyms: Rhamnus jujuba L., Rhamnus mauritiana Soyer-Willemet, Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Lam., non P. Mill., Ziziphus aucheri Boiss., Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn., Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn. var. fruticosa Haines, Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn. var. stenocarpa Kuntze, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. deserticola A. Chev., Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. orthacantha (DC.) A. Chev., Ziziphus orthacantha DC, Ziziphus poiretii G. Don, Ziziphus rotundata DC.

Biostatus not specified

1. Canna indica (herb) English  français     
Canna indica is a native of tropical America and is a very popular ornamental plant throughout the tropical world. This plant has become an invasive in Pitcairn and in New Zealand, where it grows in thickets, crowding out other plants. It is spread by rhizomes making it difficult to remove.
Common Names: achira, African arrowroot, ali‘ipoe, li‘ipoe, apeellap, bakalele, bakare kare, Balisier comestible, balisier rouge, calenda, canna, canna lily, chupa flor, English shot, fa‘i masoa, fagafaga, fagamanu, Fanamanu, gasau ni ga, gwangwa, gwangwaama, Indian shot, luiuenwai, mongos halum-tano, nuaenga, oruuru, pia renga, pia-raroto‘a, poloka, poloke, Queensland arrowroot, riti, te misimisi, tiare papa‘a, toolima, tous-les-mois
Synonyms: Canna edulis Ker-Gawl., Canna achiras Gillies, Canna aurantiaca Roscoe, Canna aureovittata Lodd., Canna barbadica Bouché, Canna bidentata Bertol., Canna bifida Schult., Canna carnea Roscoe, Canna cearensis Huber, Canna chinensis Willd., Canna cinnabarina Bouché, Canna coccinea Link, Canna coccinea Mill., Canna coccinea Mill. var. bicolor Kraenzl, Canna coccinea Mill. var. sylvestris (Roscoe) Regel, Canna commutata Bouché, Canna compacta Bouché, Canna compacta Roscoe, Canna crocea Lag. ex Rchb., Canna crocea Roem. & Schult., Canna densifolia Bouché, Canna discolor Lindl., Canna edulis KerGawl., Canna ehrenbergii Bouché, Canna ellipticifolia Stokes, Canna esculenta Lodd. ex Loudon, Canna exigua Bouché, Canna flavescens Link, Canna floribunda Bouché, Canna formosa Bouché, Canna fulgida Bouche, Canna fulgida Bouché, Canna heliconiifolia Bouché  var. xalapensis (Bouché) Kraenzl, Canna heliconiifolia Bouché, Canna humilis Bouché, Canna indica L. var. speciosa (Roscoe) Hook.f., Canna indica L. var. coccinea (Mill.) Aiton, Canna indica L. var. edwarsii Regel, Canna indica L. var. limbata (Roscoe) Petersen, Canna indica L. var. maculata Hook., Canna indica L. var. nepalensis (Bouché) Hook.f., Canna indica L. var. patens Aiton, Canna indica L. var. rubra Aiton, Canna laeta Bouché, Canna lagunensis Lindl., Canna lambertii Lindl., Canna lanuginosa Roscoe, Canna leptochila Bouché, Canna limbata Roscoe, Canna lutea Mill., Canna lutea Mill. var. aurantiaca (Roscoe) Regel, Canna lutea Mill. var. genuina Kraenzl., Canna lutea Mill. var. pallida (Roscoe) Regel
2. Mimosa pudica (herb) English  français     
Mimosa pudica is native to South America, but has become a pan-tropical weed. It was introduced to many countries as an ornamental plant and is still widely available for sale. Mimosa pudica has become a pest in forest plantations, cropland, orchards and pasture. Mimosa pudica is used as a medicinal plant in many regions.
Common Names: action plant, Almindelig mimose, attaapatti, betguen sosa, chuimui, co gadrogadro, cogadrogadro, dorme, dormidera, Gemeine Mimose, honteuse, humble plant, khadiraka, Kruidje-roer-me-niet, laajaalu, laajak, laajari, la'au fefe, Lajaalu, lajja, lajjalu, lajjavanthi, lajjavathi, lajouni, lazza bati, limemeihr, live and die, marie-honte, mateloi, mayhont, mechiuaiu, memege, mimosa, morivivi, muttidare muni, namaskaar, ngandrongandro, paope ‘avare, pikika‘a, pikika‘a, pohe ha‘avare, pope ha'avare, pua hilahila, puteri malu, rakau ‘avare, rakau ‘avarevare, rakau pikika‘a, rakau pikika‘a, Raktapaadi, reesamani, samangaa, sensitiva, sensitiva, sensitive, sensitive grass, sensitive plant, shamebush, shamelady, shameplant, shameweed, shamipatra, Sinnpflanze, sleeping grass, tho kandrodandro, tho ngandrongandro, thothae jegri, ti mawi, tiare pikika‘a, tita ‘avarevare, tita ‘avarevare, tita pikika‘a, togop-togop, tottalavaadi, touch-me-not, tuitui, tuitui, tuntokasvi, vao fefe, vao fefe, vao tuitui, vergonzosa
Synonyms: Mimosa pudica L. var. tetranda (Willd.) DC., Mimosa pudica L. var. unijuga (Duch. and Walp.) Griseb, Mimosa tetranda Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd., Mimosa unijuga Duch. and Walp.
3. Nylanderia (=Paratrechina) pubens (insect)
Nylanderia (=Paratrechina) pubens, or the hairy crazy ant, is an invasive pest which infests residences and businesses with vast colonies. Thought native to either South America or parts of the Caribbean, N. pubens establishes population explosions that are extremely problematic. It is known to accumulate in electrical equipment causing short circuits, clogging switching mechanisms, and causing equipment failure. Reports have also implicated it as an agricultural pest due to high densities of plant feeding Hemiptera that are tended by the ants.
Common Names: Caribbean crazy ant, hairy crazy ant, Rasberry crazy ant
Synonyms: Paratrechina sp. nr. pubens
4. Phalaris arundinacea (grass) English     
Phalaris arundinacea is a cool-season perennial grass that grows successfully in northern latitudes and can be invasive in wet habitats. Since it is tolerant of freezing temperatures and begins to grow very early in the spring, it can outcompete many other species. Any moist, fertile habitat provides good conditions for P. arundinacea. It is considered a serious threat in wet meadows, wetlands, marshes, fens, old fields, floodplains, wet prairies, roadsides and ditchbanks. The invasion is promoted by disturbances, such as ditching of wetlands, stream channels, deforestation of swamp forests, sedimentation, overgrazing and intentional planting. P. arundinacea tolerates frequent and prolonged flooding as well as submergence. It is moderately tolerant of drought and saline or alkaline soils. P. arundinacea spreads within sites by creeping rhizomes and forms dense and impenetrable mats of vegetation. New sites are colonised by seeds. P. arundinacea tolerates a small amount of shade, such as forest edges but not closed forest interiors.
Common Names: alpiste roseau, caniço-malhado, gardener's-garters, hierba cinta, kusa-yoshi, pasto cinto, reed Canary grass, ribbon grass, Rohrglanzgras, variegated grass
Synonyms: Phalaris arundinacea f. variegata (Parn.) Druce, Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L., Phalaris japonica Steud., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Raeusch., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Raeusch. var. picta (L.) Tzvelev
5. Piper aduncum (tree, shrub) English     
Piper aduncum is a shrub or small tree that is a native of the West Indies and mainland tropical America from Mexico to northern Argentina. It is an invader of disturbed areas, where it is able to form thickets and spreads by sprouts and suckers. Piper aduncum is a problem in some Pacific Islands, where it can interfere with the harvesting of the related kava plant. Piper aduncum has a number of uses, including traditional medicines and agroforestry.
Common Names: aerta ruão, anisillo, bamboo piper, cordoncillo, cow's foot, false kava, false matico, guayayo, higuillo, higuillo de hoja menuda, jaborandi-do-mato, jointwood, man anesi wiwiri, matico, pimenta-de-macaco, Santa María negra, spiked pepper, yanggona ni Onolulu, yaqona ni Onolulu
Synonyms: Artanthe adunca (L.) Miq. 1840, Artanthe celtidifolia (Kunth) Miq. 1844, Piper aduncifolium Trel. 1929, Piper aduncum L. var. laevifolium C.DC. 1920, Piper anguillaespicum Trel. 1929, Piper celtidifolium Kunth 1816, Piper disparispicum Trel. 1929, Piper elongatum Vahl var. laevifolium (C.DC.) Trel. 1927, Piper fatoanum C.DC. 1920, Piper flavescens (C.DC.) Trel. 1929, Piper hebecarpum C.DC. 1902, Piper intersitum Trel. 1940, Piper intersitum Trel. var. porcecitense Trel. 1940, Piper martinicense C.DC. 1898, Piper martinicense C.DC. var. genuinum Stehle 1940, Piper martinicense C.DC. var. montis-pilati C.DC. 1902, Piper multinervium M.Martens & Galeotti var. amplum Trel. 1938, Piper multinervium M.Martens & Galeotti var. kantelolense Trel. 1938, Piper multinervium M.Martens & Galeotti 1843, Piper multinervium M.Martens & Galeotti var. skutchii Trel. 1938, Piper oblanceolatum Trel. var. fragilicaule Trel. 1929, Piper pseudovelutinum C.DC. var. flavescens C.DC. 1891, Piper stehleorum Trel. 1940, Piper submolle Trel. 1929, Piper subrectinerve C.DC. 1902, Steffensia adunca (L.) Kunth 1840, Steffensia celtidifolia (Kunth) Kunth 1840
6. Pistia stratiotes (aquatic plant) English  français     
Pistia stratiotes is a freshwater invasive weed that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is a free-floating plant that is capable of forming dense mats on the surfaces of lakes, ponds, rivers and other bodies of water. Pistia stratiotes is a popular garden pond plant and is often spread by the dumping of aquarium or ornamental pond plants. Fragments, or whole plants, can be spread via boats or fishing equipment from an infested area to a clean body of water.
Common Names: laitue d'eau, Lechuguilla de agua, lechuguita de agua, pistie, repollo de agua, salade d’eau, tropical duckweed, water lettuce
7. Psidium guajava (tree, shrub) English  français     
Psidium guajava is a tropical tree or shrub. It is native to central America from Mexico to northern South America. It has been introduced to most tropical and sub-tropical locations around the world for its edible fruit. In some countries the harvesting, processing and export of the fruit forms the basis of a sizeable industry. Due in part to its ability to grow on a variety of soils and across a range of climates, P. guajava has become invasive . Pastures and fields are overrun and native plants are outcompeted by this species, which has the ability to form dense thickets. This has led to its designation in many areas as a noxious weed to be controlled or eradicated. It is ranked by some authorities amongst the highest invasive categories.
Common Names: abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, farang, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, ku'ava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa momona, kuhfahfah, kuma, kuwawa, lemon guava, ma-kuai, ma-man, ngguava ni India, nguava, oi, pauwa, perala, petokal, quwawa, sapari, si da, te kuava, te kuawa, tokal, trapaek sruk, tuava, tu'ava, tu'avu, tumu tuava, tuvava, xalxocot
Synonyms: Guajava pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava var. pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava (L.) Kuntze, Psidium aromaticum, Psidium cujavillus Burm. f., Psidium guajava var. cujavillum (Burman) Krug and Urb., Psidium guajava var. guajava, Psidium guava Griseb., Psidium guayava Raddi, Psidium igatemyensis Barb. Rodr., Psidium pomiferum L., Psidium pumilum var. guadalupense, Psidium pumilum Vahl, Psidium pyriferum L.
8. Urochloa maxima (grass) English  français     
Although Urochloa maxima is the accepted name for this species, it is still widely known as Panicum maximum. Urochloa maxima is a native of tropical Africa where it occurs from sea level to 1,800m. It is used as a forage grass and its ability to tolerate a wide range of habitats make it a very productive species. Urochloa maxima has become prevalent in Samoa and Tonga and it is a problem species in Guam and Hawaii. Although it is a favourable grass in many areas it can also form dense stands and displace native species.
Common Names: buffalograss, capime guiné, fataque, green panic, Guinea grass, herbe de Guinéa, panic élevé, saafa, talapi, tinikarati, vao Kini, vao Kini, yerba de Guinea, zacate Guinea
Synonyms: Panicum gongylodes Jacq., Panicum hirsutissimum Steud., Panicum jumentorum Pers., Panicum laeve Lam., Panicum maximum Jacq., Panicum maximum var. coloratum C.T. White, Panicum maximum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) Döll, Panicum maximum var. maximum, Panicum maximum var. pubiglume K. Schum., Panicum maximum var. trichoglume Robyns, Panicum polygamum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) E. Fourn., Panicum trichocondylum Steud., Urochloa maxima var. trichoglumis (Robyns) R.D. Webster
9. West Nile virus (micro-organism) English   
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus native to Africa, Europe, and Western Asia. WNV is mostly transmitted by Culex mosquitoes in a cycle involving birds as amplifying hosts. However infected mosquitoes can also transmit the virus to other animals and humans. Most animals are “dead-end” hosts and do not contribute to virus spread or evolution in nature, because infection in non-avian species results in low virus levels that is insufficient for infection of mosquitoes.
Since its introduction into the United States in the New York City area in 1999 WNV has continued to expand its range across the United States and into Canada, Mexico and Central and South America. WNV causes severe disease humans, horses and other vertebrates. Most people infected with West Nile virus have only mild illness. However the virus can also cause severe neuroinvasive diseases, often leading to death. No specific medication exists to treat West Nile virus infection, and there is currently no vaccine available for humans. Control measures focus on reducing mosquito breeding habitat: standing water in urban areas, agricultural areas, and wetlands.
Common Names: West Nile virus

Native Species

1. Acanthophora spicifera (alga) English  français 
Acanthophora spicifera is a red algae which is found in most tropical or subtropical seas of the world. Its plastic morphology allows it to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions, and hence it can invade a diverse range of habitats. It is an alien invasive species in Hawaii. It is amongst the most successful alien algal species in this region, where it may modify native communities and compete with native algae.
Common Names: bulung tombong bideng, culot, red alga, spiny alga, spiny seaweed
Synonyms: Acanthophora antillarum Montagne ex Kützing 1865, Acanthophora intermedia Crouan, Acanthophora orientalis J. Agardh 1863, Acanthophora orientalis var. wightii (J. Agardh) Sonder 1879, Acanthophora spicifera f. orientalis (J.Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera f. wightii (J. Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera var. orientalis (J. Agardh) Zaneveld 1956, Acanthophora thierryi f. gracilis P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan 1878, Acanthophora thierryi J.V. Lamouroux 1813, Acanthophora wightii J. Agardh 1863, Chondria acanthophorara C. Agardh 1822, Fucus acanthophorus J.V. Lamouroux 1805, Fucus spicifer M. Vahl 1802
2. Anas platyrhynchos (bird) English  français   
The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most common and widely distributed dabbling duck, having a widespread global distribution throughout the northern hemisphere. This migratory species is a highly valued game bird and the source of all domestic ducks with the exception of the Muscovy. Introductions and range expansions of A. platyrhynchos for game purposes pose a threat of competition and hybridization to native waterfowl. Also, recent studies hold the mallard as a likely vector for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1).
Common Names: canard colvert, mallard
Synonyms: Anas boschas Linnaeus, 1758, Anas oustaleti Salvadori, 1894
3. Anolis cristatellus (reptile)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Anolis cristatellus or the crested anole, is native to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and is best distinguished by the high crests on the middle of the back and on the base of the tail. It has most likely been dispersed unintentionally over long distances to its introduced range. Its aggressiveness and high fecundity makes A. cristatellus a strong competitor capable of displacing native anole lizard species or forcing them to use different parts of their natural habitat.
Common Names: common Puerto Rican anole, crested anole, greater Antillean anole, Puerto Rican crested lizard, Virgin Islands crested anole
Synonyms: Anolis cozumelaeSmith, 1939, Anolis cristatellus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 , Anolis lindeni Ruthven, 1912, Ptychonotus (Istiocercus) cristatellus Fitzinger, 1843, Xiphosurus cristatellus O'Shauhnessy, 1875
4. Bacopa monnieri (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bacopa monnieri is a small sprawling herb common in fresh and brackish waters. It is found growing in freshwater wetlands, wet pastures and margins of ponds on Grand Cayman where it is listed as an invasive species.
Common Names: adha-birni, bacopa, brahmi, coastal water hyssop, gundala, herb of grace, Indian pennywort, indravalli, safed chamni
Synonyms: Bramia monnieri (L.) Drake, Gratiola monnieria L., Lysimachia monnieri L.
5. Bidens pilosa (herb) English     
Bidens pilosa is a cosmopolitan, annual herb which originates from tropical and Central America. Its hardiness, explosive reproductive potential, and ability to thrive in almost any environment have enabled it to establish throughout the world. Generally introduced unintentionally through agriculture or sometimes intentionally for ornamental purposes, B. pilosa is a major crop weed, threat to native fauna, and a physical nuisance.
Common Names: abissawa, acetillo, adzrskpi, agberi-oku, akesan, alonga, alongoï, amonoablanfè, amor seco, anansee mpaane, anasipagné, arponcito, aseduro, asta de cabra, batimadramadramatakaro, beggar's tick , bident hérissé, bident poilu, bidente pilosa, black fellows, black jack, broom stick, broom stuff, cacha de cabra, cadillo, carrapicho-deagulha, cobbler's peg, dada, dadayem, devil's needles, diaani, diandu, dinenkui, dwirantwi, dzani pipi, eyinata, fisi'uli, gonoretti, gyinantwi, hairy beggar ticks, herbe d'aiguille, herbe villebague, hierba amarilla, iréné, iuna, kamik tuarongo, kandane, kete kete, ki, ki nehe, ki pipili, kichoma mguu, kichoma nguo, kiradale, klakuo, kofetoga, kofetonga, kokosa, ko-sendagusa, kukwe kwo, kurofidie, lebason, légué, manamendigo, masquia, matua kamate, mazote, mbatikalawau, mbatimandramandra, nana, nangua, nanguadian, nehe, nguad, niani, nidul-lif, niroa, papunga chipaca, passoklo, pega-prga, perca, pétéoré, picão-preto, pilipili, piquants noirs, piripiri, piripiri, piripiri kerekere, piripiri niroa, pisau-pisau, puriket, rosilla, sanyi, sanyina, sirvulaca, sornet, sosolé, Spanish needle, tabason, tagiaani, tebasson, tombo-maga, zagaï zagagbé, zagoi ini, zebeyuzébogue, zegbei zegbagwè, zikilli wissi, Zweizhan
Synonyms: Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd., Bidens leucantha Willd. var. sundaica (Blume) Hassk., Bidens odorata, Bidens sundaica (Blume), Coreopsis leucantha L.
6. Branta canadensis (bird)
Branta canadensis, Canada geese are very adaptable. They can live in a broad range of habitats, which includes cohabitation with humans. In addition, Canada geese are highly fecund and lacking in amount of predators. Population growth of this species over the past years has caused problems in many different areas including environmental, aesthetic, and human health. Canada geese can either be migratory or resident, which enables them to occupy a large geographical range. This species has created issues not only in areas where it has been introduced, but also in its native locations due to the population explosion of the species. Although this species has created problems, it also has been of economic use as well as being, at times, an enjoyable aspect of wildlife.
Common Names: bernache du Canada, branta kanadarra, Canada goose, ganso Canadiense, ganso do Canadá, oca del Canadá
Synonyms: Anas canadensis Linnaeus, 1758, Branta canadensis interior Todd, 1938, Branta canadensis maxima Delacour, 1951, Branta canadensis moffitti Aldrich, 1946 , Branta canadensis parvipes Cassin, 1852
7. Caulerpa webbiana (alga)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
8. Cecropia schreberiana (tree, shrub)
Cecropia schreberiana is a neotropical pioneer tree native to the Antilles and northern South America. It is strongly associated with post-hurricane, or other disturbance, colonization. It has been reported introduced in Hawaii, West Africa, Malaysia, Madagascar, and French Polynesia. It is known to establish dense stands in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico and has invasive potential to reduce biodiversity and displace native species.
Common Names: grayumo hembra, llagrumo hembra, pumpwood, trumpet tree, trumpet wood, yagrumo hembra
Synonyms: Cecropia peltata auct. non L.
9. Cedrela odorata (tree, shrub) English  français     
Cedrela odorata is a native of the West Indies and from Central America to South America, including the Brazilian Atlantic and Amazon Rain Forest. It has been introduced to many Pacific Islands and South Africa. This fast growing timber tree has become invasive in some areas, especially those disturbed by cutting.
Common Names: Barbados cedar, cèdre acajou, cèdre des barbares, cedro, cedro cubano, cigar box cedar, Mexican cedar, sita hina, Spanish cedar, West Indian cedar
10. Chromolaena odorata (herb) English  français     
Chromolaena odorata is a fast-growing perennial shrub, native to South America and Central America. It has been introduced into the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific, where it is an invasive weed. Also known as Siam weed, it forms dense stands that prevent the establishment of other plant species. It is an aggressive competitor and may have allelopathic effects. It is also a nuisance weed in agricultural land and commercial plantations.
Common Names: agonoi, bitter bush, chromolaena, hagonoy, herbe du Laos, huluhagonoi, jack in the bush, kesengesil, mahsrihsrihk, masigsig, ngesngesil, otuot, rumput belalang, rumput golkar, rumput putih, Siam weed, Siam-Kraut, triffid weed, wisolmatenrehwei
Synonyms: Eupatorium affine Hook & Arn., Eupatorium brachiatum Wikstrom, Eupatorium clematitis DC., Eupatorium conyzoidesM. Vahl, Eupatorium divergens Less., Eupatorium floribundum Kunth, Eupatorium graciliflorum DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Eupatorium sabeanum Buckley, Eupatorium stigmatosum Meyen & Walp., Osmia conyzoides (Vahl) Sch.-Bip., Osmia divergens (Less.) Schultz-Bip., Osmia floribunda (Kunth) Schultz-Bip., Osmia graciliflora (DC.) Sch.-Bip., Osmia odorata (L.) Schultz-Bip.
11. Chthamalus proteus (crustacean) English     
Chthamalus proteus is a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic. It was introduced to the Pacific in 1970s and first reported in Hawaii in 1995. It is now one of the most abundant organism in the upper intertidal harbors and bays throughout the Hawaiian Islands. C. proteus are likely to be spread by ship hull fouling and larvae by ballast water.
Common Names: Atlantic barnacle, Caribbean barnacle
12. Eleutherodactylus coqui (amphibian) English     
Eleutherodactylus coqui is a relatively small tree frog native to Puerto Rico. The frogs are quite adaptable to different ecological zones and elevations. Their loud call is the main reason they are considered a pest. E. coqui's mating call is its namesake, a high-pitched, two-note "co-qui" (ko-kee') which attains nearly 100 decibels at 0.5 metres. E. coqui have a voracious appetite and there is concern in Hawai‘i, where it has been introduced, that E. coqui may put Hawai‘i’s endemic insect and spider species at risk and compete with endemic birds and other native fauna which rely on insects for food.
Common Names: Caribbean tree frog, common coqui, coqui, Puerto Rican treefrog
13. Gallus gallus (bird)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Gallus spp. include the many forms of domesticated chicken which have been bred and distributed widely across the world as an important food source. In addition to potentially spreading disease to other avian fauna, as generalist feeders, Gallus spp. may also negatively impact upon native flora and fauna.
Common Names: arg, ayam hutan, ayam hutan merah, bankivahane, bankivahoen, bankivahøne, bankivahuhn, bankivine viéta, bankivska kokoš, caboni, caboniscu, calis, cearc, cipka, coq bankiva, csirke, cyplenok, cyw, domestic fowl, eean, fellus, feral chicken, frango, Gà r?ng jabou, gaina, galiña, galinha, gall bankiva, gallina, gallo bankiva, gallo comune, galo, gjeli, hænsn, haushuhn, hen kiark, hin, höna, høne, høsn, junglefowl, k?topoul?, kesykana, kilhog, kip, koko, kokoška, kukko, kur bankivský, kur bankiwa, kura, kura divá, kurica, kurje, kurjetko, kurjo, kurka, kuryca, kyckling, kylling, malkureome, manok-ihalas, moa, oilasko, oilo, pile, pilence kokoška, piliç, pišcanec, poleç, pollastre, pollo, poul, poulet, pragozdna kokoš, puddone, puddu, pui, pulschain, puna-džunglikana, punaviidakkokana, red junglefowl, Röd djungelhöna, sekishokuyakei, slepice, tavuk, tigiega, vista, vuonccis, wild chicken, wild junglefowl, yar
Synonyms: Gallus domesticus
14. Heliotropium curassavicum (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Heliotropium curassavicum occurs in dense monospecific stands and colonizes disturbed habitats. A stand comprises of two levels of populations: one of individuals that have developed from seed and a second one, vegetatively developed from shoots and buds from individuals. The reproductive ability of H. curassavicum to shift from vegetative to sexual reproduction and vice versa (correlated to temperature, moisture content of the soil and level of disturbance and openness of the disturbed habitat) may be important factor in determining its ability to colonize disturbed habitats.
Common Names: eyebright, quail plant, salt heliotrope, seashore heliotrope, seaside heliotrope
15. Hypnea musciformis (alga) English     
Hypnea musciformis (basionym Fucus musciformis) is classified as a red algae and is distributed throughout most of the world. It was recently introduced to Hawaii and has quickly become invasive and a nuisance.
Common Names: hypnea
Synonyms: Fucus musciformis Wulfen 1791, Hypnea rissoana J. Agardh, nom. illeg. 1842, Sphaerococcus divaricatus C. Agardh, nom. illeg. 1827, Sphaerococcus musciformis (Wulfen) C. Agardh 1822
16. Juncus tenuis (rush) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Juncus tenuis is a rush introduced to countries worldwide. It may affect native species through competition with other plants and the alteration of valuable native habitats. For example, in Saint Helena J. tenuis reduces the suitability of nesting sites for the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' endemic wirebird Charadrius sanctaehelenae.
Common Names: bull grass, field rush, jonc grêle, path rush, poverty rush, slender rush, slender yard rush, soft rush, wiregrass
Synonyms: Juncus macer S.F. Gray, Juncus tenuis var. anthelatus Wieg., Juncus tenuis var. multicornis E. Mey., Juncus tenuis var. williamsii Fern.
17. Macfadyena unguis-cati (vine, climber) English  français     
Macfadyena unguis-cati is a perennial, climbing liana found primarily in tropical forests. It is native to the Central and South Americas and the West Indies, but currently is represented on every continent except Antartica. It is an invasive species in much of its range and is said to be “one of the most destructive exotic vines”. Macfadyena unguis-cati effects all layers of infected forest ecosystems by rapidly spreading both vertically and horizontally across everything with which it makes contact, overwhelming both the understorey plants and the canopy trees. Macfadyena unguis-cati species becomes established quickly and is difficult to eliminate due to its rapid growth, extensive root system, and prolific seed production. Methods of manual, chemical, and biological control for Macfadyena unguis-cati are available.
Common Names: bejuco de gato, cat-claw creeper, catclaw-trumpet, catclawvine, cat's claw climber, cat's claw creeper, cat's claw vine, cat's-claw, claw vine, funnel-creeper, griffe à chatte, katteklouranker, liane patate, macfadyena, patte d'oiseau, paz y justicia, riffe chatte, uña de gato, yellow trumpet vine
Synonyms: Batocydia unguis-cati (L.) Mart. ex Britt., Bignonia tweedieana Lindl., Bignonia unguis-cati L., Doxantha unguis-cati (L.) Miers
18. Nymphaea odorata (aquatic plant) English     
Nymphaea odorata is an aquatic plant with floating leaves that can thrive in a variety of aquatic habitats and tolerates variable environmental conditions. It forms dense floating mats of vegetation that prevent light from penetrating through the surface. Distributions of phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic insects and fish populations are altered. Nymphaea odorata can also restrict waterfront access and eliminate swimming opportunities.
Common Names: American waterlily, American white waterlily, fragrant waterlily, white waterlily
Synonyms: Castalia lekophylla Small, Castalia minor (Sims) Nyar, Castalia minor (Sims) DC. ex Small , Castalia odorata (Ait.) Wood, Castalia odorata (Aiton) Woodv. & Wood forma rosea (Pursh) Britton , Castalia odorata (Aiton) Woodv. & Wood var. gigantea (Tricker) Fernald , Castalia odorata (Aiton) Woodv. & Wood var. minor (Sims) G.Lawson , Castalia pudica Salisb. , Castalia reniformis (Walter) Trel. ex Branner & Coville , Castalia reniformis DC., Cyamus reniformis (Walter) Pursh , Leuconymphaea odorata (Aiton) MacMill. , Leuconymphaea parkeriana (Lehm.) Kuntze , Leuconymphaea reniformis (Walter) Kuntze , Nelumbo reniformis (Walter) Willd. , Nuphar lekophylla (Small) Cory , Nymphaea alba L. var. canadensis Graham , Nymphaea lekophylla (Small) Cory , Nymphaea maculata Raf. , Nymphaea minor (Sims) DC., Nymphaea odorata Aiton forma rubra (Guillon) Conard , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. chlorhiza Raf. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. glabra Casp. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. parviflora Raf. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. rubella Raf. , Nymphaea odorata Aiton var. rubra Guillon , Nymphaea odorata var. gigantea Tricker, Nymphaea odorata var. godfreyi Ward, Nymphaea odorata var. minor Sims, Nymphaea odorata var. rosea Pursh, Nymphaea odorata var. stenopetala Fern., Nymphaea odorata var. villosa Caspary, Nymphaea parkeriana Lehm. , Nymphaea reniformis Walter , Nymphaea rosea Raf. , Nymphaea spiralis Raf.
19. Oxalis latifolia (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Oxalis latifolia is a perennial herb native to North, Central and South America. It mainly reproduces vegetatively, via bulbils and bulbs, and commonly grows in gardens, cultivated areas, orchards, crop fields and nurseries. O. latifolia is now found worldwide and is known to be invasive in the following areas: Australia, Galapagos Islands, Indonesia, Kermadec Islands, Mauritius, New Caledonia, New Zealand and Papua New Guinea. Despite its native status, it is also considered to be a weed in Guadeloupe, Mexico, Puerto Rico and the United States.
Common Names: acedera, acederilla, azedinha-de-folhas-roxas, broadleaf woodsorrel , broad-leaf wood-sorrel, fishtail oxalis, garden pink-sorrel, oseille, pink shamrock, purple-flowered oxalis, shamrock, trebol, trebol de huerta, trebol de jardin, trebol falso, trèfle
Synonyms: Ionoxalis martiana (Zucc.) Small, Ionoxalis vallicola Rose , Oxalis martiana Zucc., Oxalis vallicola (Rose) R. Knuth
20. Phragmites australis (grass) English     
Phragmites australis grows on level ground in tidal and non-tidal marshes, lakes, swales and backwater areas of rivers and streams. It is found on sites that are seasonally flooded with not more than 50cm of water. It grows on most soil textures from fine clay to sandy loams and is somewhat tolerant of saline or alkaline conditions. Phragmites australis is especially common along railroad tracks, roadside ditches and piles of dredge spoil, wherever slight depressions will hold water. Throughout most of its range, it typically forms closed mono-dominant stands in both disturbed and pristine areas. It is capable of vigorous vegetative reproduction and its seeds, which are normally dispersed by wind, may be transported by birds that nest among the reeds. The seeds are also dispersed by water. Newly opened sites may be colonised by seed or by rhizome fragments carried to the area in soils and on machinery or naturally in floodwaters. Invasion and continued spread is aided by disturbances or stresses such as pollution, alteration of the natural hydrologic regime, dredging and increased sedimentation. In coastal marshes, spread of Phragmites australis is also facilitated by natural disturbance caused by tidal movements of dead vegetation.
Common Names: cane, caniço, carrizo común, common reed, ditch reed, giant reed, giant reedgrass, phragmites, reed grass, roseau, roseau cane, roseau commun, Schilf, schilfrohr, yellow cane
Synonyms: Arundo aggerum Kittel, Arundo altissima Benth., Arundo australis Cav., Arundo barbata Burchell, Arundo graeca Link, Arundo isiaca Delile, Arundo karka Retz., Arundo maxima Forssk., Arundo palustris Salisb., Arundo phragmites L., Arundo phragmites L. var. humilis (DeNot.) Asch. & Graebn., Arundo phragmites L. var. isiaca Griseb., Arundo vallatoria Gray, Arundo vulgaris Lam., Calamagrostis nigricans Merat, Cynodon phragmites (L.) Raspail, Czernya arundinacea C.Presl, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. subsp. altissimus (Benth.) Clayton, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) C.F.Reed, Phragmites berlandieri E.Fourn., Phragmites communis Trin., Phragmites communis Trin. forma flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. forma isiacus (Griseb.) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. forma nigricans (Merat) Alef., Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) A.Löve & D.Löve, Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. isiacus (Griseb.) Oppenh. & Evenari, Phragmites communis Trin. subsp. maximus (Forssk.) Clayton, Phragmites communis Trin. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) Fernald, Phragmites communis Trin. var. flavescens Custor ex Gaudin, Phragmites communis Trin. var. humilis (DeNot.) Parl., Phragmites communis Trin. var. isiacus (Griseb.) Coss., Phragmites communis Trin. var. vulgaris Boenn., Phragmites flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Hegetschw. & Heer, Phragmites humilis DeNot., Phragmites isiacus Kunth, Phragmites karka (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud., Phragmites maximus (Forssk.) Chiov., Phragmites maximus (Forssk.) Chiov. var. berlandieri (E.Fourn.) Moldenke, Phragmites nakaiana Honda, Phragmites phragmites (L.) H.Karst., Phragmites vulgaris Crep., Phragmites vulgaris Crep. subsp. maximus (Forssk.) Chiov., Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. flavescens (Custor ex Gaudin) Brand, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. humilis (DeNot.) Brand, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. isiacus (Griseb.) T.Durand & Schinz, Phragmites vulgaris Crep. var. typicus Beck, Phragmites vulnerans Asch., Reimaria diffusa Spreng., Trichoon karka (Retz.) Roth, Trichoon phragmites (L.) Rendle, Xenochloa arundinacea Lichtenstein ex Roem. & Schult.
21. Poecilia reticulata (fish) English  français   
Poecilia reticulata is a small benthopelagic fish native to Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and the Caribbean Islands. It is a popular aquarium species and is also commonly used in genetics research. In the past Poecilia reticulata was widely introduced for mosquito control but there have been rare to non-existing measurable effects on mosquito populations. It can occupy a wide range of aquatic habitats and is a threat to native cyprinids and killifishes. It is a carrier of exotic parasites and is believed to play a role in the decline of several threatened and endangered species.
Common Names: guppie , guppii , guppy, hung dzoek ue, ikan seribu, lareza tripikaloshe, lebistes, lepistes, Mexicano, miljoenvis, miljoonakala, million fish, millionenfisch, millions, poisson million, queue de voile, rainbow fish, sarapintado, Sardinita, Wilder Riesenguppy, zivorodka duhová
Synonyms: Acanthophacelus guppii (Günther, 1866), Acanthophacelus reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Girardinus guppii Günther, 1866, Girardinus reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Haridichthys reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Heterandria guppyi (Günther, 1866), Lebistes poecilioides De Filippi, 1861, Lebistes poeciloides De Filippi, 1861, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Poecilia reticulatus Peters, 1859, Poecilioides reticulatus (Peters, 1859)
22. Salvinia minima (aquatic plant, fern) English     
Salvinia minima is a floating aquatic fern that invades a variety of aquatic habitats with salinity levels as high as 4-7ppt. Salvinia minima experiences exponential growth that allows it to completely cover waterways impeding traffic, blocking sunlight, decreasing oxygen levels and degrading habitat for native species of wildlife.
Common Names: Common Salvinia , floating fern, water spangles
Synonyms: Salvinia rotundifolia
23. Solenopsis geminata (insect) English  français 
Solenopsis geminata has spread almost world-wide by human commerce. It usually invades open areas but can easily colonise human infrastructure and agricultural systems, such as coffee and sugarcane plantations in hot climates. Its greatest known threats are its painful sting and the economic losses due to crop damage caused by its tending of honeydew-producing insects. Solenopsis geminata is known to reduce populations of native butterfly eggs and larvae. It has the potential to displace native ant populations, but is susceptible to competitive pressures from some other ant species.
Common Names: aka-kami-ari, Feuerameise, fire ant, ginger ant, tropical fire ant
Synonyms: Atta clypeata (Smith), Atta coloradensis (Buckley), Atta lincecumii (Buckley), Atta rufa (Jerdon), Crematogaster laboriosus (Smith), Diplorhoptrum drewseni (Mayr), Myrmica (Monomorium) saxicola (Buckley), Myrmica glaber (Smith), Myrmica laevissima (Smith), Myrmica mellea (Smith), Myrmica paleata (Lund), Myrmica polita (Smith), Solenopsis cephalotes (Smith), Solenopsis edouardi var. bahiaensis (Santschi), Solenopsis edouardi var. perversa (Santschi), Solenopsis eduardi (Forel), Solenopsis geminata subsp. Medusa (Mann), Solenopsis geminata var. galapageia (Wheeler), Solenopsis geminata var. innota (Santschi), Solenopsis geminata var. nigra (Forel), Solenopsis germinata var. diabola (Wheeler), Solenopsis mandibularis (Westwood)
24. Spermacoce verticillata (shrub) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Spermacoce verticillata is described as a "plant threat to Pacific ecosystems".
Common Names: borrerie verticillée, Botón blanco, cardio de frade, éribun, poaia, shrubby false buttonweed , shrubby false buttonwood, vassourinha
Synonyms: Bigelovia verticillata (Linnaeus) Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 1: 404. 1824., Borreria podocephala de Candolle, Prodr. 4: 452. 1830., Borreria podocephala de Candolle, var. pumila Chapman, Fl. South U.S. 175. 1860., Borreria stricta DC., Borreria verticillata (L.) G. Mey., Borreria verticillata (Linnaeus) G. Meyer, Prim. Fl. Esseq. 83. 1818., Spermacoce podocephala (de Candolle) A. Gray, Syn. Fl. N. Amer. 1(2): 34. 1884.
25. Tabebuia heterophylla (tree) English  français     
Tabebuia heterophylla is a small to medium sized deciduous tree attaining a height of 18m. In its native range it is widespread in abandoned pastures and secondary forests. It has become a problem in Pacific regions and is particularly common in dry, coastal woodlands and in secondary forests. It grows on any soil type and will adapt to poor or degraded soils. T. heterophylla regenerates and forms pure monotypic stands. It is an extremely fast growing species and can easily outcompete native and other exotic trees. It bears leaves and branches almost to the base and casts a deep shade under which virtualy no other species can grow. Its thick litter layer may also prevent the growth of native seedlings.
Common Names: calice du paperpape, pink manjack , pink tecoma, pink trumpet-tree , roble , roble blanco , white cedar, white-cedar , whitewood
Synonyms: Bignonia pallida Lindl. , Tabebuia heterophylla ssp. pallida auct. non (Miers) Stehlé , Tabebuia lucida Britt. , Tabebuia pallida sensu Liogier & Martorell , Tabebuia pentaphylla (DC.) Hemsl. , Tabebuia triphylla DC.
26. Trididemnum solidum (tunicate)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The colonial ascidia Trididemnum solidum is present throughout the West Indies to Florida, the Bahamas to Venezuela. T. solidum grow as mat like sheets that can grow over coral, sponges and macroalgae. It is widespread in the Netherland Antilles. A nine fold increase over a 15 year period was recorded along the 84 km of fringing reef in Curacao. Here it forms large mats actively outcompeting, overgrowing and killing live coral. T. solidum is a bacterial suspension feeder and bacterial increases in the environment have been implicated in its rapid increase in the Caribbean. The increased eutrophication has been linked to human activity and urban development.
Common Names: ascidie blanche encroûtante, Mattenseescheide, overgrowing mat tunicate, sinascidia entapizante
Synonyms: Didemnum solidum
27. Wasmannia auropunctata (insect) English  français     
Wasmannia auropunctata (the little fire ant) is blamed for reducing species diversity, reducing overall abundance of flying and tree-dwelling insects, and eliminating arachnid populations. It is also known for its painful stings. On the Galapagos, it eats the hatchlings of tortoises and attacks the eyes and cloacae of the adult tortoises. It is considered to be perhaps the greatest ant species threat in the Pacific region.
Common Names: albayalde, cocoa tree-ant, formi électrique, formiga pixixica, fourmi électrique, fourmi rouge, hormiga colorada, hormiga roja, hormiguilla, little fire ant, little introduced fire ant, little red fire ant, pequena hormiga de fuego, petit fourmi de feu, Rote Feuerameise, sangunagenta, satanica, small fire ant, tsangonawenda, West Indian stinging ant
Synonyms: Hercynia panamana (Enzmann 1947), Ochetomyrmex auropunctata, Ochetomyrmex auropunctatum (Forel 1886), Ochetomyrmex auropunctatus, Tetramorium auropunctatum (Roger 1863), Wasmannia glabra (Santschi 1931), Xiphomyrmex atomum (Santschi 1914)

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland