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129 invasive species found

Alien Species

1. Abelmoschus moschatus (herb, shrub) English  français   
Abelmoschus moschatus is a weedy, herbaceous plant that is native to India, parts of China and tropical Asia, and some Pacific islands. It is cultivated in India for the musk-like oil contained in its seeds, which is valued for perfume manufacture. It is considered a weed in open and disturbed areas. It has been found to be a suitable host plant for the insect Dysdercus cingulatus, which is a serious pest of cotton crops.
Common Names: `aute toga, abelmosch musqué, algalia, almizcle vegetal, almizcle vegetal, ambretta semi, ambrette, aukiki, bisameibisch, fau ingo, fau tagaloa, fautia, fou ingo, gombo musqué, gombo musqué, gongul, kamang, kamwayang, karereon, metei, musk, musk mallow, o'e'e, okeoke, okra, vakeke, wakeke, wakewake, wakiwaki
Synonyms: Hibiscus abelmoschus L.
2. Abrus precatorius (shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Abrus precatorius a legume, is a nitrogen fixer and where present in large stands can alter soil nutrient status. It is also suspected to have allelopathic effects that could alter native species recruitment.
Common Names: alcaçuz-da-américa, assacumirim, coral bead plant, crab's eye, fuefue laulili‘i, guen léglise, Indian-licorice, jequerity, jequiriti, jequirity-bean, kaikes en iak, kirikiri rangi, kolales halomtano, koviriviri mata-tako, lele, lere ndamu, licorice-vine, love-bean, lucky-bean, mata‘ila, matamoe, matamoho, matamoso, minnie-minnies, moho, ndiri ndamu, nggiri ndamu, ojos de cangrejo, olho-de-cabra-miúdo, olho-de-pombo, peronías, pipi tio, pitipiti‘o, pitipitio, pois rouge, pomea mataila, prayer-beads, precatory, precatory bean, pukiawe, pukiawe lei, pukiawe lenalena, pupukiawe, red-beadvine, rosary pea, rosarypea, tento, tento muido, uiui, weather plant, weather vine
Synonyms: Abrus abrus (L.) W. Wight, Glycine abrus Linnaeus
3. Acacia confusa (tree, shrub) English     
Acacia confusa, a native of northern Philippines, has been introduced to many places throughout Asia and the Pacific. Being well suited to warm moist environments it has become invasive in many of the places of introduction, including Hawai‘i and the Northern Mariana Islands and shows potential to become invasive in others, including Micronesia and Palau. It would probably be wise not to introduce this species to islands where it is not already present.
Common Names: acacia petit feuille, boiffuring, boiffuring, formosa acacia, formosa koa, ianangi, ianángi, mimosa, pilampwoia, shoshigi, shoshigi, small Philippine acacia, soschghi, sosigi, sosigi, sosugi, yanangi
Synonyms: Acacia richii auct. Non A. Gray, Racosperma confusum (Merr.) Pedley
4. Acacia farnesiana (tree, shrub) English  français     
Probably a native of tropical America, Acacia farnesiana was introduced to many tropical countries for its bark, gum, seed and wood. It is often planted as an ornamental or to check erosion, and is also used in the perfume industry because of its scented flowers. This thorny, deciduous shrub grows to 4m in height forming impenetrable thickets or sometimes a more open cover and prefers dry habitats between sea level and 1000 m. In Australia it occurs along watercourses on rangeland and farmland limiting access to water. It has also become an invasive species in Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
Common Names: acacia jaune, aroma, aromo, ban baburi, carambuco, cashia, cassie, debena, Ellington curse, espino blanco, espino ruco, esponja, esponjeira, huisache, huisache dulce, kandaroma, klu, klu bush, kolu, mimosa, mimosa bush, needle bush, oki, opoponax, popinac, popinac, rayo, Small's acacia, sweet acacia, tekaibakoa, titima, vaivai vakavotona, Westindische akazie
Synonyms: Acacia acicularis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Acacia densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Cory, Acacia edulis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.  var. pedunculata (Willd.) Kuntze, Acacia ferox M. Martens & Galeotti, Acacia indica (Pers.) Desv., Acacia lenticellata F.Muell., Acacia minuta (M.Jones) Beauchamp subsp. densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Beauchamp, Acacia pedunculata Willd., Acacia smallii Isely, Farnesia odora Gasp., Mimosa acicularis Poir., Mimosa farnesiana L., Mimosa acicularis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir., Mimosa edulis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir., Mimosa farnesiana L., Mimosa indica Pers., Mimosa pedunculata (Willd.) Poir., Vachellia densiflora Alex. ex Small, Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn., Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. var. typica Speg., Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. forma typica Speg.
5. Achatina fulica (mollusc) English  français     
Achatina fulica feeds on a wide variety of crop plants and may present a threat to local flora. Populations of this pest often crash over time (20 to 60 years) and this should not be percieved as effectiveness of the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea) as a biocontrol agent. Natural chemicals from the fruit of Thevetia peruviana have activity against A. fulica and the cuttings of the alligator apple (Annona glabra) can be used as repellent hedges against A. fulica.
Common Names: achatine, Afrikanische Riesenschnecke, escargot géant d'Afrique, giant African land snail, giant African snail
Synonyms: Lissachatina fulica (Bowdich 1822)
6. Adenanthera pavonina (tree) English  français     
A medium-sized tree up to 15m high, Adenanthera pavonina is native to India and Malaysia. It has been planted extensively throughout the tropics as an ornamental and has become naturalised in many countries. It invades intact, undisturbed hardwood forests as well as disturbed sites and can quickly form large colonies.
Common Names: arbre collier, bead tree, bois de condori, bois noir de Bourbon, bois noir rouge, carolina, colales, coral bean tree, culalis, false wili wili, falso-sândalo, kaikes, kolales, kulales, kulalis, la'aulopa, lera, lerendamu, lopa, metekam, metkam, metkem, mwetkwem, olho-de-pavão, paina, peacock flower-fence, peacock tree, pitipitio, pomea, red bead tree, red sandalwood tree, segavé, telengtúngd, telentundalel, vaivai, vaivainivavalangi
Synonyms: Adenanthera gersenii Scheffer, Adenanthera polita Miq
7. Agave sisalana (succulent)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Agave sisalana is a member of the Agavaceae family and is native to Mexico. It is known primarily for its fibre production, and is grown commercially worldwide for the fibre industry. It is a large and fast-propagating plant, which can cause problems in areas where it is invasive as it can exclude and outcompete native plant species. A. sisalana is invasive in Australia, Madagascar, South Africa, the United States and on multiple islands in the Pacific.
Common Names: agave, century plant, dali, garingboom, hemp-plant, Maguey de Sisal, malina, mescal, natali, ndali, sisal, sisal agave, sisal hemp, te rob', te robu
Synonyms: Agave rigida var. sisalana (Perrine) Engelm.
8. Ageratum conyzoides (herb) English     
Ageratum conyzoides is a weed distributed in many tropical and subtropical countries and is often difficult to control. It is an established weed in the Himalayas where several invasion research studies have been conducted in the Shiwalik Ranges. It has been found that Ageratum significantly reduces total biomass and species number, that is, biodiversity. It also changes vegetation community structure and modifies the soil regieme.
Common Names: a‘amia, agerato, agerato, ageratum, ageratum, asipukpuk, asipukpuk, azier françois, bahu-bahu, bahug-bahug, bandotan, barba de chivo, baume, baume blanc, baume mauve, belohanua, berokan, billy goat weed, blue Ageratum, blue flowered groundsel, blue top, boko-boko-wiwiri, botebotekoro, botekoro, bouton, bouton blan, bouton ble, budbuda, budbuda, bulak-manok, bulak-manok, camará apeba, camará iapó, camará japê, camará-opela, catinga de barrão, catinga de bode, catinga de bode, celestina, chuva, co cut-heo, efoe momoe, erva de santa maria, erva de santa-lúcia, erva de são joão, erva de são josé, goat weed, gobu, gundhaubon, herbe a femme, herbe a pisser, herbe a sorcier, herbe de bouc, hierba del perro, hierba del zorro, hierbe de chivo, huarmi, huarmi, hwo-hsiang-ji, imiesu, jambo-serila, kakalding, kakalding, kakkoazami, kamabuag, kamabuag, kolokong-kabanyo, kolokong-kabayo, kulong-kogong-babae, lau taioti, Leberbalsam, macela de são joão, macela francesa, mahakaua, maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula, maire vaihi, maria preta, mata mothemothe, matruço, mbotembotekoro, mentrasto, mother brinkly, mumutung, Neela Phulnu, ngmak, olloowaisiip, oochunt, pain doux, petit pain doux, Phulkuri, pica roxo, picão roxo, ruput tahi-ayam, sekose sea, sogovanua, songovanua, tae‘oti, tamasondji bata, te‘ehosi, tekote tea, tropic ageratum, tropical whiteweed, white weed, winter weed, ya-sap-raeng, ya-tabsua, zerisson blanc
Synonyms: Ageratum album Willd. Ex Steud. 1821, Ageratum caeruleum Hort. ex. Poir., Ageratum coeruleum Desf., Ageratum conyzoides var hirtum (Lam.) DC. 1836, Ageratum cordifolium Roxb. 1832, Ageratum hirsutum Lam. 1810, Ageratum hirtum Lam. 1783, Ageratum humile Salisb. 1796, Ageratum latifolium Car., Ageratum maritimum H.B.K., Ageratum mexicanum Sims., Ageratum nanum Hort. Ex Sch. Bip. 1858, Ageratum obtusifolium Lam., Ageratum odoratum Vilm. 1866, Ageratum suffruiticosum Regal 1854, Cacalia mentrasto Vell.
9. Alpinia zerumbet (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Alpinia zerumbet is a lush, coarse-textured, clumping evergreen planted for its heavy rosette of arching stems and green leaves arising from a large loose center. A. zerumbet forms dense thickets in suitable habitats, for example on stream banks and shady slopes. It produces as many as a 1000 seeds per square foot. Seeds have fleshy appendages and are bird dispersed; they may be carried by water when it grows near streams. It also reproduces by rhizome division.
Common Names: kaopu‘i, kaopui, Kopi ‘enua, light galangal, pink porcelain-lily, shell flower, shell-ginger, teuila, teuila
Synonyms: Alpinia nutans (L.) Roscoe, Alpinia speciosa (Wendl.) K. Schum., Catimbium speciosum (Wendl.) Holttum, Languas speciosa (Wendl.) Merr., Zerumbet speciosum J. C. Wendl.
10. Anoplolepis gracilipes (insect) English  français     
Anoplolepis gracilipes (so called because of their frenetic movements) have invaded native ecosystems and caused environmental damage from Hawaii to the Seychelles and Zanzibar. On Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean, they have formed multi-queen supercolonies. They are also decimating the red land crab (Gecarcoidea natalis) populations. Crazy ants also prey on, or interfere in, the reproduction of a variety of arthropods, reptiles, birds and mammals on the forest floor and canopy. Their ability to farm and protect sap-sucking scale insects, which damage the forest canopy on Christmas Island, is one of their more surprising attributes. Although less than 5% of the rainforest on Christmas Island has been invaded so far, scientists are concerned that endangered birds such as the Abbott’s booby (Sula abbotti), which nests nowhere else in the world, could eventually be driven to extinction through habitat alteration and direct attack by the ants.
Common Names: ashinaga-ki-ari, crazy ant, Gelbe Spinnerameise, gramang ant, long-legged ant, Maldive ant, yellow crazy ant
Synonyms: Anoplolepis longipes Emery 1925, Formica longipes Jerdon 1851, Plagiolepis longipes Emery 1887
11. Antigonon leptopus (vine, climber) English  français     
Antigonon leptopus is a smothering vine that invades disturbed areas and forest edges. It produces many seeds, which are spread by water currents and animals that consume the fruit. It has become invasive in some Pacific Islands, and is naturalised in many other parts of the Pacific.
Common Names: antigone, antigone à pied grêle, chain-of-love, confederate vine, coral bells, coral vine, corallita, dilngau, flores ka'dena, hearts on a chain, kadena de amor, liane antigone, love-vine, Mexican creeper, mountain rose, queen's jewels, rohsapoak, Sandwich Island creeper
Synonyms: Antigonon cinerascens M.Martens & Galeotti, Antigonon cordatum M.Martens & Galeotti, Antigonon platypus Hook. & Arn., Corculum leptopum (Hook. & Arn.) Stuntz, Corculum leptopus (Hook. & Arn.) Stuntz
12. Arundo donax (grass) English  français     
Giant reed (Arundo donax) invades riparian areas, altering the hydrology, nutrient cycling and fire regime and displacing native species. Long ‘lag times’ between introduction and development of negative impacts are documented in some invasive species; the development of giant reed as a serious problem in California may have taken more than 400 years. The opportunity to control this weed before it becomes a problem should be taken as once established it becomes difficult to control.
Common Names: arundo grass, bamboo reed, caña, caña común, caña de Castilla, caña de la reina, caña de techar, cana- do-reino, cana-do-brejo, cane, canne de Provence, canno-do-reino, capim-plumoso, carrizo, carrizo grande, cow cane, donax cane, E-grass, fiso palagi, giant cane, giant reed, grand roseau, kaho, kaho folalahi, la canne de Provence, narkhat, ngasau ni vavalangi, Pfahlrohr, reed grass, river cane, Spaanse-riet, Spanisches Rohr, Spanish cane, Spanish reed, wild cane
Synonyms: Aira bengalensis (Retz.) J.F. Gmel., Amphidonax bengalensis (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Amphidonax bengalensis Roxb. ex Nees., Amphidonax bifaria (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Arundo aegyptiaca hort. ex Vilm., Arundo bambusifolia Hook. f., Arundo bengalensis Retz., Arundo bifaria Retz., Arundo coleotricha (Hack.) Honda., Arundo donax var. angustifolia Döll., Arundo donax var. coleotricha Hack., Arundo donax var. lanceolata Döll., Arundo donax var. procerior Kunth., Arundo donax var. versicolor (P. Mill.) Stokes, Arundo glauca Bubani., Arundo latifolia Salisb., Arundo longifolia Salisb. ex Hook. f., Arundo sativa Lam., Arundo scriptoria L., Arundo versicolor P. Mill., Cynodon donax (L.) Raspail., Donax arundinaceus P. Beauv., Donax bengalensis (Retz.) P. Beauv., Donax bifarius (Retz.) Trin. ex Spreng., Donax donax (L.) Asch. and Graebn.
13. Asparagus densiflorus (herb) English  français     
Asparagus densiflorus, commonly known as asparagus fern, is not a true fern. It reproduces by seed. A. densiflorus is known to invade a variety of habitats, and its impacts include smothering of forest understory and ground cover and preventing the regeneration of canopy species.
Common Names: asparagus fern, asperge de Sprenger, bushy asparagus, regal fern, smilax, sprengeri fern, Sprenger's asparagus fern
Synonyms: Asparagopsis densiflorus Kunth, Asparagus aethiopicus L. cv. sprengeri, Asparagus sprengeri Regel, Protasparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Oberm.
14. Asparagus officinalis (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is described as a persistant weed of cultivated land in its introduced range. It is found growing in waste places and along roadsides. It is classified as invasive in New Zealand and the Galapagos islands.
Common Names: asparagus, asperge, espargo, espárrago, esparraguera, garden asparagus, oranda-kiji-kakushi, Spargel
Synonyms: Asparagus caspius Hohen., Asparagus longifolius Fisch. ex Steud., Asparagus officinalis subsp. officinalis , Asparagus officinalis var. caspius (Hohen.) Asch. & Graebn., Asparagus polyphyllus Steven ex Ledeb.
15. Aulacaspis yasumatsui (insect)
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)) or the Asian cycad scale, is highly damaging to cycads, which include horticulturally important and endangered plant species. The cycad scale is an unusually difficult scale insect to control, forming dense populations and spreading rapidly, with few natural enemies in most localities where it has been introduced. The scale has the potential to spread to new areas via plant movement in the horticulture trade.
Common Names: Asian cycad scale, cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS), cycad scale, sago palm scale, snow scale, Thai scale
16. Bambusa vulgaris (grass, tree) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Bambusa vulgaris is the most widespread member of its genus, and has long been cultivated across the tropics and subtropics. It prefers lowland humid habitats, but tolerates a wide range of climatic conditions and soil types. It commonly naturalises, forming monospecific stands along river banks, roadsides and open ground.
Common Names: agarabà, aur beting, aur gading, bacáu, bakal, balé, bambou, bambu, bambu ampel, bambu blenduk, bambú común, bambu kuning, bambu kuning, bambú patamba, bambúa, bambu-verde, bambu-vulgar, bannada bidiru, baran, basini bans, basinibans, bolinao, bolinau, boo, buloh aur, buloh gading, buloh kuning, buloh minyak, buloh minyak has, buloh pau, buluh aur, buluh minyak, buluh pau, burirau, butong, caña brava, caña India, cañambú, cañaza, chan kham, common bamboo, cupamu, dai-san-chiku, davike, domar, feathery bamboo, gemeiner bambus, golden bamboo, grand bambou, haladi bidiru, haur, i ngol, igbon ikirai, itikna, kabaloan, kaho palangi, kaho papalangi, kalaka, kanale, kasul, kauayan, kauayan-china, kauayan-kiling, kawayan, kawayan-china, kawayang-kiting, kawayang-tsina, kawayan-kiling, ken, kenye, kewe, kiling, kinshi-chiku, ko-tatami, labong, lefyog, limas, linetso, lulasi, lunas, mai-luang, mambu kakar, mambu yang, maribal, marobal, mfele, mlasi, musyombe, ngmalu, nsungwi, otate, patong, patung, phai cheen, phai chin, phai lueang, phai-bongkham, phai-luang, phai-ngachang, pilanda, pito, ponmungil, rai yai, ree sai, ri sai, russèi kaèw, s'a:ng kh'am', saang kham, sacaú, sang kham, seemamula, semi, sen, seni, senye, sii, simine, sinambang, soft bamboo, striped bamboo, sunderkania bansa, taiu-anak, tamalang, tamalang silau, tambalang, tamelang, taring, tatami, tatami-na, teuanak, tewanak, tiling, vyo, wanet, wok, wusle, yellow bamboo
Synonyms: Arundarbor arundinacea (Retz.) Kuntze, Arundarbor bambos Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pl. 2, 1891, Arundarbor blancoi (Steudel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera (Miquel) Kuntze 1891, Arundarbor fera Rumphius 1743, Arundarbor monogyna (Blanco) Kuntze 1891, Arundo bamboa Miller 1768, Arundo bambos L., Arundo fera Oken 1841, Bambos arundinacea Retz., Bambusa arundinacea var. picta Moon 1824, Bambusa auriculata Kurz ex Cat. Hort. Bot. Calc., 1864, Bambusa balcooa Roxburgh 1832, Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss, Bambusa blancoi Steudel 1854, Bambusa capensis Rupr., Bambusa fera Miquel 1857, Bambusa humilis Reichenbach ex. Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa madagascariensis hort. ex A. & C. Rivière 1878, Bambusa mitis Blanco 1837, Bambusa monogyna Blanco 1837, Bambusa sieberi Grisebach 1864, Bambusa striata Lodd., Bambusa surinamensis Ruprecht 1839, Bambusa thouarsii Kunth 1822, Bambusa tuldoides Munro, Bambusa vasaria Herbier Hamilton, Dendrocalamus balcooa (Roxburgh) Voigt 1845, Leleba vulgaris (Schrader ex Wendland) Nakai 1933, Nastus thouarsii (Kunth) Raspail 1825, Nastus viviparus Raspail 1825, Phyllostachys striata (Lodd. ex Lindl.) Nakai
17. Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) (micro-organism) English  français     
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a deadly pathogen which affects many areas of the world-wide banana industry. Infected banana plants produce increasingly smaller leaves on shorter petioles giving the plants a bunched appearance. Fruits may be distorted and plants become sterile before the whole mat (rhizome) eventually dies. The international spread of BBTV is primarily through infected planting materials.
Common Names: abaca bunchy top virus, banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), BBTV, bunchy top, bunchy top virus, laufeti’iti’i
Synonyms: Banana bunchy top virus BBTV
18. Bidens pilosa (herb) English     
Bidens pilosa is a cosmopolitan, annual herb which originates from tropical and Central America. Its hardiness, explosive reproductive potential, and ability to thrive in almost any environment have enabled it to establish throughout the world. Generally introduced unintentionally through agriculture or sometimes intentionally for ornamental purposes, B. pilosa is a major crop weed, threat to native fauna, and a physical nuisance.
Common Names: abissawa, acetillo, adzrskpi, agberi-oku, akesan, alonga, alongoï, amonoablanfè, amor seco, anansee mpaane, anasipagné, arponcito, aseduro, asta de cabra, batimadramadramatakaro, beggar's tick , bident hérissé, bident poilu, bidente pilosa, black fellows, black jack, broom stick, broom stuff, cacha de cabra, cadillo, carrapicho-deagulha, cobbler's peg, dada, dadayem, devil's needles, diaani, diandu, dinenkui, dwirantwi, dzani pipi, eyinata, fisi'uli, gonoretti, gyinantwi, hairy beggar ticks, herbe d'aiguille, herbe villebague, hierba amarilla, iréné, iuna, kamik tuarongo, kandane, kete kete, ki, ki nehe, ki pipili, kichoma mguu, kichoma nguo, kiradale, klakuo, kofetoga, kofetonga, kokosa, ko-sendagusa, kukwe kwo, kurofidie, lebason, légué, manamendigo, masquia, matua kamate, mazote, mbatikalawau, mbatimandramandra, nana, nangua, nanguadian, nehe, nguad, niani, nidul-lif, niroa, papunga chipaca, passoklo, pega-prga, perca, pétéoré, picão-preto, pilipili, piquants noirs, piripiri, piripiri, piripiri kerekere, piripiri niroa, pisau-pisau, puriket, rosilla, sanyi, sanyina, sirvulaca, sornet, sosolé, Spanish needle, tabason, tagiaani, tebasson, tombo-maga, zagaï zagagbé, zagoi ini, zebeyuzébogue, zegbei zegbagwè, zikilli wissi, Zweizhan
Synonyms: Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd., Bidens leucantha Willd. var. sundaica (Blume) Hassk., Bidens odorata, Bidens sundaica (Blume), Coreopsis leucantha L.
19. Boiga irregularis (reptile) English     
Native island species are predisposed and vulnerable to local extinction by invaders. When the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) was accidentally introduced to Guam it caused the local extinction of most of the island’s native bird and lizard species. It also caused "cascading" ecological effects by removing native pollinators, causing the subsequent decline of native plant species. The ecosystem fragility of other Pacific islands to which cargo flows from Guam has made the potential spread of the brown tree snake from Guam a major concern.
Common Names: Braune Nachtbaumnatter, brown catsnake, brown tree snake, culepla, kulebla
Synonyms: Boiga flavescens, Coluber irregularis Merrem in Bechstein 1802, Dendrophis (Ahetula) fusca Gray 1842, Dipsadomorphus irregularis Werner 1899, Dipsas boydii Macleay 1884, Dipsas irregularis Fischer 1884, Dipsas ornata Macleay 1888, Hurria pseudoboiga Daudin 1803, Pappophis flavigastra Macleay 1877, Pappophis laticeps Macleay 1877, Triglyphodon flavescens Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854, Triglyphodon irregulare Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
20. Brontispa longissima (insect)
The Hispid palm leaf beetle attacks palm leaf fronds ( as the name suggests) especially those of the coconut tree. It is an introduced pest in many islands in the Pacific Ocean and also some nations of the Pacific Rim including Taiwan. Its impact on tropical and subtropical cropping systems can be severe.
Common Names: coconut hispid beetle, coconut hispine beetle, coconut leaf beetle, coconut leaf hispine beetle, palm leaf beetle
Synonyms: Brontispa castanea, Brontispa froggatti, Brontispa froggatti Sharp, Brontispa longissima var. Javana, Brontispa longissima var. Selebensis, Brontispa palmivora Gres, Brontispa reicherti, Brontispa simmondsi, Brontispa simmondsi Mlk., Oxycephala longipennis, Oxycephala longissima
21. Bubulcus ibis (bird) English   
Bubulcus ibis are small stocky herons that associate with grazing species of mammals both domestic and wild. They have strong migratory instincts and disperse thousands of miles in the direction of their choosing. They are, for the most part, self-introduced. They have been observed 'feeding on' native species of birds. They are known to host ticks that could introduce and spread certain tick-borne diseases.
Common Names: Afrikaanse koereiger, buff-backed heron, cattle egret, depulgabuey, elephant bird, garcilla bueyera, garcilla garrapatera, garcita de ganado, garrapatera, garrapatosa, garza de ganado, garza de vaquèra, garza ganadera, héron garde-boeufs, hippopotomus egret, Indian cattle egret, rhinoceros egret
Synonyms: Ardea ibis, Ardeola ibis, Bulbucus ibis
22. Canis lupus (mammal) English  français   
Canis lupus (the dog) is possibly the first animal to have been domesticated by humans. It has been selectively bred into a wide range of different forms. They are found throughout the world in many different habitats, both closely associated with humans and away from habitation. They are active hunters and have significant negative impacts on a wide range of native fauna.
Common Names: domestic dog, feral dog, guri, Haushund, kuri, kurio, pero, peto, uli
Synonyms: Canis dingo Blumenbach, 1780, Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758
23. Canna indica (herb) English  français     
Canna indica is a native of tropical America and is a very popular ornamental plant throughout the tropical world. This plant has become an invasive in Pitcairn and in New Zealand, where it grows in thickets, crowding out other plants. It is spread by rhizomes making it difficult to remove.
Common Names: achira, African arrowroot, ali‘ipoe, li‘ipoe, apeellap, bakalele, bakare kare, Balisier comestible, balisier rouge, calenda, canna, canna lily, chupa flor, English shot, fa‘i masoa, fagafaga, fagamanu, Fanamanu, gasau ni ga, gwangwa, gwangwaama, Indian shot, luiuenwai, mongos halum-tano, nuaenga, oruuru, pia renga, pia-raroto‘a, poloka, poloke, Queensland arrowroot, riti, te misimisi, tiare papa‘a, toolima, tous-les-mois
Synonyms: Canna edulis Ker-Gawl., Canna achiras Gillies, Canna aurantiaca Roscoe, Canna aureovittata Lodd., Canna barbadica Bouché, Canna bidentata Bertol., Canna bifida Schult., Canna carnea Roscoe, Canna cearensis Huber, Canna chinensis Willd., Canna cinnabarina Bouché, Canna coccinea Link, Canna coccinea Mill., Canna coccinea Mill. var. bicolor Kraenzl, Canna coccinea Mill. var. sylvestris (Roscoe) Regel, Canna commutata Bouché, Canna compacta Bouché, Canna compacta Roscoe, Canna crocea Lag. ex Rchb., Canna crocea Roem. & Schult., Canna densifolia Bouché, Canna discolor Lindl., Canna edulis KerGawl., Canna ehrenbergii Bouché, Canna ellipticifolia Stokes, Canna esculenta Lodd. ex Loudon, Canna exigua Bouché, Canna flavescens Link, Canna floribunda Bouché, Canna formosa Bouché, Canna fulgida Bouche, Canna fulgida Bouché, Canna heliconiifolia Bouché  var. xalapensis (Bouché) Kraenzl, Canna heliconiifolia Bouché, Canna humilis Bouché, Canna indica L. var. speciosa (Roscoe) Hook.f., Canna indica L. var. coccinea (Mill.) Aiton, Canna indica L. var. edwarsii Regel, Canna indica L. var. limbata (Roscoe) Petersen, Canna indica L. var. maculata Hook., Canna indica L. var. nepalensis (Bouché) Hook.f., Canna indica L. var. patens Aiton, Canna indica L. var. rubra Aiton, Canna laeta Bouché, Canna lagunensis Lindl., Canna lambertii Lindl., Canna lanuginosa Roscoe, Canna leptochila Bouché, Canna limbata Roscoe, Canna lutea Mill., Canna lutea Mill. var. aurantiaca (Roscoe) Regel, Canna lutea Mill. var. genuina Kraenzl., Canna lutea Mill. var. pallida (Roscoe) Regel
24. Casuarina equisetifolia (tree) English  français     
Casuarina equisetifolia is an evergreen conifer-like angiosperm. It has been introduced to new locations for coastal landscaping and erosion control. It has become invasive in Florida (USA) where it interferes with prime reptile nesting sites. Casuarina aggressively colonizes sandy beaches where it forms monocultures and degrades habitat in the Cayman Islands.
Common Names: agoho, arbol de hierro, Australian beefwood, Australian-pine, beach she-oak, beef wood-tree, bois de fer, casuarina, coast she-oak, Eisenholz, filao, horsetailtree, ironwood, nokonoko, pin d'Australie, pinheiro-da-Austrália, pino australiano, Strandkasuarine, whistling-pine
Synonyms: Casuarina litorea L. var. litorea, Casuarina litorea Rumpheus ex Stickman, Casuarina littorea L. ex Fosberg & Sachet
25. Cenchrus echinatus (grass)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Cenchrus echinatus is an annual grass that is a native of tropical America, but has now widely colonised tropical and temperate zones worldwide. Though it is typically associated with dry, sandy habitats it can also grow in moist areas, where it may be long-lived and reach a much larger size. It is recognisable by the burrs it produces, which readily attach themselves to animals and clothing, making C. echinatus easily dispersed. It is fairly easily managed by physical and chemical means, though the soil seed reservoir means followup treatments are necessary.
Common Names: ‘ume‘alu, abrojo, bur grass, burgrass, burr grass, cabeza de negro, cachorro, cadillo, cadillo tigre, capim-amoroso, capim-carrapicho, capim-roseta, capim-timbete, caretón morado, cauit-cauitan, cenchrus épineux, common sandbur, eakung, espolón, field sandbur, golden grass, guizazo, hedgehog grass, hefa, herbe e cateaeux, iakung, kãlõklõk, karumwij, konpeito-gusa, legalek, lek e lek, lellik, mau‘u kuku, mosie vihilango, Mossman river grass, motie vihilago, mouku talatala, mozote, parango, pega-pega, piripiri, piri-piri, pua pipii, puu ta‘a ta‘a, quaramiyumut, roseta, sand bur, sand burr, sandburr, se bulabula, se mbulabula, se mbulambula, southern sandbur, southern sandbur grass, spiny sandbur, te anti, te kateketeke, te uteute ae kateketeke, vao papalagi, vao tui tui, vao tuitui, zacate banderilla
Synonyms: Cenchrus echinatus var. hillebrandianus (A.S. Hitchc.) F. Br.
26. Cenchrus polystachios (grass) English  français     
Cenchrus polystachios (Pennisetum polystachion) is a large grass species originating from Africa and India. It has spread to many Pacific islands and thrives in tropical climates. C. polystachios causes major problems in the Northern Territory of Australia, where it has greatly increased the amount of flammable material in the wooded savanna ecosystem, leading to greater devastation from bushfires.
Common Names: dipw rais, feathery pennisetum, mechen katu, missiongrass, o tamata, pwokso, queue de chat, thin napier grass, West Indian pennisetum
Synonyms: Cenchrus setosus Sw. 1788, Gymnotrix geniculata Schult. 1824, Panicum barbatum Roxb. 1820, Panicum cauda-ratti Schumach. 1827, Panicum cenchroides Rich. 1792, Panicum densispicum Poir. 1816, Panicum erubescens Willd. 1809, Panicum polystachion L. 1759, Panicum subangustum Schumach., Panicum triticoides Poir. 1816, Pennisetum alopecuroides Desv. ex Ham. 1825, Pennisetum atrichum Stapf & C.E.Hubb. 1933, Pennisetum borbonicum Kunth 1830, Pennisetum cauda-ratti (Schumach.) Franch. 1895, Pennisetum elegans Nees ex Steud. 1854, Pennisetum erubescens (Willd.) Link 1827, Pennisetum flavescens J.Presl 1830, Pennisetum gabonense Franch. 1895, Pennisetum gracile Benth. 1849, Pennisetum hamiltonii Steud. 1841, Pennisetum hirsutum Nees 1829, Pennisetum indicum Murray var. purpurascens (Kunth) Kuntze 1891, Pennisetum nicaraguense E.Fourn. 1880, Pennisetum pallidum Nees 1829, Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult. subsp. setosum (Sw.) Brunken 1979, Pennisetum polystachion (L.) Schult. subsp. atrichum (Stapf & C.E.Hubb.) Brunken 1979, Pennisetum purpurascens Kunth 1816 , Pennisetum reversum Hack. ex Buettner var. gymnochaetium Hack. 1901, Pennisetum reversum Hack. ex Buettner 1890, Pennisetum richardii Kunth 1829, Pennisetum setosum (Sw.) L. Rich., Pennisetum setosum (Sw.) Rich. 1805, Pennisetum sieberi Kunth 1829, Pennisetum stenostachyum Peter 1930, Pennisetum subangustum (Schumach.) Stapf & C.E.Hubb. 1933, Pennisetum tenuispiculatum Steud. 1854, Pennisetum uniflorum Kunth 1816 , Setaria cenchroides (Rich.) Roem. & Schult. 1817, Setaria erubescens (Willd.) P.Beauv. 1812
27. Cenchrus setaceus (grass) English  français     
Cenchrus setaceus (Pennisetum setaceum) was introduced to the United States as an ornamental grass. It reproduces high numbers of wind-dispersed seeds that have spread outside of planted areas. C. setaceus is a desert plant that is prevalent along roadsides, washes and canyons where the annual rainfall is less than 127cm. C. setaceus interferes with natural fire regimes and competes with native species for limited resources.
Common Names: fountaingrass, yerba de fuente
Synonyms: Pennisetum ruppelii Steud., Phalaris setacea Forsk.
28. Cestrum nocturnum (shrub) English  français     
Cestrum nocturnum commonly known as queen of the night, is a popular ornamental species widely distributed for its strongly fragrant flowers that bloom at night. Having bird-dispersed seeds and the ability to reproduce vegetatively has resulted in escapes from cultivation, where in some areas it aggressively colonises disturbed sites such as road edges and forest gaps forming dense impenetrable thickets and resulting in competition with and displacement of native plant species. C. nocturnum is also known to be poisonous if ingested, forming a risk to grazing livestock and has been known to produce hay-fever like symptoms in some people.
Common Names: ai pua e pogi, ala aumoe, ali'I o le po, ariki-va'ine, dama de noche, dama di noche, fafine o te po, galan de noche, ike he po, jasmin bâtard, jasmin de nuit, jonoul ruo awa, kara, kupaoa, lady of the night, laukau po'uli, night cestrum, night jessamine, night queen, night-blooming jasmine, night-flowering cestrum, night-flowering jasmine, onaona Iapana, queen of the night, teine 'o le po, thauthau, thauthau ni mbongi, tiare ariki va'ine, ye xiang shu
Synonyms: Cestrum parqui
29. Chromolaena odorata (herb) English  français     
Chromolaena odorata is a fast-growing perennial shrub, native to South America and Central America. It has been introduced into the tropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Pacific, where it is an invasive weed. Also known as Siam weed, it forms dense stands that prevent the establishment of other plant species. It is an aggressive competitor and may have allelopathic effects. It is also a nuisance weed in agricultural land and commercial plantations.
Common Names: agonoi, bitter bush, chromolaena, hagonoy, herbe du Laos, huluhagonoi, jack in the bush, kesengesil, mahsrihsrihk, masigsig, ngesngesil, otuot, rumput belalang, rumput golkar, rumput putih, Siam weed, Siam-Kraut, triffid weed, wisolmatenrehwei
Synonyms: Eupatorium affine Hook & Arn., Eupatorium brachiatum Wikstrom, Eupatorium clematitis DC., Eupatorium conyzoidesM. Vahl, Eupatorium divergens Less., Eupatorium floribundum Kunth, Eupatorium graciliflorum DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Eupatorium sabeanum Buckley, Eupatorium stigmatosum Meyen & Walp., Osmia conyzoides (Vahl) Sch.-Bip., Osmia divergens (Less.) Schultz-Bip., Osmia floribunda (Kunth) Schultz-Bip., Osmia graciliflora (DC.) Sch.-Bip., Osmia odorata (L.) Schultz-Bip.
30. Chthamalus proteus (crustacean) English     
Chthamalus proteus is a barnacle native to the Caribbean and western Atlantic. It was introduced to the Pacific in 1970s and first reported in Hawaii in 1995. It is now one of the most abundant organism in the upper intertidal harbors and bays throughout the Hawaiian Islands. C. proteus are likely to be spread by ship hull fouling and larvae by ballast water.
Common Names: Atlantic barnacle, Caribbean barnacle
31. Cichla ocellaris (fish) English   
Cichla ocellaris is a piscivorus fish that has been introduced for sport fishing. Studies have concluded that where introduced this species predates on native species, competes for resources with others, and causing a cascading effect throughout the entire trophic food chain, but there are also contradictory studies that attribute increases in native fish populations to the introduction of C. ocellaris.
Common Names: aboné, aborrecichlide, butterfly peacock bass, eyespot cichlid, Grüner Augenfleck-Kammbarsch, isokikla, isokirjoahven, kounanni, kunan, lukanani, malisamba, matawalé, pavon, peacock bass, peacock cichlid, sargento, toekoenari, toukounalé, toukounaré, tuc, tucunare, tucunaré açu, tucunare comun, tukunali
Synonyms: Acharnes speciosus, Cichla argus, Cichla atabapensis, Crenicichla orinocensis, Cychla argus, Cychla trifasciata
32. Clarias batrachus (fish) English     
Clarias batrachus is native to southeastern Asia and has been introduced into many places for fish farming. Walking catfish, as it is commonly known (named for their ability to move over land), is an opportunistic feeder and can go for months without food. During a drought large numbers of walking catfish may congregate in isolated pools and consume other species. They are known to have invaded aquaculture farms, entering ponds where they prey on fish stocks. C. batrachus has been described as a benthic, nocturnal, tactile omnivore that consumes detritus and opportunistically forages on large aquatic insects, tadpoles, and fish.
Common Names: alimudan, cá trê tráng, cá trèn trang, clarias catfish, climbing perch, freshwater catfish, Froschwels, hito, htong batukan, ikan keling, ikan lele, Ito, kawatsi, keli, klarievyi som, koi, konnamonni, kug-ga, leleh, magur, mah-gur, mangri, marpoo, masarai, mungri, nga-khoo, pa douk, paltat, pantat, pla duk, pla duk dam, pla duk dan, pla duk nam jued, pla duk nam juend, Thai hito, Thailand catfish, trey andaing roueng, trey andeng, walking catfish, wanderwels, Yerivahlay
Synonyms: Clarias assamensis Day, 1877, Clarias jagur (Hamilton, 1822), Clarias magur (Hamilton, 1822), Clarias punctatus Valenciennes, 1840, Macropteronotus jagur Hamilton, 1822, Macropteronotus magur Hamilton, 1822, Silurus batrachus Linnaeus, 1758
33. Coccinia grandis (vine, climber) English  français     
Coccinia grandis is a noxious vine that smothers vegetation and other objects forming a dense canopy. It acts as a host for melon fly and is a reservoir for other crop pests possibly including ring spot virus. It has become invasive in Guam, Saipan and Hawai‘i where it is a severe pest in gardens, on utility poles, roadsides, and in natural areas.
Common Names: aipikohr, ivy gourd, kiuri awia, kundru, scarlet-fruited gourd
Synonyms: Bryonia grandis L., Bryonia alceifolia Willd, Bryonia grandis L., Cephalandra indica Naudin, Coccinia cordifolia auct. non (L.) Cogn., Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn. var. alceifolia (Willd.) Cogn., Coccinia cordifolia (L.) Cogn. var. wightiana (M.Roem.) Cogn., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt  var. wightiana (M.Roem.) Greb., Coccinia indica Wight & Arn., Coccinia loureiriana M.Roem., Coccinia wightiana M.Roem., Cucumis pavel Kostel., Momordica bicolor Blume, Momordica covel Dennst., Momordica monadelpha Roxb.
34. Coptotermes formosanus (insect) English     
Coptotermes formosanus is a subterranean termite with an affinity for damp places. Wherever there is wood (cellulose) and moisture there is the possibility that this species can inhabit that location.
Common Names: Formosa termite, Formosan subterranean termite
Synonyms: Coptotermes intrudens
35. Cryptostegia grandiflora (vine, climber) English  français     
Cryptostegia grandiflora is a self supporting, many-stemmed vine that is capable of growing over trees up to 15m high, smothering and pulling them down. It occurs in dry and moist forests in disturbed situations where there is temporary or permanent water, such as in rainforest openings and along roadsides. C. grandiflora is poisonous to stock when consumed and it forms impenetrable thickets that may restrict stock access to water. It decreases water catchments due to increased transpiration resulting in a loss of trees and native vines, which in turn leads to a loss of biodiversity and habitat.
Common Names: caucho de la India, India rubber vine, liane de gatope, palay rubber vine, purple allamanda, rubber vine
Synonyms: Nerium grandiflorum Roxb. ex R. Br.
36. Cynodon dactylon (grass) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Cynodon dactylon is adapted to survive both extended dry periods and flooding conditions. It is a potential agricultural weed and a commonly used as a lawn grass.
Common Names: arampandrotra, Australian couch, Bahama grass, balama grass, bamyudaa gurasu, Bermuda grass, Bermudagras, chiendent, chiendent, chiendent dactyle, chiendent pied-de-poule, common bermuda grass, couch grass, devil grass, devil's grass, enua, fandrahana, fandropalana, fandrotrarana, fandrotsana, galud-galud, gewonekweek, grama, grama brava, grama dulce, grama rastera, grama-seda, gramigna comune, gramilla, gramilla brava, gramilla Italiana, grand chiendent, gros chiendent, gyougishiba, Handjesgras, herbe de couverture, herbes des Bermudes, hierba Bermuda, hierba fina, Hundszahngras, Indian doab, kabuta, kambuta, kawad-kawaran, kindresy, kulatai, manienie, mosie molulu, motie molulu, motie molulu, nienie, nienie haole, paja de la virgen, palo delgado, pasto Argentina, pasto Bermuda, pasto de gallina, pasto de las Bermudas, pata de perdiz, pelo de conejo, pied de poule, quick grass, scutch grass, star grass, ya phaet, ya phraek, zacate de aguijilla, zacate de Bermuda, zacate de conejo, zacate de gallina, zacate gallina
Synonyms: Capriola dactylon (L.) Kuntze [Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon], Cynodon aristiglumis Caro & Sánchez, Cynodon coursii A. Camus [Cynodon dactylon var. coursii], Cynodon dactylon var. densus Hurcombe, Cynodon incompletus auct. non Nees, Cynodon polevansii Stent [Cynodon dactylon var. polevansii], Digitaria stolonifera Schrad. [Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon], Panicum dactylon L. [Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon]
37. Cyperus rotundus (sedge) English     
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge) is a weed in over 90 countries and the world's worst invasive weed based on its distribution and effect on crops. Its complex underground network of tubers, basal bulbs, roots and rhizomes ensure its ability to survive and reproduce during adverse conditions. Further biological features, such as its adaptation to high temperatures, solar radiation and humidity, have turned this weed into a serious problem in subtropical and even arid regions.
Common Names: ‘oniani lau, ‘oniani rau, ‘oniani tita, alho-bravo, almendra de tierra, balisanga, boto-botonis, brown nut sedge, capim-alho, capim-dandá, castanuela, castañuela, cebollín, chaguan humatag, chufa, coco, coco grass, coquillo, coquillo purpura, coquito, cortadera, hamasuge, herbe à oignons, ivako, junça, juncia, juncia real, kili‘o‘opu, kili'o'opu, mala-apulid, malanga, matie ‘oniani, matie'oniani, mau‘u mokae, mau‘u mokae, mauku ‘oniani, mauku'oniani, mot ha, mothe, mumuta, mutha, nut grass, nut sedge, nutgrass, oniani, oniani lau, oniani rau, oniani tita, pakopako, pakopako, pakopako, purple nut sedge, purple nut sedge, purple nutsedge, red nut sedge, Rundes Zypergras, soro ni kabani, soronakambani, souchet à tubercules, souchet d'Asie, souchet en forme d'olive, souchet rond, suo cao, sur-sur, tamanengi, te mumute, tiririca, tiririca-vermelha, tuteoneon, vucesa, vuthesa, xiang fu zi, ya haeo mu, ya khon mu, zigolo infestante
Synonyms: Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla, Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti, Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler, Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler, Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf., Cyperus tuberosus Roxb, Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek
38. Cyprinus carpio (fish) English  français     
The introduction of fish as a source of protein for human consumption into tropical and subtropical lake systems is continuing apace. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been cultured for 2500 years and is also a popular angling and ornamental fish; is the third most frequently introduced species in the world. Its method of feeding churns up the sediments on the bottom of the water and uproots macrophytes, making it an keystone ecosystem engineer that altering habitats for native fish and other native aquatic species.
Common Names: Cá Chép, carp, carpa, carpat, carpe, carpe, carpe commune, carpeau, carpo, cerpyn, ciortan, ciortanica, ciortocrap, ciuciulean, common carp, crapcean, cyprinos, escarpo, Europäischer Karpfen, European carp, fancy carp, feral carp, German carp, grass carp, grivadi, ikan mas, Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli, kapor, kapr obecný, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp dziki a. sazan, karpa, karpar, karpe, Karpe, karpen, karper, karpfen, karpion, karppi, kerpaille, king carp, koi, koi carp, korop, krapi, kyprinos, læderkarpe, lauk mas, leather carp, leekoh, lei ue, mas massan, mirror carp, olocari, Oriental carp, pa nai, pba ni, pla nai, ponty, punjabe gad, rata pethiya, saran, Saran, sarmão, sazan, sazan baligi, scale carp, sharan, skælkarpe, soneri masha, spejlkarpe, sulari, suloi, tikure, trey carp samahn, trey kap, ulucari, weißfische, wild carp, wildkarpfen
Synonyms: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
39. Diaphorina citri (insect)
Diaphorina citri or Asian citrus psyllid is one of the most serious pests of citrus in the world. It causes damage through direct feeding and its toxic saliva, leading to leaf distortion and curling in young tender growth. In addition the copious amounts of honeydew it excretes causes sooty molds to grow which blemish leaves and reduce photosynthesis. However it is the ability of D. citri to vector the Asian and American forms of the huanglongbing (HLB) disease which makes this so damaging. HLB is caused by phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB causes chlorosis resembling zinc deficiency, twig dieback, stunting of growth and reduced fruit size and quality. Trees usually die after several years and entire orchards may be devastated. HLB seriously threatens citrus industries worldwide. At present there are no curative methods for trees infected with the bacteria, so control methods have focused on reducing D. citri populations. Control is achieved through a combination of physical, chemical and biological methods.
Common Names: Asian citrus psyllid, Asiatic citrus psyllid, Citrus psylla, Oriental citrus psyllid, Psilideo de l'aranjeira, Psylle de l'oranger
Synonyms: Euphalerus citri Crawford
40. Eichhornia crassipes (aquatic plant) English  français     
Originally from South America, Eichhornia crassipes is one of the worst aquatic weeds in the world. Its beautiful, large purple and violet flowers make it a popular ornamental plant for ponds. It is now found in more than 50 countries on five continents. Water hyacinth is a very fast growing plant, with populations known to double in as little as 12 days. Infestations of this weed block waterways, limiting boat traffic, swimming and fishing. Water hyacinth also prevents sunlight and oxygen from reaching the water column and submerged plants. Its shading and crowding of native aquatic plants dramatically reduces biological diversity in aquatic ecosystems.
Common Names: aguapé, bekabe kairanga, bung el ralm, bung el ralm, floating water hyacinth, jacinthe d'eau, jacinto de agua, jacinto-aquatico, jal khumbe, jal kumbhi, lechuguilla, lila de agua, lirio acuatico, mbekambekairanga, riri vai, wasserhyazinthe, water hyacinth, water orchid, wota haisin
Synonyms: Eichhornia speciosa Kunth, Heteranthera formosa, Piaropus crassipes (Mart.) Raf., Piaropus mesomelas, Pontederia crassipes Mart. (basionym)
41. Elaeis guineensis (palm) English  français     
Elaeis guineensis is native to the west African coast from Liberia to Angola. It has been introduced to many islands in the Pacific and to South America at the time of slavery. It is widely cultivated for the oil products obtained from its fruit and seed. However it is now showing potential of being invasive from cultivation in some dry areas of the Pacific and has become very invasive in remnants of Atlantic Forest in Bahia state, Northeast Brazil.
Common Names: African oil palm, apwiraiasi, dendê, nu tamara, palmeira-dendê, palmier à huile d'Afrique
Synonyms: Elaeis melanococca J. Gaertn.
42. Eleutherodactylus coqui (amphibian) English     
  See eradication or other absence information
Eleutherodactylus coqui is a relatively small tree frog native to Puerto Rico. The frogs are quite adaptable to different ecological zones and elevations. Their loud call is the main reason they are considered a pest. E. coqui's mating call is its namesake, a high-pitched, two-note "co-qui" (ko-kee') which attains nearly 100 decibels at 0.5 metres. E. coqui have a voracious appetite and there is concern in Hawai‘i, where it has been introduced, that E. coqui may put Hawai‘i’s endemic insect and spider species at risk and compete with endemic birds and other native fauna which rely on insects for food.
Common Names: Caribbean tree frog, common coqui, coqui, Puerto Rican treefrog
43. Eleutherodactylus planirostris (amphibian)
Eleutherodactylus planirostris, the greenhouse frog, is a small anuran native to the Caribbean which has invaded non-native Caribbean locations, the United States, and Mexico. Most commonly spread through infested plants transported by nursery trade, it has potential for rapid colonization and represents a threat to native funa in introduced ranges.
Common Names: greenhouse frog, rana-ladrona de invernadero
Synonyms: Euhyas planirostris, Hylodes planirostris
44. Epipremnum pinnatum (vine, climber)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Pothos vine (Epipremnum pinnatum) is a common escaped garden vine. It climbs up tree trunks and into the forest canopy, primarily in disturbed areas and along roadsides, smothering native plants. The plant is poisonous when eaten and can cause minor skin irritation when touched.
Common Names: ara, centipede tongavine, cortina, devil's ivy, enredadera, gefleckte Efeutute, golden pothos, long wei cao, money plant, pothos, selkasohlap, taro vine, Tongavine, variegated-philodendron
Synonyms: Epipremnum mirabile Schott, Philodendron nechodomae Britton, Pothos pinnatus L., Rhaphidophora merrillii Engl., Scindapsus aureus (Lindl. & André) Engl.
45. Euglandina rosea (mollusc) English  français     
The carnivorous rosy wolfsnail Euglandina rosea was introduced to Indian and Pacific Ocean Islands from the 1950s onwards as a biological control agent for the giant African snail (Achatina fulica). E. rosea is not host specific meaning that native molluscs species are at risk of expatriation or even extinction if this mollusc-eating snail is introduced. Partulid tree snails of the French Polynesian Islands were particularly affected; having evolved separately from each other in isolated valleys, many Partulid tree snails have been lost and today almost all the survivors exist only in zoos.
Common Names: cannibal snail, escargot carnivore de Floride, euglandine, Rosige Wolfsschnecke, rosy wolf snail
46. Falcataria moluccana (tree) English  français     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Falcataria moluccana is an invasive, nitrogen-fixing tree species. It is has been introduced to the Seychelles, Mauritius, Reunion and many Pacific islands; including, most notably, Hawaii where it has become a problematic invader. Its rapid growth habit allows it to outcompete slow-growing native trees, and its abundant, high-quality litter alters nutrient dynamics in the soil. This affects decomposition rates and microorganism and invertebrate community composition. Ecosystem processes may be altered in both terrestrial and aquatic environments where F. moluccana invades riparian areas.
Common Names: ‘arapitia, albízia, albizzia , batai, bataiwood, falcata, malacana, mara, Molucca albizia, Moluccan sau, parasiante, peacock plume, sau, tamaligi paepae , tamaligi palagi, tamaligi uliuli , tamaligi, tamalini, tuhke kerosene, tuhke kerosin, tuhkehn karisihn, ukall ra ngebard
Synonyms: Adenanthera falcataria L., Albizia falcata auct. pl., Albizia falcataria (L.) Fosb., Albizia moluccana F.A. Miquel, Albizia moluccana Miq., Paraserianthes falcataria (L.) I. Nielsen, Paraserianthes falcataria subsp. falcataria
47. Felis catus (mammal) English  français     
Felis catus was domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean c. 3000 years ago. Considering the extent to which cats are valued as pets, it is not surprising that they have since been translocated by humans to almost all parts of the world. Notable predators, cats threaten native birdlife and other fauna, especially on islands where native species have evolved in relative isolation from predators.
Common Names: cat, domestic cat, feral cat, Hauskatze, house cat, poti, pusiniveikau
48. Gallus gallus (bird)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Gallus spp. include the many forms of domesticated chicken which have been bred and distributed widely across the world as an important food source. In addition to potentially spreading disease to other avian fauna, as generalist feeders, Gallus spp. may also negatively impact upon native flora and fauna.
Common Names: arg, ayam hutan, ayam hutan merah, bankivahane, bankivahoen, bankivahøne, bankivahuhn, bankivine viéta, bankivska kokoš, caboni, caboniscu, calis, cearc, cipka, coq bankiva, csirke, cyplenok, cyw, domestic fowl, eean, fellus, feral chicken, frango, Gà r?ng jabou, gaina, galiña, galinha, gall bankiva, gallina, gallo bankiva, gallo comune, galo, gjeli, hænsn, haushuhn, hen kiark, hin, höna, høne, høsn, junglefowl, k?topoul?, kesykana, kilhog, kip, koko, kokoška, kukko, kur bankivský, kur bankiwa, kura, kura divá, kurica, kurje, kurjetko, kurjo, kurka, kuryca, kyckling, kylling, malkureome, manok-ihalas, moa, oilasko, oilo, pile, pilence kokoška, piliç, pišcanec, poleç, pollastre, pollo, poul, poulet, pragozdna kokoš, puddone, puddu, pui, pulschain, puna-džunglikana, punaviidakkokana, red junglefowl, Röd djungelhöna, sekishokuyakei, slepice, tavuk, tigiega, vista, vuonccis, wild chicken, wild junglefowl, yar
Synonyms: Gallus domesticus
49. Gambusia affinis (fish) English  français     
Gambusia affinis is a small fish native to the fresh waters of the eastern and southern United States. It has become a pest in many waterways around the world following initial introductions early last century as a biological control agent for mosquitoes. In general, it is considered to be no more effective than native predators of mosquitoes. The highly predatory mosquito fish eats the eggs of economically desirable fish and preys on and endangers rare indigenous fish and invertebrate species. Mosquito fish are difficult to eliminate once established, so the best way to reduce their effects is to control their further spread. One of the main avenues of spread is continued, intentional release by mosquito-control agencies. G. affinis is closely related to he eastern mosquito fish (G. holbrooki), which was formerly classed as a sub-species. Their appearance, behaviour and impacts are almost identical, and they can therefore be treated the same when it comes to management techniques. Records of G. affinis in Australia actually refer to G. holbrooki.
Common Names: Barkaleci, Dai to ue, Gambusia, Gambusie, Gambusino, Gambuzia, Gambuzia pospolita, Gambuzija, guayacon mosquito, Isdang canal, Kadayashi, Koboldkärpfling, Kounoupopsaro, live-bearing tooth-carp, Mosquito fish, Obyknovennaya gambuziya, pez mosquito, San hang ue, Silberkärpfling, tes, Texaskärpfling, Topminnow, western mosquitofish, Western mosquitofish
Synonyms: Fundulus inurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia gracilis Girard, 1859, Gambusia humilis Günther, 1866, Gambusia patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Haplochilus melanops Cope, 1870, Heterandria affinis Baird & Girard, 1853, Heterandria patruelis Baird & Girard, 1853, Zygonectes brachypterus Cope, 1880, Zygonectes gracilis (Girard, 1859), Zygonectes inurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882, Zygonectes patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853)
50. Hedychium flavescens (herb) English  français     
Hedychium flavescens has been spread from its home-range in the Himalayas to occupy many locations around the world. It has caused great concern in countries where it has been introduced; for example in New Zealand, Hawaii and La Réunion, as it can form dense vegetative growths that may cover whole areas of land and prevent the regrowth and regeneration of native plant species. Moist warm climates in particular favour successful establishment of Hedychium flavescens.
Common Names: awapuhi melemele, cream garland lily, cream ginger, cream ginger lily, e mei jiang hua, gingembre jaune, hédychie jaunâtre, kopi rengarenga, kopi rengarenga, longose jaune vanille, longoze, opuhi rea rea, re'a rengarenga, teuila, wild ginger, yellow ginger, yellow ginger-lily
Synonyms: Hedychium emeiense Z.Y. Zhu, Hedychium panzhuum Z.Y. Zhu
51. Hemidactylus frenatus (reptile)
The common house gecko is now established in at least 87 locations around the world outside of its natural range in Asia and the Indo-Pacific. Many of these new locations have been small remote islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. Where the common house gecko has been introduced to islands of the Pacific Ocean, researchers have shown that this lizard has been responsible for the competitive displacement of other similar sized or smaller gecko species in urban and suburban environments. It was shown that habitat simplification and clumped food resources around artificial light sources as a result of urbanisation have enabled the common house gecko to gain an indirect competitive advantage over other nocturnal gecko species. The ability of the house gecko to persist outside of its natural range poses a threat to the survival of ecologically similar endemic geckos.
Common Names: Asian house gecko, Asiatischer Hausgecko, bridled house gecko, Chichak, common house gecko, geco-casero bocón, Gewöhnlicher Halbfingergecko
Synonyms: Gecko caracal Tytler 1865, Gecko chaus Tytler 1865, Hemidactylus auritus Poeppig (in Obst) 1977, Hemidactylus bowringii Stejneger 1907: 172, Hemidactylus fraenatus Bleeker 1857, Hemidactylus fragilis Lnaza 1990, Hemidactylus fragilis Calabresi 1915, Hemidactylus frenatus Cogger 2000: 246, Hemidactylus frenatus Cox et al. 1998: 84, Hemidactylus frenatus Glaw & Vences 1994: 277, Hemidactylus frenatus Lanza 1990, Hemidactylus frenatus Liner 1994, Hemidactylus frenatus Boulenger 1885: 120, Hemidactylus frenatus De Rooij 1915: 28, Hemidactylus frenatus Manthey & Grossmann 1997: 235, Hemidactylus frenatus Schlegel in Dumeril & Bibron 1836: 366, Hemidactylus hexaspis Cope 1869: 320, Hemidactylus inornatus Hallowell 1861, Hemidactylus javanicus Fitzinger 1826 (nomen nudum), Hemidactylus longiceps Cope 1869: 320, Hemidactylus mabouia Barbour & Loveridge 1929 (partim), Hemidactylus nigriventris De Rooij 1915: 31, Hemidactylus nigriventris Lidth De Jeude 1905, Hemidactylus okinawensis Okada 1936, Hemidactylus papuensis [Macleay] 1877, Hemidactylus pumilus Hallowell 1861: 502, Hemidactylus punctatus Jerdon 1853, Hemidactylus tristis Sauvage 1879, Hemidactylus vandermeermohri Wermuth 1965, Hemidactylus vandermeer-mohri Brongersma 1928, Hemidactylus vittatus Gray 1845, Hemidactylus (Pnoepus) Bojeri Fitzinger 1843, Hemidactylys cf. frenatus Andreone et al. 2003, Pnoepus bojeri Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus caracal Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus fragilis Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus frenatus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus frenatus Wells 2002, Pnoepus inornatus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus papuensis Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus pumilus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus punctatus Wells & Wellington 1985, Pnoepus vittatus Wells & Wellington 1985
52. Hydrilla verticillata (aquatic plant) English  français     
Hydrilla verticillata is a submerged freshwater aquatic weed that can tolerate salinity up to 7%. It crowds out native plants by shading them and out-competing them for nutrients. The dense masses it forms interfere with recreational activities such as boating, fishing and swimming. Hydrilla verticillata can be dispersed by river flow, waterfowl and recreational activities and is sold as an aquarium plant.
Common Names: Florida elodea, hydrilla, oxygen weed, water thyme, water weed
53. Imperata cylindrica (grass) English  français     
Native to Asia, cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) is common in the humid tropics and has spread to the warmer temperate zones worldwide. Cogon grass is considered to be one of the top ten worst weeds in the world. Its extensive rhizome system, adaptation to poor soils, drought tolerance, genetic plasticity and fire adaptability make it a formidable invasive grass. Increases in cogon grass concern ecologists and conservationists because of the fact that this species displaces native plant and animal species and alters fire regimes.
Common Names: alang-alang, blady grass, Blutgras, carrizo, cogon grass, gi, impérata cylindrique, japgrass, kunai, lalang, ngi, paille de dys, paillotte, satintail, speargrass
Synonyms: Imperata arundinacea Cirillo, Lagurus cylindricus L.
54. Ipomoea aquatica (vine, climber) English  français     
Ipomea aquatica is rich in iron and is used traditionally to treat gastric and intestinal disorders. However, Ipomea aquatica is highly invasive, forming dense mats over the surface of water bodies, such as lakes, ponds, marshes, canals and ditches. It is also found in very moist soils, such as the muddy banks along streams. Ipomea aquatica spreads rapidly from plant fragments and its floating seeds allow effective colonisation of new areas. Aquatic herbicides, whilst generally effective, are not specific enough to be used in many sensitive areas, making eradication very difficult.
Common Names: akankong, aquatic morning glory, aseri, cancon, Chinese waterspinach, kang kong, kangking, kangkong, kangkun, kangum, kankan, kankum, kongkong, lili vai, liseron d’eau, lorenzo, luve ne tombithi, ndrinikava, ota karisa, seeri, seri, swamp cabbage, swamp morning glory, te kang kong, ung-choi, wa kumala, water bindweed, water spinach
Synonyms: Convolvulus repens Vahl, Ipomoea repens Roth, Ipomoea reptans Poiret, Ipomoea subdentata Miq.
55. Lantana camara (shrub) English  français     
Lantana camara is a significant weed of which there are some 650 varieties in over 60 countries. It is established and expanding in many regions of the world, often as a result of clearing of forest for timber or agriculture. It impacts severely on agriculture as well as on natural ecosystems. The plants can grow individually in clumps or as dense thickets, crowding out more desirable species. In disturbed native forests it can become the dominant understorey species, disrupting succession and decreasing biodiversity. At some sites, infestations have been so persistent that they have completely stalled the regeneration of rainforest for three decades. Its allelopathic qualities can reduce vigour of nearby plant species and reduce productivity in orchards. Lantana camara has been the focus of biological control attempts for a century, yet still poses major problems in many regions.
Common Names: ach man, angel lips, ayam, big sage, blacksage, bunga tayi, cambara de espinto, cuasquito, flowered sage, lantana, lantana wildtype, largeleaf lantana, latora moa, pha-ka-krong, prickly lantana, shrub verbean, supirrosa, Wandelroeschen, white sage, wild sage
Synonyms: Camara vulgaris, Lantana scabrida
56. Lepidium virginicum (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Lepidium virginicum is a weed of agronomic, vegetable, orchard, and nursery crops. It is reported to have naturalised on disturbed sites in Hawaii and the western United States, and spreading rapidly on Grand Cayman.
Common Names: cresón, cresson sauvage, cresson savane, culantrillo, escobilla, lentejilla, lépidie de Virginie, mancuerno, mastruço, mastruz, mastuerzo, mastuerzo silvestre, menstruz, momili, naunau, passerage de Virginie, peppergrass, poorman pepperweed, poorman's pepper, poorman's-pepperwort, Virginia cress, Virginia pepperweed, Virginian peppercress, wild peppercress
57. Leucaena leucocephala (tree) English  français     
The fast-growing, nitrogen-fixing tree/shrub Leucaena leucocephala, is cultivated as a fodder plant, for green manure, as a windbreak, for reforestation, as a biofuel crop etc. Leucaena has been widely introduced due to its beneficial qualities; it has become an aggressive invader in disturbed areas in many tropical and sub-tropical locations and is listed as one of the ‘100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Alien Species’. This thornless tree can form dense monospecific thickets and is difficult to eradicate once established. It renders extensive areas unusable and inaccessible and threatens native plants.
Common Names: acacia palida, aroma blanca, balori, bo chet, cassis, false koa, faux mimosa, faux-acacia, fua pepe, ganitnityuwan tangantan, graines de lin, guaje, guaslim, guaxin, horse/wild tamarind, huaxin, ipil-ipil, jumbie bean, kan thin, kanthum thect, koa-haole, kra thin, kratin, lamtoro, lead tree, leucaena, leucaena, liliak, lino criollo, lopa samoa, lusina, nito, pepe, rohbohtin, schemu, siale mohemohe, subabul, tamarindo silvestre, tangantangan, tangan-tangan, te kaitetua, telentund, tuhngantuhngan, uaxim, vaivai, vaivai dina, vaivai ni vavalangi, wild mimosa, wild tamarind, zarcilla
Synonyms: Acacia leucocephala (Lamark) Link 1822, Leucaena glabrata Rose 1897, Leucaena glauca (L.) Benth. 1842, Mimosa leucocephala Lamark 1783
58. Ligustrum sinense (tree, shrub) English     
Ligustrum sinense, or Chinese privet, is a shrub or small tree native to China, Vietnam and Laos that can grow up to 9 meters tall. Its flowers are small and somewhat unpleasantly fragrant and its fruits are dark blue or bluish-black. L. sinense has been reported in floodplains, wetlands and bogs, as well as in dry, moist and wet forests, waste places, roadsides and open stream systems. It is widespread and common, especially near towns, where it is deliberately planted. It may displace shrubs of alluvial forests and remain persistent in these areas. Chinese privet fruits are consumed by wildlife, particularly birds, which often excrete the seeds unharmed at distant locations where they may germinate and become established. L. sinense can easily escape cultivation to invade adjacent areas and can form dense monospecific thickets.
Common Names: Chinese liguster, Chinese ligustrum, Chinese privet, common chinese privet, hedge privet, small-leaf privet, troène de Chine, xiao la
Synonyms: Ligustrum calleryanum Decne., Ligustrum indicum (Lour.) Merr., Ligustrum microcarpum Kaneh. & Sasaki, Ligustrum sinense Lour. var. multiflorum Bowles, Ligustrum sinense Lour. var. villosum (May) Rehder, Ligustrum sinense var. stauntonii (DC.) Rehder, Ligustrum stauntonii DC., Ligustrum villosum May, Olea consanguinea Hance, Olea walpersiana Hance, Phillyrea indica Lour.
59. Livistona chinensis (palm)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The Chinese fan palm, Livistona chinensis is a single stemmed fan palm native to Japan and China that is cultivated worldwide in tropical and temperate climates as an ornamental. Their introduced range includes Bermuda, the Mascarene Islands, Florida, Hawaii and New Caledonia where they have naturalised. In Bermuda thickets of fan palms can be seen beside roads where seeds have dropped and germinated, these thickets can crowd out native species and overshadow them. In Hawaii they have been seen growing in ditches, stream-beds and understory of disturbed secondary forests. They are also reported to be growing in riparian areas in New Caledonia.
Common Names: Chinese fan palm, Chinese fountain palm, falsa-latânia, fountain palm, palmeira-leque-da-china, palmier évantail de Chine
Synonyms: Latania chinensis Jacq., Livistona oliviformis (Hassk.) Mart., Livistona subglobosa (Hassk.) Mart., Saribus oliviformis Hassk.
60. Maconellicoccus hirsutus (insect)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus or the pink hibiscus mealybug, is a polyphagous pest on a wide range of ornamental and agricultural plant species. Native to tropical and subtropical Asia and Africa, M. hirsutus forms colonies covered by a white waxy, elastic ovisac material. Feeding causes plant deformation and lowered aesthetics, which can result in heavy economic losses. The overall potential annual cost of control and damages to the US economy from M. hirsutus has been estimated to be around US$ 700 million, with the global estimate being around US$ 5 billion. While chemical and physical control methods are generally ineffective, effective biological control of M. hirsutus has been acheived in a number of countries.
Common Names: cochenille de l’hibiscus, guava mealybug, hibiscus mealybug, hibiscus-schmierlaus, pink hibiscus mealybug, pink mealybug
Synonyms: Phenacoccus hirsutus (Green)
61. Melaleuca quinquenervia (tree) English  français     
The broad-leaved paperbark tree or melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) can reach heights of 25 meters and hold up to 9 million viable seeds in a massive canopy-held seed bank. This fire-resistant wetland-invader aggressively displaces native sawgrass and pine communities in south Florida, alters soil chemistry and modifies Everglades ecosystem processes. Melaleuca is notoriously difficult to control, however, bio-control (integrated with herbicidal and other methods) holds a promising alternative to traditional control methods.
Common Names: aceite de cayeput, ahambo, balsamo de cayeput, belbowrie, bottle brush tree, broadleaf paperbark tree, broadleaf teatree, broad-leaved paperbark tree, cajeput, capeputi, corcho, five-veined paperbark tree, itahou, Japanese paper wasp, kayu putih, kinindrano, Mao-Holzrose, melaleuca, niaouli, niaouli, numbah, oli, paper bark tree, paperbark teatree, punk tree, white bottlebrush tree
Synonyms: Melaleuca leucadendron ß angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca leucadendron var. albida, Melaleuca leucadendron var. coriacea Poir., Melaleuca leucadendron var. rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca maideni R.T. Baker, Melaleuca rubriflora Vieillard ex Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca smithii R.T. Baker, Melaleuca viridiflora var. angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca viridiflora var. ß rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Metrosideros coriacea Poir., Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav.
62. Melia azedarach (tree, shrub) English  français     
Melia azedarach is a tree of the mahogany family that is native to Australasia and often planted as an ornamental shade tree. It invades along roadways, fencerows and other disturbed areas. Melia azedarach has also been found in upland grasslands, woodlands, pastures and riparian areas. Melia azedarach requires open sun, but adapts to a wide range of soil moisture conditions. It grows between sea level and 700 metres in open dry habitats and is highly resistant to insects and other pathogens. It produces much fruit, which is consumed by birds that disperse the seeds. Melia azedarach also reproduces vegetatively by forming root suckers, which allows it to spread and form dense, thickets.
Common Names: ‘ilinia, ‘inia, alelaila, amargoseira-do-Himalaio, arbre à chapelets, bakain, chinaberry , chuan liang zi, dake, Indian lilac, indischer Zedrachbaum, jazmin, lelah, lilas, lilas de l'Inde, lilas de Perse, lilas des Indes, margosa tree, margosier, melia, para‘isu, paraíso, Persian lilac, persischer Flieder, petit lilas, prais, pride-of-India, sendan, Sichuan pagoda-tree, sili, sita, syringa berrytree, tili, tira, umbrella tree, white cedar
Synonyms: Antelaea javanica Gaertn. , Azedarach amena Raf. , Azedarach deleteria Medik. , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma arguta (DC.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma longifoliola Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma sambucina (Blume) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma squamulosa (C.DC.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma subdentata Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma typica Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze var. australasica (Juss.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze var. dubia (Cav. ex M.Roem.) Kuntze, Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze var. glabrior Kuntze , Azedarach sempervirens Kuntze forma incisodentata Kuntze , Azedarach speciosa Raf. , Azedarach vulgaris M.Gómez , Melia angustifolia Schumach. , Melia arguta DC. , Melia australasica Juss. , Melia australis Sweet, Melia azedarach L. forma albiflora Makino , Melia azedarach L. forma umbraculifera (G.Knox) Rehder, Melia azedarach L. subvar. intermedia Makino , Melia azedarach L. subvar. semperflorens (Makino) Makino, Melia azedarach L. var. acuminatissima Miq. , Melia azedarach L. var. australasica (Juss.) C.DC., Melia azedarach L. var. biglandulosa Pierre ex Pellegr. , Melia azedarach L. var. cochinchinensis (Pierre) Pellegr., Melia azedarach L. var. floribunda (Carrière) Morren, Melia azedarach L. var. glabrior C.DC. , Melia azedarach L. var. glandulosa Pierre , Melia azedarach L. var. incisa Miq. , Melia azedarach L. var. intermedia (Makino) Makino, Melia azedarach L. var. japonica (G.Don) Makino, Melia azedarach L. var. javanica Koord. & Valeton , Melia azedarach L. var. sambucina (Blume) Miq., Melia azedarach L. var. sempervirens L. , Melia azedarach L. var. squamulosa C.DC. , Melia azedarach L. var. subtripinnata Miq. , Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculifera G.Knox , Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculiformis Berckmans & L.H.Bailey , Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculifera Knox , Melia azedarach var. japonica (G. Don) Makino , Melia birmanica Kurz , Melia bogoriensis Koord. & Valeton , Melia candollei Juss. , Melia cochinchinensis M.Roem. , Melia commelinii Medik. , Melia composita Willd. , Melia composita Willd. var. cochinchinensis Pierre , Melia dubia Cav. ex M.Roem. , Melia floribunda Carrière , Melia florida Salisb. , Melia guineensis G.Don , Melia hasskarlii K.Koch , Melia japonica G.Don , Melia japonica G.Don var. semperflorens Makino , Melia japonica G.Don var. squamulosa C.DC. , Melia japonica Hassk. , Melia japonica var. semperflorens Makino, Melia javanica M.Roem. , Melia orientalisM.Roem. , Melia robusta Roxb. ex G.Don , Melia sambucina Blume , Melia sempervirens Sw., Melia superba Roxb. , Melia toosendan Siebold & Zucc.
63. Merremia tuberosa (vine, climber) English  français     
Merremia tuberosa is a climbing vine that is native to Mexico and parts of central America that has become invasive on various Pacific islands and parts of the United States. The vine overgrows tall hardwood forest canopies and smothers native trees and shrubs. Its population on Niue is reported as especially aggressive.
Common Names: bara- asa-gao, bejuco de golondrin, Brazilian jalap, Ceylon morning glory, foco de luz, Hawaiian wood rose, liane à tonelle, liane Gandelour, liane sultane jaune, liane-jaune, quiebra caje- te, quiebra machet, quinamacal, rosa de barranco, rose des bois, Spanish arborvine, Spanish woodbine, wood rose, xixcamátic, yellow morning-glory
Synonyms: Batatas tuberosa (L.) Bojer, Ipomoea tuberosa L., Operculina tuberosa (L.) Meisn.
64. Micropterus salmoides (fish) English  français     
  See eradication or other absence information
Micropterus salmoides (bass) has been widely introduced throughout the world due to its appeal as a sport fish and for its tasty flesh. In some places introduced Micropterus salmoides have affected populations of small native fish through predation, sometimes resulting in the their decline or extinction. Its diet includes fish, crayfish, amphibians and insects.
Common Names: achigã, achigan, achigan à grande bouche, American black bass, bas dehanbozorg, bas wielkogeby, bass, bass wielkgebowy, biban cu gura mare, black bass, bolsherotnyi amerikanskii tscherny okun, bol'sherotyi chernyi okun', buraku basu, fekete sügér, forelbaars, forellenbarsch, green bass, green trout, großmäuliger Schwarzbarsch, huro, isobassi, khorshid Mahi Baleh Kuchak, lakseabbor, largemouth bass, largemouth black bass, lobina negra, lobina-truche, northern largemouth bass, okounek pstruhový, okuchibasu, Öringsaborre, Ørredaborre, ostracka, ostracka lososovitá, perca Americana, perche d'Amérique, perche noire, perche truite, persico trota, stormundet black bass, stormundet ørredaborre, tam suy lo ue, zwarte baars
Synonyms: Aplites salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Grystes megastoma Garlick, 1857, Huro nigricans Cuvier, 1828, Huro salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Labrus salmoides Lacepède, 1802, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Perca nigricans (Cuvier, 1828)
65. Mikania micrantha (vine, climber) English  français     
Mikania micrantha is a perennial creeping climber known for its vigorous and rampant growth. It grows best where fertility, organic matter, soil moisture and humidity are all high. It damages or kills other plants by cutting out the light and smothering them. A native of Central and South America, M. micrantha was introduced to India after the Second World War to camouflage airfields and is now a major weed. It is also one of the most widespread and problematic weeds in the Pacific region. Its seeds are dispersed by wind and also on clothing or hair.
Common Names: American rope, Chinese creeper, Chinesischer Sommerefeu, fue saina, liane americaine, mile-a-minute weed, ovaova, usuvanua, wa bosucu, wa mbosuthu, wa mbosuvu, wa mbutako, wa ndamele
66. Mimosa diplotricha (vine, climber, shrub) English  français     
Mimosa diplotricha (also referred to in the literature as Mimosa invisa) is a serious weed around the Pacific Rim, where it is the subject of several eradication programmes. Early detection and control is recommended to prevent large infestations from establishing.
Common Names: co gadrogadro, giant false sensitive plant, giant sensitive plant, grande sensitive, la'au fefe palagi, la'au fefe tele, limemeihr laud, mechiuaiuu, nila grass, pikika‘a papa‘a, sensitive gèante, singbiguin sasa, vao fefe palagi, wa ngandrongandro levu, wa ngandrongandro ni wa ngalelevu
Synonyms: Mimosa invisa
67. Mimosa pudica (herb) English  français     
Mimosa pudica is native to South America, but has become a pan-tropical weed. It was introduced to many countries as an ornamental plant and is still widely available for sale. Mimosa pudica has become a pest in forest plantations, cropland, orchards and pasture. Mimosa pudica is used as a medicinal plant in many regions.
Common Names: action plant, Almindelig mimose, attaapatti, betguen sosa, chuimui, co gadrogadro, cogadrogadro, dorme, dormidera, Gemeine Mimose, honteuse, humble plant, khadiraka, Kruidje-roer-me-niet, laajaalu, laajak, laajari, la'au fefe, Lajaalu, lajja, lajjalu, lajjavanthi, lajjavathi, lajouni, lazza bati, limemeihr, live and die, marie-honte, mateloi, mayhont, mechiuaiu, memege, mimosa, morivivi, muttidare muni, namaskaar, ngandrongandro, paope ‘avare, pikika‘a, pikika‘a, pohe ha‘avare, pope ha'avare, pua hilahila, puteri malu, rakau ‘avare, rakau ‘avarevare, rakau pikika‘a, rakau pikika‘a, Raktapaadi, reesamani, samangaa, sensitiva, sensitiva, sensitive, sensitive grass, sensitive plant, shamebush, shamelady, shameplant, shameweed, shamipatra, Sinnpflanze, sleeping grass, tho kandrodandro, tho ngandrongandro, thothae jegri, ti mawi, tiare pikika‘a, tita ‘avarevare, tita ‘avarevare, tita pikika‘a, togop-togop, tottalavaadi, touch-me-not, tuitui, tuitui, tuntokasvi, vao fefe, vao fefe, vao tuitui, vergonzosa
Synonyms: Mimosa pudica L. var. tetranda (Willd.) DC., Mimosa pudica L. var. unijuga (Duch. and Walp.) Griseb, Mimosa tetranda Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd., Mimosa unijuga Duch. and Walp.
68. Monomorium floricola (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The primarily arboreal flower ant (Monomorium floricola) is one of the world's most broadly distributed tramp ants. Most occurrence records of M. floricola are in tropical and sub-tropical regions from latitudes above 30 degrees; populations in latitudes above 35 degrees are found in heated buildings or inside greenhouses. M. floricola has been identified as a significant arboreal predator of insect eggs; in Guam it is recognised as one of three most important ant species attacking eggs of native butterflies resulting in their reduced populations.
Common Names: bicoloured trailing ant, Braunrote Blutenameise, brownish-red flower ant, floral ant , flower ant, futairo-hime-ari
Synonyms: Monomorium angusticlava Donisthorpe, 1947, Monomorium cinnabari Roger, 1863, Monomorium floreanum Stitz, 1932, Monomorium impressumSmith, 1876, Monomorium poecilum Roger, 1863, Monomorium specularis Mayr, 1866
69. Mus musculus (mammal) English  français     
The house mouse (Mus musculus) probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with humans which extends back at least 8,000 years. They cause considerable damage to human activities by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosystems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in the success of M. musculus is its behavioural plasticity brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments.
Common Names: biganuelo, field mouse, Hausmaus, house mouse, kiore-iti, raton casero, souris commune, wood mouse
70. Norops sagrei (reptile)
  See eradication or other absence information
Norops sagrei (brown anole) can be identified by its extensible throat fan that is often coloured yellow or reddish-orange and has a white line down the centre of its back. Norops sagrei is a habitat generalist that prefers the open vegetation of disturbed sites. It is a ground dweller but will venture several feet up into trees and shrubs. Norops sagrei compete with Anolis carolinensis and other introduced congeners. Norops sagre also prey on the hatchlings of Anolis carolinensis.
Common Names: Bahamian brown anole, brown anole, Cuban brown anole
Synonyms: Anolis sagrei (Cocteau in Duméril and Bibron, 1837)
71. Olea europaea (tree)
In Europe and Northern Africa, the olive tree (Olea europaea) has been widely cultivated for its fruit and valuable oil for thousands of years (i.e. subspecies europaea). Escapes from cultivation are known to occur due to the large amount of bird-dispersed seed produced; potentially resulting in the formation of dense monocultures which can permanently displace native plant species and increase the fire hazard. There are several physical and chemical management options available for O. europaea; but these are generally labour intensive and require follow-up operations due to the large amount of seed produced as well as its coppicing ability.
Common Names: ‘oliwa, ‘oliwa haole, African olive, black olive, European olive, feral olive, golden olive, oliva, olive, orive
Synonyms: Olea europea
72. Opuntia monacantha (tree, shrub, succulent) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: common prickly pear, drooping prickly pear, lauaufai va , Opuntia, prickly pear, red tungi, red tungy, round red prickly pear
Synonyms: Opuntia humifusa Raf., Opuntia vulgaris auct. non P. Mill.
73. Oreochromis mossambicus (fish) English  français     
Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has spread worldwide through introductions for aquaculture. Established populations of Oreochromis mossambicus in the wild are as a result of intentional release or escapes from fish farms. Oreochromis mossambicus is omnivorous and feeds on almost anything, from algae to insects.
Common Names: blou kurper, common tilapia, fai chau chak ue, Java tilapia, kawasuzume, kurper bream, malea, mojarra, mosambik-maulbrüter, Mozambikskaya tilapiya, Mozambique cichlid, Mozambique mouth-breeder, Mozambique mouthbrooder, Mozambique tilapia, mphende, mujair, nkobue, tilapia, tilapia del Mozambique, tilapia du Mozambique, tilapia mossambica, tilapia mozámbica, trey tilapia khmao, weißkehlbarsch, wu-kuo yu
Synonyms: Chromis dumerilii Steindachner, 1864, Chromis natalensis Weber, 1897, Chromis vorax Pfeffer, 1893, Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters, 1852), Tilapia arnoldi Gilchrist & Thompson, 1917, Tilapia mossambica (Peters, 1852)
74. Oryctes rhinoceros (insect) English  français   
Oryctes rhinoceros is one of the most serious pests of the coconut palm. Oryctes rhinoceros also has a record of damage, wherever it has become established in the tropics, to native palm trees and native Pandanus.
Common Names: Asiatic rhinoceros beetle, bebete coco, black beetle, coconut black beetle, coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, coconut rhinoceros beetle, date palm beetle, dung beetle, escarabajo rinoceronte Asiático, fruit stalk borer, Indischer Nashornkäfer, Indischer Nashornkäfer, klappertor, kumbang badak, kumbang tanduk, oryctes du cocotier, Palmen-Nashornkaefer, rhinoceros beetle, rhinoceros du cocotier, scarabé du cocotier
Synonyms: Oryctes stentor Castelnau, 1840, Scarabaeus rhinoceros Linnaeus
75. Paspalum vaginatum (grass) English     
Paspalum vaginatum (seashore paspalum) is a North American grass which now has a pantropical distribution. It has been widely used for landscaping and revegetation and is a common turf grass on golf courses. Paspalum vaginatum has naturalised in coastal salt marshes where it changes the composition of vegetation and in some cases dominates, impacting on fauna communities and estuarine hydrology.
Common Names: biscuit grass, capim-paturá, grama de costa, grama de mar, grama-rasteira, gramilla, gramilla blanca, gramón, herbe rampante, jointgrass, kambutu, knot grass, knottweed, matie, mauku ta‘atai, mauku vairakau, mosie kalalahi, mutia, mutie, salt grass, saltwater couch, saltwater paspalum, seashore crowngrass, seashore grass, seashore paspalum, silt grass, swamp couch, water couch, wujoojkatejukjuk
Synonyms: Digitaria foliosa Lag. , Digitaria tristachya (Leconte) Schult., Digitaria vaginata (Sw.) Magnier, Panicum littorale (R.Br.) Kuntze, Panicum vaginatum (Sw.) Gren. & Godr., Paspalum gayanum E. Desv., Paspalum boryanum C. Presl, Paspalum distichum L.  subsp. vaginatum (Sw.) Maire, Paspalum distichum L.  var. littorale (R.Br.) F.M.Bailey, Paspalum distichum L.  var. nanum (Döll) Stapf, Paspalum distichum L.  var. tristachyum (Leconte) A.W.Wood, Paspalum distichum L.  var. vaginatum (Sw.) Griseb., Paspalum foliosum (Lag.) Kunth, Paspalum gayanum E.Desv., Paspalum inflatum A. Rich., Paspalum jaguaense León, Paspalum kleineanum J.Presl, Paspalum littorale R. Br., Paspalum reimarioides Chapm., Paspalum squamatum Steud., Paspalum tristachyum Leconte, Paspalum vaginatum Sw.  subsp. nanum (Döll) Loxton, Paspalum vaginatum Sw.  var. littorale (R.Br.) Trin. ex Büse, Paspalum vaginatum Sw.  var. nanum Döll, Paspalum vaginatum Sw.  var. reimarioides Chapm., Rottboellia uniflora A. Cunn., Sanguinaria vaginata (Sw.) Bubani
76. Passiflora foetida (vine, climber) English  français     
Passiflora foetida is a perennial herbaceous vine that originates from tropical America, but is now a pantropic weed. It is a common weed in many places of the Pacific and Atlantic, where it climbs over low vegetation on roadsides and in other disturbed places. Monitoring and management of this toxic plant is recommended in tropical areas where it is present.
Common Names: bedoca, bombom, dulce, fetid pa, grenadier marron, ka thoc rock, kinahulo' atdao, kudamono, lani wai, loliloli ni kalavo, love-in-a-mist, mossy passionflower, pasio vao, passiflore, passiflore fétide, passiflore poc-poc, passionflower, pohapoha, pompom, pwomwpwomw, qaranidila, running pop, scarlet fruited passionflower, sou, stinking passionflower, tea biku, ti grenadelle, tomates, vaine 'ae kuma, vaine 'initia, vine vao, wild passion fruit, wild water lemon
Synonyms: Dysosmia ciliata (Dryand.) M.Roem., Dysosmia fluminensis M.Roem., Dysosmia foetida (L.) M.Roem., Dysosmia gossypifolia (Desv. ex Ham.) M.Roem., Dysosmia hastata (Bertol.) M.Roem., Dysosmia hibiscifolia (Lam.) M.Roem., Dysosmia nigelliflora (Hook.) M.Roem., Granadilla foetida (L.) Gaertn., Passiflora baraquiniana Lem., Passiflora ciliata Dryand., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. polyadena Griseb., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. quinqueloba Griseb., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. riparia C.Wright ex Griseb., Passiflora foetida L. forma suberecta Chodat & Hassl., Passiflora foetida L. var. lanuginosa Killip, Passiflora foetida L. forma latifolia Kuntze, Passiflora foetida L. forma longifolia Kuntze, Passiflora foetida L. forma quinqueloba (Griseb.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. acapulcensis Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. arizonica Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. balansae Chodat, Passiflora foetida L. var. ciliata (Dryand.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. eliasii Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. fluminensis (M.Roem.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. galapagensis Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. gardneri Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. glaziovii Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. gossypifolia (Desv. ex Ham.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hastata (Bertol.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hibiscifolia (Lam.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. hirsuta Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hirsutissima Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. hispida (DC. ex Triana & Planch.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. isthmia Killip
77. Pheidole megacephala (insect) English  français     
Pheidole megacephala is one of the world's worst invasive ant species. Believed to be native to southern Africa, it is now found throughout the temperate and tropical zones of the world. It is a serious threat to biodiversity through the displacement of native invertebrate fauna and is a pest of agriculture as it harvests seeds and harbours phytophagous insects that reduce crop productivity. Pheidole megacephala are also known to chew on irrigation and telephone cabling as well as electrical wires.
Common Names: big-headed ant, brown house-ant, coastal brown-ant, Grosskopfameise, lion ant
Synonyms: Atta testacea Smith 1858, Formica edax Forskal 1775, Formica megacephala Fabricius 1793, Myrmica laevigata F. Smith, Myrmica suspiciosa Smith 1859, Myrmica trinodis Losana 1834, Oecophthora perniciosa Gerstacker 1859, Oecophthora pusilla Heer 1852, Pheidole janus F. Smith, Pheidole laevigata Mayr
78. Physalis peruviana (shrub) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Physalis peruviana originates from the tropics and is cultivated in its native lands. It poses an indirect threat to agriculture when imported as it may harbour introduced plant pests.
Common Names: aguaymanto, alquequenje, alquequenje amarillo, alquequenje , bate-testa  , botebote yadra, camapú , Cape gooseberry, capuli, capulí , coqueret du Peru, erva-noiva-do-peru , goldenberry , gooseberry tomato, gooseberry-tomato, goundou-goundou, groselha-do-Peru, groselha-do-Peru, ground cherry, ishmagol, jangalii mevaa, Kapstachelbeere, kospeli, ku‘usi, manini, manini fua lalahi, maulanggua, mbotembote yandra, oatamo, pa‘ina, Peruvian cherry, Peruvian ground-cherry, physalis , poha, rasabarii, te baraki, te bin, thol thakkali, tomatinho-de-capucho, topotopo, tukiyandra, tupera, tupere, uvilla  , watamo, winebusupén
79. Pimenta dioica (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Allspice (Pimenta dioica) has been introduced widely through the horticultural trade for its spice that is used to flavour food and as a perfume; its strong wood is used to make tools and it is used as an ornamental tree. Allspice is known to have naturalised in its introduced range. On Kauai in Hawaii, allspice has spread into secondary forests. It is prolific and carpets of seedlings can be seen be seen below adult trees. Seeds are spread by fruit eating birds.
Common Names: allspice, Jamaican pepper, malaqueta, pimento, sipaisi
Synonyms: Myrtus dioica L., Myrtus pimenta L., Pimenta officinalis Lindl., Pimenta officinalis Lindley, Pimenta pimenta (L.) Karst.
80. Pistia stratiotes (aquatic plant) English  français     
Pistia stratiotes is a freshwater invasive weed that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is a free-floating plant that is capable of forming dense mats on the surfaces of lakes, ponds, rivers and other bodies of water. Pistia stratiotes is a popular garden pond plant and is often spread by the dumping of aquarium or ornamental pond plants. Fragments, or whole plants, can be spread via boats or fishing equipment from an infested area to a clean body of water.
Common Names: laitue d'eau, Lechuguilla de agua, lechuguita de agua, pistie, repollo de agua, salade d’eau, tropical duckweed, water lettuce
81. Pittosporum undulatum (tree, shrub) English     
Pittosporum undulatum is an evergreen tree that is often used as an ornamental plant, due to its attractive fragrant flowers. It is native to south-eastern Australia but has now spread to a number of islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, as well as islands in the Atlantic and to South Africa. It is also invasive In Australia outside its native range. Research is being carried out in Jamaica to determine the most effective methods of control for this species.
Common Names: Australian cheesewood, mock orange, native daphne, orange pittosporum, sweet pittosporum, Victorian box, Victorian laurel, wild coffee
82. Platydemus manokwari (flatworm) English     
Worldwide land snail diversity is second only to that of arthropods. Tropical oceanic islands support unique land snail faunas with high endemism; biodiversity of land snails in Pacific islands is estimated to be around 5 000 species, most of which are endemic to single islands or archipelagos. Many are already under threat from the rosy wolfsnail (Euglandina rosea), an introduced predatory snail. They now face a newer but no less formidable threat, the introduced flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes). Both "biocontrol" species continue to be dispersed to new areas in attempts to control Achatina fulica.
Common Names: Flachwurm, flatworm, snail-eating flatworm
83. Poecilia reticulata (fish) English  français   
Poecilia reticulata is a small benthopelagic fish native to Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and the Caribbean Islands. It is a popular aquarium species and is also commonly used in genetics research. In the past Poecilia reticulata was widely introduced for mosquito control but there have been rare to non-existing measurable effects on mosquito populations. It can occupy a wide range of aquatic habitats and is a threat to native cyprinids and killifishes. It is a carrier of exotic parasites and is believed to play a role in the decline of several threatened and endangered species.
Common Names: guppie , guppii , guppy, hung dzoek ue, ikan seribu, lareza tripikaloshe, lebistes, lepistes, Mexicano, miljoenvis, miljoonakala, million fish, millionenfisch, millions, poisson million, queue de voile, rainbow fish, sarapintado, Sardinita, Wilder Riesenguppy, zivorodka duhová
Synonyms: Acanthophacelus guppii (Günther, 1866), Acanthophacelus reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Girardinus guppii Günther, 1866, Girardinus reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Haridichthys reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Heterandria guppyi (Günther, 1866), Lebistes poecilioides De Filippi, 1861, Lebistes poeciloides De Filippi, 1861, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Poecilia reticulatus Peters, 1859, Poecilioides reticulatus (Peters, 1859)
84. Pomacea canaliculata (mollusc) English     
Pomacea canaliculata is a freshwater snail with a voracious appetite for water plants including lotus, water chestnut, taro and rice. Introduced widely from its native South America by the aquarium trade and as a source of human food, it is a major crop pest in south east Asia (primarily in rice) and Hawaii (taro) and poses a serious threat to many wetlands around the world through potential habitat modification and competition with native species.
Common Names: apple snail, channeled apple snail, Gelbe Apfelschnecke, golden apple snail, golden kuhol, miracle snail
Synonyms: Ampullaria canaliculata Lamarck, 1822
85. Psidium guajava (tree, shrub) English  français     
Psidium guajava is a tropical tree or shrub. It is native to central America from Mexico to northern South America. It has been introduced to most tropical and sub-tropical locations around the world for its edible fruit. In some countries the harvesting, processing and export of the fruit forms the basis of a sizeable industry. Due in part to its ability to grow on a variety of soils and across a range of climates, P. guajava has become invasive . Pastures and fields are overrun and native plants are outcompeted by this species, which has the ability to form dense thickets. This has led to its designation in many areas as a noxious weed to be controlled or eradicated. It is ranked by some authorities amongst the highest invasive categories.
Common Names: abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, farang, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, ku'ava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa momona, kuhfahfah, kuma, kuwawa, lemon guava, ma-kuai, ma-man, ngguava ni India, nguava, oi, pauwa, perala, petokal, quwawa, sapari, si da, te kuava, te kuawa, tokal, trapaek sruk, tuava, tu'ava, tu'avu, tumu tuava, tuvava, xalxocot
Synonyms: Guajava pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava var. pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava (L.) Kuntze, Psidium aromaticum, Psidium cujavillus Burm. f., Psidium guajava var. cujavillum (Burman) Krug and Urb., Psidium guajava var. guajava, Psidium guava Griseb., Psidium guayava Raddi, Psidium igatemyensis Barb. Rodr., Psidium pomiferum L., Psidium pumilum var. guadalupense, Psidium pumilum Vahl, Psidium pyriferum L.
86. Quadrastichus erythrinae (insect)
Unusual growths, caused by the Erythrina gall wasp (Quadrastichus erythrinae), on leaves and young shoots of coral trees (Erythrina spp). alerts to the presence of this emerging invasive species. Q. erythrinae measures a mere 1.5mm and may be spread easily via infected leaves from infected Erythrina specimens.
Common Names: erythrina gall wasp, erythrina gall wasp (EGW)
87. Rattus exulans (mammal) English  français   
The Pacific rat is the smallest of the three rats closely associated with humans. The fur is brown and its tail length is only slightly longer or shorter than the combined head and body length. Rattus exulans is recognised as a predator of native insects, lizards and birds, a browser of native flora and an agricultural pest. There appears to be no island groups reached by the Polynesians that did not receive Rattus exulans, although not all islands in a group were necessarily colonised.
Common Names: kiore, Kleine Pazifikratte, Maori rat, Pacific rat, Polynesian rat, rat du Pacifique, rat Polynésien, tikus Polynesia
Synonyms: Mus exulans Peale, 1848, Mus maorium Hutton, 1877, 1879
88. Rattus norvegicus (mammal) English  français   
The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is globally widespread and costs primary industry hundreds of millions of dollars per year. It has caused or contributed to the extinction or range reduction of native mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates through predation and competition. It restricts the regeneration of many plant species by eating seeds and seedlings, eats food crops and spoils human food stores by urinating and defecating in them. Additional economic damage is caused by chewing through power cables and spreading diseases.
Common Names: brown rat, common rat, isorotta, Norway rat, pouhawaiki, rat surmolot, Rata de noruega, rata noruega, ratto di fogna, ratto grigio, rotta, sewer rat, surmolotto, tikus riul, topo delle fogne, Wanderratte, water rat
Synonyms: Epimys norvegicus Miller, 1912, Mus decumanus Pallas, 1778, Mus hibernicus Thompson, 1837, Mus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769
89. Rattus rattus (mammal) English  français     
A native of the Indian sub-continent, the ship rat (Rattus rattus) has now spread throughout the world. It is widespread in forest and woodlands as well as being able to live in and around buildings. It will feed on and damage almost any edible thing. The ship rat is most frequently identified with catastrophic declines of birds on islands. It is very agile and often frequents tree tops searching for food and nesting there in bunches of leaves and twigs.
Common Names: black rat, blue rat, bush rat, European house rat, Hausratte, roof rat, ship rat
Synonyms: Mus alexandrinus Geoffroy, 1803, Mus novaezelandiae Buller, 1870, Mus rattus Linnaeus, 1758, Musculus frugivorus Rafinesque, 1814
90. Rhinella marina (=Bufo marinus) (amphibian) English  français     
Cane toads were introduced to many countries as biological control agents for various insect pests of sugarcane and other crops. The cane toads have proved to be pests themselves. They will feed on almost any terrestrial animal and compete with native amphibians for food and breeding habitats. Their toxic secretions are known to cause illness and death in domestic animals that come into contact with them, such as dogs and cats, and wildlife, such as snakes and lizards. Human fatalities have been recorded following ingestion of the eggs or adults.
Common Names: Aga-Kröte, bufo toad, bullfrog, cane toad, crapaud, giant American toad, giant toad, kwapp, macao, maco pempen, Maco toro, marine Toad, Suriname toad
Synonyms: Bufo agua Clark 1916, Bufo marinis [sic] Barbour 1916, Bufo marinus marinus Mertens 1972, Bufo marinus Mertens 1969, Bufo marinus Schneider 1799, Bufo strumosus Court 1858, Chaunus marinus Frost et al. 2006
91. Ricinus communis (tree, shrub) English  français     
Ricinus communis is a perennial shrub that can assume tree-like status if it establishes in a suitable climate. It is frequently found invading riparian areas where it displaces native vegetation. The seed of this species is toxic to variety of species including humans. Consuming only a few seeds can be fatal.
Common Names: agaliya, agaliya , belenivavalagi, castor, castor bean, castor-oil-plant , gelug, higuerilla, ka'apeha, kamakou, kasterolieboom, koli, la'au 'aila, lama palagi, lama palagi, lama papalagi, lepo , maskerekur, maskerekur, mbele ni vavalagi, pa'aila , pakarana, pakarani, palma-christi, pititu , ricin, rícino, Rizinus, tiairi , tiairi papa'a, tiairi popa'a, tiarili, toto ni vavalagi, toto ni vavalagi, tuitui, tuitui fua ikiiki , tuitui papa'a, uluchula skoki, uluchula skoki , utouto
Synonyms: Ricinus africanus Willd. , Ricinus angulatus Thunb. , Ricinus armatus Haw. , Ricinus badius Rchb. , Ricinus chinensis Thunb. , Ricinus digitatus Noronha , Ricinus europaeus T.Nees , Ricinus glaucus Hoffmanns. , Ricinus hybridus Besser , Ricinus inermis Mill. , Ricinus japonicus Thunb. , Ricinus laevis DC. , Ricinus leucocarpus Bertol. , Ricinus lividus Jacq. , Ricinus macrophyllus Bertol. , Ricinus medicus Forssk. , Ricinus megalospermus Delile , Ricinus minor Mill. , Ricinus nanus Balbis , Ricinus peltatus Noronha , Ricinus purpurascens Bertol. , Ricinus rugosus Mill. , Ricinus sanguineus Groenland , Ricinus scaber Bertol. ex Moris , Ricinus speciosus Burm.f. , Ricinus spectabilis Blume , Ricinus tunisensis Desf. , Ricinus undulatus Besser , Ricinus urens Mill. , Ricinus viridis Willd. , Ricinus vulgaris Mill.
92. Sansevieria trifasciata (succulent)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Native to tropical Africa Sansevieria trifasciata is now widely cultivated and naturalized. In Hawai‘i, it has spread vegetatively from areas where it has been cultivated.
Common Names: ‘alelo, African bowstring hemp, bowstring hemp, chanvre d'Afrique, kitelel, konje hemp, langue de belle-mère, lengua de suegra, mother-in-law's tongue, ngata, riri, sansevieria, snakeplant, tigre, viper's bowstring hemp
93. Scaevola sericea (shrub)
Beach naupaka (Scaevola sericea) is a dominant shrub species present in tropical and subtropical coastal environments, including sand dune, mangrove and seagrape habitats and ruderal land. Native to the Pacific and Indian Oceans, it has become an invasive coastal plant in sand dune ecosystems in the Cayman Islands and Florida, USA, where it forms dense monospecific mounds and out-competes and displaces native plants.
Common Names: aupaka, beach naupaka, half-flower, Hawaiian beach cabbage, Hawaiian half-flower, Hawaiian seagrape, huahekili, naupaka kahakai, naupaka kai, naupaka kuahiwi, Scaevola, sea lettuce
Synonyms: Scaevola frutescens (Mill.) Krause, Scaevola frutescens Krause, Scaevola frutescens var. sericea (Vahl) Merr., 1912, Scaevola koenigii Vahl, Scaevola lobelia L., Scaevola lobelia var. sericea (Vahl) Benth., 1852, Scaevola sericea var. sericea Vahl, Scaevola sericea var. taccada (Gaertn.) Thieret & B. Lipscomb, Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb., Scaevola taccada var. bryanii St. John, Scaevola taccada var. fauriei (Levl.) St. John, Scaevola taccada var. sericea (Vahl) St. John
94. Schinus terebinthifolius (tree) English  français     
Native to Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil, Schinus terebinthifolius is a pioneer of disturbed sites, but is also successful in undisturbed natural environments. It is an aggressive evergreen shrub or small tree, 3-7 metres in height that grows in a variety of soil types and prefers partial sun. Schinus terebinthifolius produces shady habitats that repel other plant species and discourage colonisation by native fauna and alter the natural fire regime. Its fruit has a 'paralysing effect' on birds and even grazing animals when ingested. Schinus terebinthifolius seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals and it readily escapes from garden environments. It is planted as both an ornamental and shade tree and has many uses.
Common Names: baie rose , Brazilian holly, Brazilian pepper, Brazilian pepper tree, Christmas berry, copal, encent, faux poivrier, Florida holly, Mexican pepper, naniohilo, pimienta de Brasil, poivre du Brésil, poivre marron, poivre rose, poivrier d'Amérique, Rosapfeffer, warui, wilelaiki
95. Setaria verticillata (grass) English     
Setaria verticillata is a native European grass, invading agricultural, urban, and other disturbed areas throughout North America, Central America, South America Africa, Asia, and the North and South Pacific. A problematic crop weed S. verticillata, has inflicted considerable environmental and economic costs, is known to adapt to local conditions rapidly, and has developed resistance to atrazine and other C 1/5 herbicides.
Common Names: almorejo, almorejo verticilado, alorejo, amor de hortelano, bristly foxtail, bur bristle grass, bur grass, capim-grama, carreig, cola de zorro, dukhain, fieno stellino, foxtail, hooked bristlegrass, kamala, khishin, kirpi dari, Kletten Borstenhirse, kolvhirs, Kransnaaldaar, lagartera, lossaig, mau‘ pilipili , milha-verticilada, oehoe, panico maggiore, panissola, pata de gallina, pega-pega, pega-saias, quam el-far, Quirl Bortenhirse, rabo de zorro, rough bristle grass, setaire verticillée, setaria spondyloti, whorled pigeon grass, Wirtel Borstenhirse, yah hang chnig-chok, zacate pegarropa, zaratsukienokorogusa
Synonyms: Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) (Scribn.), Ixophorus verticillatus (L.) (Nash, 1859), Panicum adhaerens (Forssk., 1775), Panicum aparine (Steud., 1854) , Panicum asperum (Lamk., 1778), Panicum respiciens (A. Rich., 1854), Panicum rottleri (Nees, 1841) , Panicum verticillatum (L., 1762), Panicum verticillatum L., Pennisetum respiciens (A. Rich., 1851) , Pennisetum verticillatum (L.) (Nash, 1817), Pennisetum verticillatum R. Br., Setaria adhaerens (Forssk., 1919), Setaria ambigua (Guss.), Setaria aparine (Stued. 1912), Setaria carnei (A.S. Hitchc.), Setaria nubica (Link), Setaria respiciens (A. Rich, 1852), Setaria verticillformis (Dumort.), Setaria virdis (Terracc., 1894)
96. Solenopsis geminata (insect) English  français 
Solenopsis geminata has spread almost world-wide by human commerce. It usually invades open areas but can easily colonise human infrastructure and agricultural systems, such as coffee and sugarcane plantations in hot climates. Its greatest known threats are its painful sting and the economic losses due to crop damage caused by its tending of honeydew-producing insects. Solenopsis geminata is known to reduce populations of native butterfly eggs and larvae. It has the potential to displace native ant populations, but is susceptible to competitive pressures from some other ant species.
Common Names: aka-kami-ari, Feuerameise, fire ant, ginger ant, tropical fire ant
Synonyms: Atta clypeata (Smith), Atta coloradensis (Buckley), Atta lincecumii (Buckley), Atta rufa (Jerdon), Crematogaster laboriosus (Smith), Diplorhoptrum drewseni (Mayr), Myrmica (Monomorium) saxicola (Buckley), Myrmica glaber (Smith), Myrmica laevissima (Smith), Myrmica mellea (Smith), Myrmica paleata (Lund), Myrmica polita (Smith), Solenopsis cephalotes (Smith), Solenopsis edouardi var. bahiaensis (Santschi), Solenopsis edouardi var. perversa (Santschi), Solenopsis eduardi (Forel), Solenopsis geminata subsp. Medusa (Mann), Solenopsis geminata var. galapageia (Wheeler), Solenopsis geminata var. innota (Santschi), Solenopsis geminata var. nigra (Forel), Solenopsis germinata var. diabola (Wheeler), Solenopsis mandibularis (Westwood)
97. Sorghum halepense (grass) English  français     
Sorghum halepense is an extremely invasive noxious weed with a worldwide distribution. High seed production and an extensive rhizomal system makes it difficult to eradicate. This species has a number of detrimental effects including: toxicity to grazing stock, fire risk during summer and competitive exclusion of other plants. It reduces soil fertility, acts as a host for crop pathogens and is a known allergen.
Common Names: Aleppo grass, Aleppo milletgrass, cañuela, Don Carlos, grama China, gumai, herbe de Cuba, Johnson grass, Johnsongrass, kola, sorgho, sorgho d'Alep, sorgo de Alepo, yerba Johnson, zacate Johnson
Synonyms: Andropogon arundinaceus Scop. 1772, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. 1804, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. anatherus Piper 1915, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. genuinus Stapf ex Hook. f. 1896, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. muticus (Hack.) Asch & Graebn. 1915, Andropogon halepensis (L.) Brot. var. typicus Asch & Graebn. 1898, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. ssp. halepensis (L.) Hack 1889, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. subvar. genuinus Hack 1889, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. subvar. leiostachys Hack 1889, Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. subvar. muticus Hack 1889, Blumenbachia halepensis (L.) Koeler 1802, Holcus halepensis L. 1753, Milium halepense (L.) Cav. 1802, Sorghum almum Parodi 1943, Sorghum almum Parodi var. typicum Parodi 1943, Sorghum controversum, Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. var. muticum (Hack.) Grossh. 1928, Sorghum miliaceum (Roxb.) Snowden, Sorghum saccharatum (L.) Moench var. halepense (L.) Kuntze 1891
98. Sphagneticola trilobata (herb) English  français     
Although Sphagneticola trilobata is the accepted name for this species, it is widely known as Wedelia trilobata. Sphagneticola trilobata is native to the tropics of Central America and has naturalised in many wet tropical areas of the world. Cultivated as an ornamental, it readily escapes from gardens and forms a dense ground cover, crowding out or preventing regeneration of other species. In plantations, it will compete with crops for nutrients, light and water, and reduce crop yields.
Common Names: ate, atiat, creeping ox-eye, dihpw ongohng, Hasenfuss, ngesil ra ngebard, rosrangrang, Singapore daisy, trailing daisy, tuhke ongohng, ut mõkadkad, ut telia, wedelia
Synonyms: Acmella brasiliensis Spreng., Acmella spilanthoides Cass., Buphthalmum repens Lam., Buphthalmum strigosum Spreng., Complaya trilobata (L.) Strother, Polymnia carnosa Poir., Polymnia carnosa Poir. var. aspera (Rich.) Poir., Polymnia carnosa Poir. var. glabella (Rich.) Poir., Polymnia carnosa Poir. var. triloba (Rich.) Poir., Seruneum paludosum (DC.) Kuntze, Seruneum trilobatum (L.) Kuntze, Silphium trilobatum L., Sphagneticola ulei O.Hoffm., Stemmodontia trilobata (L.) Small, Thelechitonia trilobata (L.) H.Rob. & Cuatrec., Verbesina carnosa M.Gómez, Verbesina carnosa M.Gómez var. aspera (Rich.) M.Gómez, Verbesina carnosa M.Gómez var. triloba (Rich.) M.Gómez, Wedelia brasiliensis S.F.Blake, Wedelia carnea Rich., Wedelia carnosa Rich. ex Spreng., Wedelia carnosa Rich. var. aspera Rich., Wedelia carnosa Rich. var. glabella Rich., Wedelia carnosa Rich. var. triloba Rich., Wedelia crenata Rich., Wedelia paludicola Poepp. & Endl., Wedelia paludosa DC., Wedelia triloba (Rich.) Bello, Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
99. Suncus murinus (mammal) English  français   
Suncus murinus (the Indian musk shrew) is a commensal and adaptable mammal. It is a rapid coloniser and threatens many plant and animal species through predation and competition. Through human agency it has a large and expanding range and, to date, very little work has been done on how to effectively manage the species.
Common Names: Asian house shrew, Asian musk shrew, brown musk shrew, Ceylon highland shrew, common Indian musk-shrew, grande pachyure, grey musk shrew, house shrew, Indian grey musk-rat, Indian musk shrew, Kandyan shrew, kirukanjia, money shrew, Moschusspitzmaus, musaraigne musquée, rat musquee, Ryukyu musk shrew, white-tailed shrew
Synonyms: Suncus albicauda, Suncus albinus, Suncus andersoni, Suncus auriculata, Suncus beddomei, Suncus blanfordii, Suncus blythii, Suncus caerulaeus, Suncus caerulescens, Suncus caeruleus, Suncus celebensis, Suncus ceylanica, Suncus crassicaudus, Suncus duvernoyi, Suncus edwardsiana, Suncus fulvocinerea, Suncus fuscipes, Suncus geoffroyi, Suncus giganteus, Suncus griffithii, Suncus heterodon, Suncus indicus, Suncus kandianus, Suncus kroonii, Suncus Kuekenthali, Suncus leucera, Suncus luzoniensis, Suncus malabaricus, Suncus mauritiana, Suncus media, Suncus melanodon, Suncus microtis, Suncus mulleri, Suncus muschata, Suncus myosurus, Suncus nemorivagus, Suncus nitidofulva, Suncus occultidens, Suncus palawanensis, Suncus pealana, Suncus pilorides, Suncus riukiuana, Suncus rubicunda, Suncus sacer, Suncus saturatior, Suncus semmeliki, Suncus semmelincki, Suncus serpentarius, Suncus sindensis, Suncus soccatus, Suncus sonneratii, Suncus swinhoei, Suncus temminckii, Suncus tytleri, Suncus unicolor, Suncus viridescens, Suncus waldemarii
100. Sus scrofa (mammal) English  français     
Sus scrofa (feral pigs) are escaped or released domestic animals which have been introduced to many parts of the world. They damage crops, stock and property, and transmit many diseases such as Leptospirosis and Foot and Mouth disease. Rooting pigs dig up large areas of native vegetation and spread weeds, disrupting ecological processes such as succession and species composition. Sus scrofa are omnivorous and their diet can include juvenile land tortoises, sea turtles, sea birds, endemic reptiles and macro-invertebrates. Management of Sus scrofa is complicated by the fact that complete eradication is often not acceptable to communities that value feral pigs for hunting and food.
Common Names: kuhukuhu, kune-kune, petapeta, pig, poretere, razorback, te poaka, Wildschwein
101. Syzygium cumini (tree) English  français     
Syzygium cumini has been introduced to many different places where it has been utilised as a fruit producer, as an ornamental and also for its timber. It has the ability to form a dense cover, excluding all other species. This characteristic has allowed Syzygium cumini to become invasive in Hawaii where it prevents the re-establishment of native lowland forest and very invasive in the Cook Islands and in French Polynesia. This tree has not been evaluated for biological control, but vigorous efforts to exterminate it with herbicides are taking place in Hawaii.
Common Names: black plum, damson plum, djoowet, doowet, druif, duhat, duhat, faux-pistachier, guayabo pesjua, indian blackberry, jalao, jaman, jambhool, jamblang, jambol, jambolan plum, jambolanier, jambool, jambu, jambul, jambulao, jamelao, jamelong, jamelongue, jamélongue, jamelonguier, jamelon-guier, jammun, jamoen, Java plum, jiwat, Ka'ika, kavika ni India, koeli, koriang, lomboy, lunaboy, ma-ha, Malabar plum, mesegerak, mesekerrak, mesekerrák, mesigerak, paramu, pesjua extranjera, pistati, Portuguese plum, pring bai, pring das krebey, purple plum, salam, va, voi rung, wa
Synonyms: Calyptranthes caryophyllifolia (Lam.) Willd., Calyptranthes oneillii Lundell, Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce, Eugenia jambolana Lam., Eugenia caryophyllifolia Lam., Eugenia cumini (L.) Druce, Eugenia jambolana Lam., Myrtus cumini L., Syzygium jambolana (Lam.) DC., Syzygium jambolanum DC., Syzygium caryophyllifolium (Lam.) DC., Syzygium jambolanum (Lam.) DC.
102. Syzygium jambos (tree) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Syzygium jambos, commonly known as the Malabar plum, is indigenous to the Malay Archipelago. It is a small tree (10 - 15 m), and was primarily introduced into new areas as an ornamental and as a shade tree. S. jambos has been introduced to Southern Africa, Australia and a number of Pacific islands including Micronesia, Hawaii, American Samoa and Pitcairn, where it has become an invasive species, threatening native flora.
Common Names: ‘ohi‘a loke, ahi‘a papa‘a, apel en wai, fa palangi, fekika papalangi, haia, hehea ha‘amoa , iouen wai, iouen wai, jambos, jambosier, jambrosade, jamrosa, jamrosa, jamrosat, jamrosier, ka‘ika, ka‘ika papa‘a, ka‘ika takataka, ka‘ika varani, kavika ni India, kavika ni vavalangi, kavika ni vavalangi, Malabar plum, manzana rosa, pomarrosa, pomme-rose, pommier rose, prunier de Malabar, rose apple, rose-apple, Rosenapfelbaum, seasea palagi, yambo, youenwai
Synonyms: Caryophyllus jambos (L.) Stokes, Eugenia jambos L., Jambosa jambos (L.) Millsp.
103. Tabebuia heterophylla (tree) English  français     
Tabebuia heterophylla is a small to medium sized deciduous tree attaining a height of 18m. In its native range it is widespread in abandoned pastures and secondary forests. It has become a problem in Pacific regions and is particularly common in dry, coastal woodlands and in secondary forests. It grows on any soil type and will adapt to poor or degraded soils. T. heterophylla regenerates and forms pure monotypic stands. It is an extremely fast growing species and can easily outcompete native and other exotic trees. It bears leaves and branches almost to the base and casts a deep shade under which virtualy no other species can grow. Its thick litter layer may also prevent the growth of native seedlings.
Common Names: calice du paperpape, pink manjack , pink tecoma, pink trumpet-tree , roble , roble blanco , white cedar, white-cedar , whitewood
Synonyms: Bignonia pallida Lindl. , Tabebuia heterophylla ssp. pallida auct. non (Miers) Stehlé , Tabebuia lucida Britt. , Tabebuia pallida sensu Liogier & Martorell , Tabebuia pentaphylla (DC.) Hemsl. , Tabebuia triphylla DC.
104. Tecoma capensis (vine, climber, tree, shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Tecoma capensis consists of two subspecies within its native range; Tecoma capensis subsp. capensis which is found in South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique, and Tecoma capensis subsp. nyassae which is found in Tanzania, The Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique. It is not known which subspecies however is that which is becoming invasive worldwide. Various countries have identified the species in their invasive species plans; Anguilla, Australia and New Zealand, however it is only on the island of Rangitoto in Auckland, New Zealand, where specific actions have been identified to contain the species. In Tanzania the species is found to have spread from unknown introduction around the Amani Botanical Gardens. Evidence from this study and from studies in New Zealand and Queensland, Australia suggests that the species spreads and becomes naturalised from being planted as an ornamental within landscaped areas.
Common Names: ‘i‘iwi haole, Bignone, Bouquet, Cape Honeysuckle, chèvrefeuille du Cap, jasmin du Cap, técome
Synonyms: Bigonia capensis, Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.) Spach, Tecomaria capensis subsp. capensis, Tecomaria capensis subsp. nyassae
105. Thevetia peruviana (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana is a bushy shrub native to tropical America. Seedlings can be found on cultivated ground and ex-pasture land. It is cultivated in gardens as an ornamental where it competes with garden plants. It is an opportunistic plant and is found growing on disturbed habitats. Its fruit, seeds, foliage or sap are poisonous to man and animals. It is a significant weed in Timor-Leste and is listed as a Category 1 weed in South Africa (prohibited and to be controlled).
Common Names: adelfa amarilla, be still tree, cabalonga, chirca, foreigner's tree, geel-oleander, irelepsech , jacapa, kanneeta, koneta, loandro-amarelo, luckynut, nohomalie, oléandre jaune, piti, poupou, pua, Thevetie, venevene, yellow oleander
Synonyms: Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippoid, Cerbera thevetia L., Thevetia neriifolia Juss. ex Steud.
106. Tilapia zillii (fish) English   
In its native, tropical range, Tilapia zillii is important as a food fish as well as for aquaculture. Tilapia zillii provided 70% of Egypt's fish production, however outside its native range, this freshwater fish has the ability to establish itself even in highly salinated waters, only being held back by a low tolerance to cold water. Often introduced for use in aquatic weed control, Tilapia zilli can alter native benthic communities through the elimination of macrophytes and exhibits aggressive behaviour towards other fish species.
Common Names: akpadi sila, akpasila, amnun matzui, a-sannoh, bere, biare, biering, bugu, bulti, cichlid, didee, disiwulen, Engege, Epia, Erihere, falga, garagaza, gargaza, gba gba ferah, gbatchekede, guring, ifunu, isiswe, karfasa, karwa, ka-yainkain, kido, kokine, kpro ibre, kuda, loroto, mango fish, mojarra, mojarrita, mpupa, ngege, ngipie, ngorkei, njabb, obrouyou, pastenague boulee, perege, punavatsatilapia, redbelly tilapia, sato, sili, silla, sohn, striped tilapia, tegr-pere, tha thompo, tihil, tilapia, tome, tsokungi, ukuobu, waas, waas gnoul, wesafun, Zilles Buntbarsch, zilli's cichlid, zill's tilapia
Synonyms: Acerina zilli (Gervais, 1848), Chromis andreae (Gunther, 1864), Chromis coeruleomaculatus (Rochebrune, 1880), Chromis faidherbii (Rochebrune, 1880), Chromis melanopleura (Dumeril, 1861), Chromis menzalensis (Mitchell, 1895), Chromis tristrami (Gunther, 1860), Chromis zillii (Gervais, 1848), Coptodon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Coptodus zillii (Gervais, 1848), Glyphisidon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Haligenes tristrami (Gunther, 1860), Sarotherodon zillei (Gervais, 1848), Sarotherodon zillii (Gervais, 1848), Tilapia faidherbi (Rochebrune, 1880), Tilapia melanopleura (Dumeril, 1861), Tilapia menzalensis (Mitchell, 1895), Tilapia multiradiata (Holly, 1928), Tilapia shariensis (Fowler, 1949), Tilapia sparrmani multiradiata (Holly, 1928), Tilapia tristrami (Gunther, 1860)
107. Trachemys scripta elegans (reptile) English  français     
The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) has been the most popular turtle in the pet trade with more than 52 million individuals exported from the United States to foreign markets between 1989 and 1997. Despite the vast worldwide occurrence of the sliders little is known of their impact on indigenous ecosystems, clearly research and education on the dangers of releasing pet turtles into the wild are needed. Their omnivorous diet and ability to adapt to various habitats, gives them great potential for impacting indigenous habitats.
Common Names: Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte, Krasnoukhaya cherepakha, Nordamerikansk terrapin, punakorvakilpikonna, punakõrv-ilukilpkonn, raudonausis vežlys , raudonskruostis vežlys, red-eared slider, red-eared slider terrapin, rödörad vattensköldpadda, rødøret terrapin, rødøreterrapin , Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkroete, Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkröte , sarkanausu brunurupucis, slider, tortue à tempe rouge, tortue de Floride, zólw czerwonolicy, zólw czerwonouchy, zólw ozdobny
Synonyms: Chrysemys scripta (Boulenger 1889), Chrysemys scripta var. elegans Boulenger 1889, Emys elegans Wied 1839, Emys holbrooki Gray 1844, Emys sanguinolenta Gray1855, Pseudemys scripta elegans Stebbins 1985, Pseudemys scripta (Jordan 1899), Testudo scripta Schoepff, 1792, Trachemys lineata Gray 1873
108. Tradescantia spathacea (herb) English  français     
Tradescantia spathacea is a beautiful succulent that has been introduced to south Asia and many Pacific Islands from its native range in the tropical Americas. Although it has not yet been declared a pest, in many areas it has become a very invasive weed, especially in Florida where it invades and disrupts native plant communities. Tradescantia spathacea creates a dense groundcover on the forest floor which prevents native plants from germinating. Tradescantia spathacea has diverse reproductive methods and grows in areas other plants cannot. These two characteristics make this plant a potential danger to many areas. Monitoring is recommended wherever this species is present.
Common Names: boat lily, boat plant, faina kula, moses in a boat, Moses-in-a-basket, oyster plant, riri mangio, riri raei, talotalo, laupapaki
Synonyms: Rhoeo discolor Hance ex Walp, Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stear, Rhoeo discolor (L'Hér.) Hance, Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn, Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn  forma concolor (Baker) Stehle, Rhoeo spathacea (Sw.) Stearn  forma variegata (Hook) Stehle, Tradescantia discolor L'Hér., Tradescantia discolor L'Hér., Tradescantia discolor L'Hér. var. concolor Baker, Tradescantia discolor L'Hér. var. variegata Hook.
109. Urochloa maxima (grass) English  français     
Although Urochloa maxima is the accepted name for this species, it is still widely known as Panicum maximum. Urochloa maxima is a native of tropical Africa where it occurs from sea level to 1,800m. It is used as a forage grass and its ability to tolerate a wide range of habitats make it a very productive species. Urochloa maxima has become prevalent in Samoa and Tonga and it is a problem species in Guam and Hawaii. Although it is a favourable grass in many areas it can also form dense stands and displace native species.
Common Names: buffalograss, capime guiné, fataque, green panic, Guinea grass, herbe de Guinéa, panic élevé, saafa, talapi, tinikarati, vao Kini, vao Kini, yerba de Guinea, zacate Guinea
Synonyms: Panicum gongylodes Jacq., Panicum hirsutissimum Steud., Panicum jumentorum Pers., Panicum laeve Lam., Panicum maximum Jacq., Panicum maximum var. coloratum C.T. White, Panicum maximum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) Döll, Panicum maximum var. maximum, Panicum maximum var. pubiglume K. Schum., Panicum maximum var. trichoglume Robyns, Panicum polygamum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) E. Fourn., Panicum trichocondylum Steud., Urochloa maxima var. trichoglumis (Robyns) R.D. Webster
110. Urochloa mutica (grass)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The perennial buffalo grass (Urochloa mutica) can grow to heights of two meters, it is found growing in wet fields, ditches and gullies from sea level to 700mts. It forms dense monotypic stands by layering of trailing stems and can overgrow shrubs and native vegetation in the habitats it invades. It also has a mild allelopathic effect. It can tolerate brackish water and interfere with stream flow due to its higly aggressive invasive habit.
Common Names: buffalo grass, California grass, Dutch grass, giant couch, gramalote, herbe borer, herbe de Guinée, herbe de Para, hierba de Pará, mauku puakatoro, Mauritius grass , para grass , pasto Pará, puakatau , Scotch grass, tall panicum, water grass, zacuti para
Synonyms: Brachiaria mutica (Forsk.) Stapf, Brachiaria mutica (Forssk.) Stapf, Brachiaria purpurascens (Raddi) Henr., Brachiaria purpurascens Henr., Panicum barbinode Trin., Panicum guadeloupense Steudel, Panicum muticum Forsk., Panicum muticum Forssk., Panicum purpurascens Raddi
111. Varanus indicus (reptile)
Varanus indicus (mangrove monitor) is a terrestrial-arboreal monitor lizard that has been introduced to several locations for its meat, skin or as a biological control agent. It has created a nuisance on many islands preying on domesticated chickens and scavenging the eggs of endangered sea turtles. Bufo marinus (cane toad) was introduced to control mangrove monitor populations in several locations, but this has led to devastating consequences. In many places both of these species are now serious pests, with little potential for successful control.
Common Names: ambon lizard, erebachi, flower lizard, George's island monitor, Indian monitor, Indian monitor lizard, kalabeck monitor, mangrove monitor, Pacific monitor, Pazifikwaran, regu, sosi, stillahavsvaran, varan des indes, varan des mangroves, varano de manglar
Synonyms: Monitor chlorostigma, Monitor doreanus, Monitor douarrha, Monitor indicus, Monitor kalabeck, Tupinambis indicus, Varanus chlorostigma, Varanus guttatus, Varanus indicus indicus, Varanus indicus kalabecki, Varanus indicus spinulosis, Varanus leucostigma, Varanus tsukamotoi
112. Wasmannia auropunctata (insect) English  français     
Wasmannia auropunctata (the little fire ant) is blamed for reducing species diversity, reducing overall abundance of flying and tree-dwelling insects, and eliminating arachnid populations. It is also known for its painful stings. On the Galapagos, it eats the hatchlings of tortoises and attacks the eyes and cloacae of the adult tortoises. It is considered to be perhaps the greatest ant species threat in the Pacific region.
Common Names: albayalde, cocoa tree-ant, formi électrique, formiga pixixica, fourmi électrique, fourmi rouge, hormiga colorada, hormiga roja, hormiguilla, little fire ant, little introduced fire ant, little red fire ant, pequena hormiga de fuego, petit fourmi de feu, Rote Feuerameise, sangunagenta, satanica, small fire ant, tsangonawenda, West Indian stinging ant
Synonyms: Hercynia panamana (Enzmann 1947), Ochetomyrmex auropunctata, Ochetomyrmex auropunctatum (Forel 1886), Ochetomyrmex auropunctatus, Tetramorium auropunctatum (Roger 1863), Wasmannia glabra (Santschi 1931), Xiphomyrmex atomum (Santschi 1914)
113. Ziziphus mauritiana (tree, shrub) English  français     
Ziziphus mauritiana is widely cultivated in dry areas throughout the tropics. It tolerates extremely dry habitats and is an extremely valuable tree for people that live in such climates. Ziziphus mauritiana has a multitude of uses, including culinary and medicinal. It can form dense stands and become invasive in some areas, including Fiji and Australia. In Australia Ziziphus mauritiana has the capacity to greatly expand its current range in northern and northeastern Australia. The main industry affected is the cattle industry but Ziziphus mauritiana also has environmental impacts in woodland and savanna ecosystems.
Common Names: appeldam, aprin, baer, baher, bahir, bedara, ber, bor, Chinee apple, Chinese apple, Chinese date, coolie plum, crabapple, dindoulier, dunk, dunks, dunks, gingeolier, Indian cherry, Indian jujube, Indian plum, jujube, jujube, jujube du pays, jujubier, jujubier, jujubier indien, liane croc chien, Malay jujube, mangustine, manzana (apple), manzanas, manzanita, manzanita (little apple), masson, ma-tan, perita haitiana, petit pomme, phutsa, pomme malcadi, pomme surette, ponsigne, prune Saint Paul, putrea, tao, tao nhuc, widara, widara, yuyubi, yuyubo
Synonyms: Rhamnus jujuba L., Rhamnus mauritiana Soyer-Willemet, Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Lam., non P. Mill., Ziziphus aucheri Boiss., Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn., Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn. var. fruticosa Haines, Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn. var. stenocarpa Kuntze, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. deserticola A. Chev., Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. orthacantha (DC.) A. Chev., Ziziphus orthacantha DC, Ziziphus poiretii G. Don, Ziziphus rotundata DC.

Biostatus not specified

1. Acanthaster planci (sea star)
Coral gardens from Micronesia and Polynesia provide valuable marine resources for local communities and environments for native marine species such as marine fish. In coral ecosystems already affected by coral bleaching, excess tourism and natural events such as storms and El Nino, the effects of the invasive coral-feeding starfish (Acanthaster planci) on native coral communities contributes to an already dire state of affairs. Acanthaster planci significantly threatens the viability of these fragile coral ecosystems, and damage to coral gardens by the starfish has been quite extensive in some reef systems.
Common Names: coral-eating starfish, coral-feeding starfish, crown-of-thorns-starfish, giant thorny starfish
2. Acanthophora spicifera (alga) English  français 
Acanthophora spicifera is a red algae which is found in most tropical or subtropical seas of the world. Its plastic morphology allows it to adapt to a variety of environmental conditions, and hence it can invade a diverse range of habitats. It is an alien invasive species in Hawaii. It is amongst the most successful alien algal species in this region, where it may modify native communities and compete with native algae.
Common Names: bulung tombong bideng, culot, red alga, spiny alga, spiny seaweed
Synonyms: Acanthophora antillarum Montagne ex Kützing 1865, Acanthophora intermedia Crouan, Acanthophora orientalis J. Agardh 1863, Acanthophora orientalis var. wightii (J. Agardh) Sonder 1879, Acanthophora spicifera f. orientalis (J.Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera f. wightii (J. Agardh) Weber-van Bosse 1923, Acanthophora spicifera var. orientalis (J. Agardh) Zaneveld 1956, Acanthophora thierryi f. gracilis P.L. Crouan & H.M. Crouan 1878, Acanthophora thierryi J.V. Lamouroux 1813, Acanthophora wightii J. Agardh 1863, Chondria acanthophorara C. Agardh 1822, Fucus acanthophorus J.V. Lamouroux 1805, Fucus spicifer M. Vahl 1802
3. Antigonon leptopus (vine, climber) English  français     
Antigonon leptopus is a smothering vine that invades disturbed areas and forest edges. It produces many seeds, which are spread by water currents and animals that consume the fruit. It has become invasive in some Pacific Islands, and is naturalised in many other parts of the Pacific.
Common Names: antigone, antigone à pied grêle, chain-of-love, confederate vine, coral bells, coral vine, corallita, dilngau, flores ka'dena, hearts on a chain, kadena de amor, liane antigone, love-vine, Mexican creeper, mountain rose, queen's jewels, rohsapoak, Sandwich Island creeper
Synonyms: Antigonon cinerascens M.Martens & Galeotti, Antigonon cordatum M.Martens & Galeotti, Antigonon platypus Hook. & Arn., Corculum leptopum (Hook. & Arn.) Stuntz, Corculum leptopus (Hook. & Arn.) Stuntz
4. Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) (micro-organism) English  français     
Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is a deadly pathogen which affects many areas of the world-wide banana industry. Infected banana plants produce increasingly smaller leaves on shorter petioles giving the plants a bunched appearance. Fruits may be distorted and plants become sterile before the whole mat (rhizome) eventually dies. The international spread of BBTV is primarily through infected planting materials.
Common Names: abaca bunchy top virus, banana bunchy top disease (BBTD), BBTV, bunchy top, bunchy top virus, laufeti’iti’i
Synonyms: Banana bunchy top virus BBTV
5. Commelina benghalensis (herb) English     
Believed to be native only to tropical Asia and Africa, Commelina benghalensis is a widely distributed herbaceous weed that commonly invades agricultural sites and disturbed areas. Though not commonly reported to invade natural areas, this rapidly reproducing plant is considered one of the most troublesome weeds for 25 crops in 29 different countries.
Common Names: alikbangon, Benghal dayflower, bias-bias, blue commelina, comméline, commeline du Bengale, dayflower, gewor, golondrina, hairy honohono, hairy wandering-Jew, herbe aux cochons, Indian dayflower, kanaibashi, kanasiri, kanchara, kanchura, kaningi, kanini, kankaua, kena, konasimalu, krishnaghas, kuhasi, kulkulasi, mankawa, matalí, mau‘u Toga, mau‘u Tonga, musie matala pulu, myet-cho, sabilau, sabilau, trapoeraba, tropical spiderwort, tsuyukusa, tsuyukusa, wandering-jew, yu-je-tsai
Synonyms: Commelina canescens Vahl, Commelina cucullata L., Commelina delicatula Schltdl., Commelina kilimandscharica K. Schum., Commelina mollis Jacq., Commelina nervosa Burm. f., Commelina procurrens Schltdl., Commelina prostrata Regel, Commelina pyrrhoblepharis Hassk. (1867), Commelina turbinata Vahl
6. Gracilaria salicornia (alga) English  français     
The introduction of alien algae in the marine environment is a potential threat to the health and stability of near-shore ecosystems. Gracilaria salicornia threatens coral reefs and native benthic communities in Hawaii and elsewhere. It may reduce marine species diversity and alter marine community structure.
Common Names: canot-canot, red alga
Synonyms: Corallopsis cacalia Agardh, Corallopsis concrescens Reinbold, Corallopsis dichotoma Ruprecht, Corallopsis opuntia Agardh, Corallopsis salicornia Greville, Corallopsis salicornia var. minor Sonder, Gracilaria cacalia Dawson, Sphaerococcus salicornia Agardh
7. Passiflora foetida (vine, climber) English  français     
Passiflora foetida is a perennial herbaceous vine that originates from tropical America, but is now a pantropic weed. It is a common weed in many places of the Pacific and Atlantic, where it climbs over low vegetation on roadsides and in other disturbed places. Monitoring and management of this toxic plant is recommended in tropical areas where it is present.
Common Names: bedoca, bombom, dulce, fetid pa, grenadier marron, ka thoc rock, kinahulo' atdao, kudamono, lani wai, loliloli ni kalavo, love-in-a-mist, mossy passionflower, pasio vao, passiflore, passiflore fétide, passiflore poc-poc, passionflower, pohapoha, pompom, pwomwpwomw, qaranidila, running pop, scarlet fruited passionflower, sou, stinking passionflower, tea biku, ti grenadelle, tomates, vaine 'ae kuma, vaine 'initia, vine vao, wild passion fruit, wild water lemon
Synonyms: Dysosmia ciliata (Dryand.) M.Roem., Dysosmia fluminensis M.Roem., Dysosmia foetida (L.) M.Roem., Dysosmia gossypifolia (Desv. ex Ham.) M.Roem., Dysosmia hastata (Bertol.) M.Roem., Dysosmia hibiscifolia (Lam.) M.Roem., Dysosmia nigelliflora (Hook.) M.Roem., Granadilla foetida (L.) Gaertn., Passiflora baraquiniana Lem., Passiflora ciliata Dryand., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. polyadena Griseb., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. quinqueloba Griseb., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. riparia C.Wright ex Griseb., Passiflora foetida L. forma suberecta Chodat & Hassl., Passiflora foetida L. var. lanuginosa Killip, Passiflora foetida L. forma latifolia Kuntze, Passiflora foetida L. forma longifolia Kuntze, Passiflora foetida L. forma quinqueloba (Griseb.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. acapulcensis Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. arizonica Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. balansae Chodat, Passiflora foetida L. var. ciliata (Dryand.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. eliasii Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. fluminensis (M.Roem.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. galapagensis Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. gardneri Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. glaziovii Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. gossypifolia (Desv. ex Ham.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hastata (Bertol.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hibiscifolia (Lam.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. hirsuta Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hirsutissima Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. hispida (DC. ex Triana & Planch.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. isthmia Killip
8. Pistia stratiotes (aquatic plant) English  français     
Pistia stratiotes is a freshwater invasive weed that is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. It is a free-floating plant that is capable of forming dense mats on the surfaces of lakes, ponds, rivers and other bodies of water. Pistia stratiotes is a popular garden pond plant and is often spread by the dumping of aquarium or ornamental pond plants. Fragments, or whole plants, can be spread via boats or fishing equipment from an infested area to a clean body of water.
Common Names: laitue d'eau, Lechuguilla de agua, lechuguita de agua, pistie, repollo de agua, salade d’eau, tropical duckweed, water lettuce
9. Sphagneticola trilobata (herb) English  français     
Although Sphagneticola trilobata is the accepted name for this species, it is widely known as Wedelia trilobata. Sphagneticola trilobata is native to the tropics of Central America and has naturalised in many wet tropical areas of the world. Cultivated as an ornamental, it readily escapes from gardens and forms a dense ground cover, crowding out or preventing regeneration of other species. In plantations, it will compete with crops for nutrients, light and water, and reduce crop yields.
Common Names: ate, atiat, creeping ox-eye, dihpw ongohng, Hasenfuss, ngesil ra ngebard, rosrangrang, Singapore daisy, trailing daisy, tuhke ongohng, ut mõkadkad, ut telia, wedelia
Synonyms: Acmella brasiliensis Spreng., Acmella spilanthoides Cass., Buphthalmum repens Lam., Buphthalmum strigosum Spreng., Complaya trilobata (L.) Strother, Polymnia carnosa Poir., Polymnia carnosa Poir. var. aspera (Rich.) Poir., Polymnia carnosa Poir. var. glabella (Rich.) Poir., Polymnia carnosa Poir. var. triloba (Rich.) Poir., Seruneum paludosum (DC.) Kuntze, Seruneum trilobatum (L.) Kuntze, Silphium trilobatum L., Sphagneticola ulei O.Hoffm., Stemmodontia trilobata (L.) Small, Thelechitonia trilobata (L.) H.Rob. & Cuatrec., Verbesina carnosa M.Gómez, Verbesina carnosa M.Gómez var. aspera (Rich.) M.Gómez, Verbesina carnosa M.Gómez var. triloba (Rich.) M.Gómez, Wedelia brasiliensis S.F.Blake, Wedelia carnea Rich., Wedelia carnosa Rich. ex Spreng., Wedelia carnosa Rich. var. aspera Rich., Wedelia carnosa Rich. var. glabella Rich., Wedelia carnosa Rich. var. triloba Rich., Wedelia crenata Rich., Wedelia paludicola Poepp. & Endl., Wedelia paludosa DC., Wedelia triloba (Rich.) Bello, Wedelia trilobata (L.) Hitchc.
10. Technomyrmex albipes (insect)
Native to the Indo-Pacific area, Technomyrmex albipes, commonly known as the white-footed ant, has spread to Australia, Africa, North America, Caribbean and Asia. Technomyrmex albipes are often found on cut flowers and other imported plants. It's penchant for invading houses and nesting in wall cavities distresses homeowners. The unusual colony structure of Technomyrmex albipes allows them to reproduce rapidly, especially in warm weather, reaching numbers in the millions in some locations. Management of Technomyrmex albipes is difficult when populations abound, as chemical poisons are not transferred between workers.
Common Names: ashijiro-hirafushi-ari, white-footed ant, white-footed house ant
Synonyms: Formica (Tapinoma) albipes Smith, Formica albipes, Tapinoma albipes (Smith), Tapinoma albitarse Motschoulsky, Tapinoma nigrum Mayr, Technomrmex albipes var. vitiensis Mann., Technomyrmex albipes st. rufescens Santschi, Technomyrmex detorquens Walker
11. Urochloa maxima (grass) English  français     
Although Urochloa maxima is the accepted name for this species, it is still widely known as Panicum maximum. Urochloa maxima is a native of tropical Africa where it occurs from sea level to 1,800m. It is used as a forage grass and its ability to tolerate a wide range of habitats make it a very productive species. Urochloa maxima has become prevalent in Samoa and Tonga and it is a problem species in Guam and Hawaii. Although it is a favourable grass in many areas it can also form dense stands and displace native species.
Common Names: buffalograss, capime guiné, fataque, green panic, Guinea grass, herbe de Guinéa, panic élevé, saafa, talapi, tinikarati, vao Kini, vao Kini, yerba de Guinea, zacate Guinea
Synonyms: Panicum gongylodes Jacq., Panicum hirsutissimum Steud., Panicum jumentorum Pers., Panicum laeve Lam., Panicum maximum Jacq., Panicum maximum var. coloratum C.T. White, Panicum maximum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) Döll, Panicum maximum var. maximum, Panicum maximum var. pubiglume K. Schum., Panicum maximum var. trichoglume Robyns, Panicum polygamum var. gongylodes (Jacq.) E. Fourn., Panicum trichocondylum Steud., Urochloa maxima var. trichoglumis (Robyns) R.D. Webster

Native Species

1. Alternanthera sessilis (herb) English     
Alternanthera sessilis is a weed that inhabits many areas of the world. It occupies moist areas and can be found from sea level to over 2000m. Alternanthera sessilis is a pest of sugarcane, a weed of rice in tropical areas, and an agricultural weed that invades disturbed wet areas in tropical and subtropical regions. It has been used widely around the world for its medicinal uses, as well as for food. The plant has been readily used for food partly due to its abundance.
Common Names: bhirangijhar, brède chevrette, brede embellage, common roadside weed, dwarf copperleaf, fisi'i'ano, galuti, horng-tyan-wu, joyweed, lianzi cao, magloire, mata kura, mukunuwanna, okula beluulechad, palewawae, periquito-sessil, phak pet thai, sessile joyweed, ti, vao sosolo
Synonyms: Achyranthes linearifolia Sw. ex Wikstr., Achyranthes sessilis (L.) Desf. Ex. Steud, Achyranthes triandra Roxb., Achyranthes villosa Blanco, Achyranthes polygonoides (L.) Lam., Allaganthera forskalii Mart., Alternanthera achyranthes Forssk., Alternanthera angustifolia R. Br., Alternanthera decipiens Benth., Alternanthera denticulata R. Br., Alternanthera ficoidea (L.) P. Beauv., Alternanthera glabra Moq., Alternanthera major (Benth.) Domin, Alternanthera micrantha (Benth.) Domin , Alternanthera nana R. Br., Alternanthera nodiflora R. Br., Alternanthera polygonoides (L.) R. Br., Alternanthera prostrata D. Don., Alternanthera repens J.F.Gmel., Alternanthera sennii Mattei, Alternanthera sibirica (de Vest ex Schult.) Steud., Alternanthera tenella Moq., Alternanthera tenuissima Suess., Alternanthera trianda Lam., Alternanthera uliginosa (Domin) Dinter, Bucholzia polygonoides (L.) Mart., Gomphrena polygonoides (L.), Gomphrena sessilis L., Illecebrum angustifolium (R.Br.) Spreng., Illecebrum denticulatum(R.Br.) Spreng., Illecebrum nanum (R.Br.) Spreng, Illecebrum polygonoides (L.) L., Illecebrum sessile (L.) L., Illecebrum sibiricum de Vest ex Schult., Illecebrum triandrum Llanos, Paronychia sessilis (L.) Desf., Paronychia tetragona Moench, Steiremis repens Raf., Telanthera polygonoides (L.) Moq.
2. Anas platyrhynchos (bird) English  français   
The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most common and widely distributed dabbling duck, having a widespread global distribution throughout the northern hemisphere. This migratory species is a highly valued game bird and the source of all domestic ducks with the exception of the Muscovy. Introductions and range expansions of A. platyrhynchos for game purposes pose a threat of competition and hybridization to native waterfowl. Also, recent studies hold the mallard as a likely vector for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1).
Common Names: canard colvert, mallard
Synonyms: Anas boschas Linnaeus, 1758, Anas oustaleti Salvadori, 1894
3. Angiopteris evecta (fern)
Angiopteris evecta is a fern native to Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Australia, and New Guinea that has established invasive populations in Hawaii, Costa Rica, and Jamaica. It is known to establish dense stands that displace and shade out native plants and reduce biodiversity in ecosystems.
Common Names: bersarm, demarm, dermarm, fa'agase, gase, giant fern, gwaegwae, hulufe vai, kalme, katar, king's fern, la'au fau pale, mong, mongmong, mule's foot, mule's-foot fern, nahe, nase, ne'e, oli oli, oriental vessel fern, paiued, palatao, payuit, ponga, umpai
Synonyms: Polypodium evectum G. Forster
4. Columba livia (bird) English  français   
Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.
Common Names:  pombo-doméstico, agreste, b? câu, bákteduvvá, balandis, bareski-golumbaika, baresko-golumbo, bjargdúfa, bládúgva, bládúva, bydue, calman-creige, calmane creggey, carrier pigeon, colm aille, colom roquer, colom roquer, colom wyls, colomba salvaria, colomen ddôf, colomen y graig, colomp salvadi, columba da chasa, columba selvadia, columbu agreste, columbu aresti, columbu de is arrocas, colu'r aille, common pigeon, didu, div gulab, divlji golub, dobato, domaci golob, domestic dove, domestic pigeon, dubet, dziwi holb, Felsentaube, feral pigeon, feral rock pigeon, golab miejski¦Golab skalny, golab skalny, golub pecinar, golub pecinar, gradski Golub, güvercin, haitz-uso, Haustaube, Strassentaube, holub domácí, holub skalní, homing pigeon, húsdúfa, kaljutuvi, kalliokyyhky, kawarabato, kawara-bato, kesykyyhky, kieminis, klinšu balodis, klippduva, klippedue, kolombo, kolomm an garrek, naminis karvelis, paloma, paloma bravia, paloma casera, paloma común, paloma de castilla, paloma doméstica, pecinar, pëllumbi i egër i shkëmbit, piccione, piccione domestico, piccione selvatico, piccione selvatico semidomestico, piccione terraiolo, piccione torraiolo, pichon, pigeon, pigeon biset, pigeon biset domestique, pigeon de ville, pigeon domestique, pomba brava, pombo da rocha, pombo o pombo-doméstico, pombo-das-rochas, porumbel de stânca, pustynnik, rock dove, rock dove pigeon, rock pigeon, rotsduif, ruve, sizij golub, sizy Golub, sizyj golub', skalen g'l'b, šyzy holub, szirti galamb, tamduva, tidori, tidu, Tkhakapuyt Aghavni, tudun tal-gebel, tzidu, Verwilderte Haustaube, Xixella, yuan ge, ziwy golub
5. Dioscorea bulbifera (herb, vine, climber) English     
Dioscorea bulbifera is a highly invasive plant and presents a management problem in many parts of the world. Despite some medicinal and agricultural uses, D. bulbifera is widely characterized as an organism that outcompetes and smothers native vegetation.
Common Names: ‘oi, aerial yam, air yam, air-potato, ápwereka, belloi, bitter yam, Brotwurzel, cheeky yam, dau fasia, dau kwasi, ellal, hoei-oepas, hoi, hoi, hoi, hoi, igname bulbifère, inhame, kaile, kaile manu, kaile ndranu, magnaheugo, mata, ñame de gunda, palai, papa voladora, pi‘oi, potato yam, pousse en l'air, pureka, puruka, pwer, pwereka, pwerh, rook, sarau, soi, wild yam, yam, Yamswurzel, yoi
Synonyms: Dioscorea hoffa Cordem., Dioscorea tamnifolia Salisb., Dioscorea bulbifera L.  var. vera Prain & Burkill, Dioscorea crispata Roxb., Dioscorea dicranandra Donn.Sm., Dioscorea heterophylla Roxb., Dioscorea pulchella Roxb., Dioscorea tenuiflora Schltdl., Helmia bulbifera (L.) Kunth, Smilax decipiens Spreng.
6. Ischaemum polystachyum (grass) English     
Considered to be native to many Pacific Islands, Ischaemum polystachyum (paddle grass) is apparently one of few plants to become a native invasive. In Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia) it is considered a particularly aggressive plant and is very abundant on other Islands of it's native range. Paddle grass mainly inhabits roadsides, garden clearings and grasslands.
Common Names: mah, paddle grass, reh padil
Synonyms: Andropogon mariannae Steud., Andropogon paniceus Steud., Ischaemum chordatum (Trin.) Hack. ex Warb., Ischaemum digitatum Brongn., Ischaemum digitatum var. polystachyum (J. Presl) Hack, Ischaemum intermedium Brongn., Spodiopogon chordatum Trin.
7. Lutjanus kasmira (fish) English  français   
Lutjanus kasmira is a commercially important reef-associated tropical fish that has been introduced into Hawaii for fisheries. In introduced areas of Hawaii it has become abundant, forming dense schools. It may outcompete native fish for space, crowding them out of important refuge areas.
Common Names: blouband snapper, blue-banded hussar, bluebanded snapper, blueline snapper, blue-lined sea perch, bluelined snapper, blue-lined snapper fish, bluestripe seaperch, bluestripe snapper, bluestriped snapper, common bluestripe snapper, common blue-stripe snapper, common bluestriped snapper, gorara tikus, hamra, hobara, ikan nonya, irri ranna, janja, kelea, kuning-kuning, kunyit, kunyit-kunyit, madras, mbawaa, merah, naisarah, nga-wet-panni, nisar, pargo de raios azuis, pargo de rayas, pargo de rayas azules, perche à raies bleues, pla ka pong deng thab nam ngern, pla kapong, savane, taape, tanda-tanda, tembo-uzi, vali ranna, verikeechan, vivaneau à raies bleues, yellow and blue seaperch, yosuji-fuedai
8. Merremia peltata (vine, climber) English  français     
Merremia peltata is a vine that strangles vegetation and invades forest strands. It may provide rapid ground cover following land disturbance reducing erosion and nutrient loss. There is debate over the extent to which external factors such as cyclones and land clearing drive the invasiveness of the species. It may be a successional component of regenerating forest in its native range.
Common Names: abui, agon, arosumou, big leaf, big lif rop, fitau, fitaw, fue, fue kula, fue lautetele, fue mea, fue vao, fue vao, grobihi, iohl, iol, kebeas, lagun, merremia, Niaouli-Oelbaum, pohue, puhlah, teb el yas, veliyana, viliyawa, wa bula, wa damu, wa mbula, wa ndamu, wachathal, wiliao, wiliviwa
Synonyms: Convolvulus peltatus L., Ipomoea nymphaeifolia Blume, Ipomoea peltata (L.) Choisy, Merremia nymphaeifolia (Dietr.) Hall. fil., Operculina peltata (L.) Hall. fil.
9. Nypa fruticans (palm)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Nypa fruticans (nypa palm) inhabits estuarine habitats from Sri Lanka to the Ganges delta to the west Pacific. It grows up to 10 m tall and produces large buoyant propagules that are dispersed with ocean currents. It was intentionally introduced to Nigeria, and has since spread to Cameroon. In the Niger Delta it invades deforested and exposed mudflats and forms dense monospecific stands which outcompete native mangrove species. The lack of stilt roots, absence of leaf litter and dense structure reduce estuarine habitat and may negatively affect native biodiversity.
Common Names: golpata, mangrove palm, nipa, nipa palm, nipah palm, nypa palm
10. Oxalis corniculata (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Oxalis corniculata is a cosmopolitan herb that is found worldwide. Spread of this species is due to high production of fertile seeds and its presence on all continents and many islands indicates that seeds are probably carried by birds. O. corniculata is thought to be invasive in many areas: Australasia-Pacific (such as Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Hawaii, French Polynesia, Palau, U.S. Minor Outlying Islands), Asia (such as Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea), Central America (Cayman Islands) and North America (Canada).
Common Names: pied de pigeon, ‘i‘i, ‘ihi ‘ai, ‘ihi ‘awa, ‘ihi maka ‘ula, ‘ihi makole, ‘ii, a‘aa‘a, acedera, acederilla, agrito, agsom, apsom, azedinha, chulco, clover sorrel, creeping lady's sorrel, creeping oxalis, creeping wood sorrel, creeping woods, creeping yellow oxalis, daraisig, gougus, hierba de la perdiz, kanapa, katabami, kavakava, kihikihi, kihikihi, koki‘i, koki‘i kura, malabalug-dagis, marasiksik, matakonikoni, omis, oseille filante, oxalis, patoa ‘ava‘ava, petit trèfle, pikhik, procumbent yellow sorrel, rongomi, salamagi, sheep sorrel, sour grass, taingang-daga, totowiwi, trébol, trèfle jaune, três-corações, trevo-azedo , vinagrillo, wood sorrel, yellow oxalis, yellow wood sorrel
Synonyms: Acetosella corniculata (L.) Kuntze, Oxalis corniculata var. atropurpurea Planch., Oxalis corniculata var. langloisii (Small) Wieg., Oxalis corniculata var. lupulina (R. Knuth) Zucc., Oxalis corniculata var. macrophylla Arsene ex R. Knuth, Oxalis corniculata var. minor Laing, Oxalis corniculata var. reptans Laing, Oxalis corniculata var. villosa (Bieb.) Hohen., Oxalis corniculata var. viscidula Wieg., Oxalis langloisii (Small) Fedde, Oxalis pusilla Salisb., Oxalis repens Thunb., Oxalis villosa Bieb., Xanthoxalis corniculata (L.) Small, Xanthoxalis corniculata var. atropurpurea (Planch.) Moldenke, Xanthoxalis langloisii Small, Xanthoxalis repens (Thunb.) Moldenke
11. Pterois volitans (fish) English   
The Indo-Pacific red lionfish (Pterois volitans) is a beautiful but dangerous tropical fish that has spread to new marine environments through the aquarium trade. The lionfish has invaded the Northwestern Atlantic and the Caribbean in one of the most rapid marine finfish invasions in history. In some areas, it has the potential to displace commercially important species such as the grouper and reduce recruitment of juvenile fishes, which in turn disrupts marine ecosystem processes.
Common Names: butterfly cod, cá Mao Tiên, chale, firefish, hana-minokasago, Indo-Pacific red lionfish, laffe volant, lepu-penganten, lionfish, lionfish scorpion, ominokasago, ornate butterfly-cod, ornate butterfly-cod, peacock lionfish, poisson scorpion, poisson volant, poisson-dindon, red firefish, red lionfish, sausau-lele, scorpion fish, scorpion volitans, skrzydlica pstra, turkey fish, turkeyfish, volitan lion, zebrafish
Synonyms: Brachirus zebra (Quoy and Gaimard, 1825), Gasterosteus volitans, Pterois cristatus, Pterois geniserra, Pterois muricata, Pterois zebra Quoy and Gaimard, 1825, Scorpaena volitans (Linnaeus, 1758)

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland