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254 invasive species found

Alien Species

1. Acacia farnesiana (tree, shrub) English  français     
Probably a native of tropical America, Acacia farnesiana was introduced to many tropical countries for its bark, gum, seed and wood. It is often planted as an ornamental or to check erosion, and is also used in the perfume industry because of its scented flowers. This thorny, deciduous shrub grows to 4m in height forming impenetrable thickets or sometimes a more open cover and prefers dry habitats between sea level and 1000 m. In Australia it occurs along watercourses on rangeland and farmland limiting access to water. It has also become an invasive species in Fiji, French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu.
Common Names: acacia jaune, aroma, aromo, ban baburi, carambuco, cashia, cassie, debena, Ellington curse, espino blanco, espino ruco, esponja, esponjeira, huisache, huisache dulce, kandaroma, klu, klu bush, kolu, mimosa, mimosa bush, needle bush, oki, opoponax, popinac, popinac, rayo, Small's acacia, sweet acacia, tekaibakoa, titima, vaivai vakavotona, Westindische akazie
Synonyms: Acacia acicularis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Acacia densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Cory, Acacia edulis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd.  var. pedunculata (Willd.) Kuntze, Acacia ferox M. Martens & Galeotti, Acacia indica (Pers.) Desv., Acacia lenticellata F.Muell., Acacia minuta (M.Jones) Beauchamp subsp. densiflora (Alex. ex Small) Beauchamp, Acacia pedunculata Willd., Acacia smallii Isely, Farnesia odora Gasp., Mimosa acicularis Poir., Mimosa farnesiana L., Mimosa acicularis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir., Mimosa edulis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Poir., Mimosa farnesiana L., Mimosa indica Pers., Mimosa pedunculata (Willd.) Poir., Vachellia densiflora Alex. ex Small, Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn., Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. var. typica Speg., Vachellia farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. forma typica Speg.
2. Acacia mearnsii (tree, shrub) English  français     
Acacia mearnsii is a fast growing leguminous (nitrogen fixing) tree. Native to Australia, it is often used as a commercial source of tannin or a source of fire wood for local communities. It threatens native habitats by competing with indigenous vegetation, replacing grass communities, reducing native biodiversity and increasing water loss from riparian zones.
Common Names: acácia-negra, Australian acacia, Australische akazie, black wattle, swartwattel, uwatela
Synonyms: A. decurrens var. mollis, Acacia mollissima
3. Acacia melanoxylon (tree) English  français     
Acacia melanoxylon is native in eastern Australia. This tree grows fast and tall, up to 45m height. It has a wide ecological tolerance, occurring over an extensive range of soils and climatic conditions, but develops better in colder climates. Control of its invasion of natural vegetation, commercial timber plantations and farmland incurs considerable costs, but its timber value and nursing of natural forest succession provides a positive contribution.
Common Names: acacia à bois noir, acacia de madera negra, acacia rouge, acácia-preta, algarrobo, aroma salvaje, Australian blackwood, Australiese swarthout, blackwood, blackwood acacia, Tasmanian blackwood
Synonyms: Racosperma melanoxylon (R.Br.) C.Martius
4. Acacia retinodes (tree)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Water wattle (Acacia retinodes) is a small tree native to Australia. It is cultivated as an ornamental tree in warmer parts of the world. It is known to have naturalised in California where it has spread from its initial plantings.
Common Names: Akatziya Stoikaya, everblooming acacia, silver wattle, swamp wattle, wirilda
Synonyms: Acacia floribunda sensu auct., Acacia fragrans Pottier, Acacia longissima Chopinet, Acacia provincialis A. Camus, Acacia retinodes Schltdl. var. floribunda H.Vilm., Acacia retinoide Schltr., Acacia retinoides Schltr., Acacia rhetinoides Schltr., Acacia rostellifera sensu auct., Acacia semperflorens A. Berger
5. Acacia saligna (tree)
Due it its many uses Acacia saligna, or the Port Jackson willow, has been globally distributed with up to 300 000 ha planted worldwide and was identified as one of three priority multipurpose species for arid and semi-arid zones by FAO’s Silvae Mediterranea Network in 1996. Native to Western Australia and suited to a wide range of enviromental conditions, it is a fast growing tree utilised for soil stabilisation, animal fodder, tannin production, windbreaks, ornamental use and as a source of fuel wood. In areas where it has become invasive A. saligna can have a wide range of negative effects on native biodiversity and ecosystems and is difficult to control due to its coppicing ability and the creation of large soil seed-banks.
Common Names: blue-leaf wattle, golden-wreath wattle, orange wattle, Port Jackson, Port Jackson wattle, Port Jackson willow, weeping wattle
Synonyms: Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., Mimosa saligna Labill., Racosperma salignum Labill.
6. Acridotheres tristis (bird) English  français     
The common myna (Acridotheres tristis), also called the Indian myna, is a highly commensal Passerine that lives in close association with humans. It competes with small mammals and bird for nesting hollows and on some islands, such as Hawaii and Fiji, it preys on other birds' eggs and chicks. It presents a threat to indigenous biota, particularly parrots and other birdlife, in Australia and elsewhere.
Common Names: brun majna, Calcutta myna, common myna, German Indischer mynah, Hirtenmaina, hjarðmænir, house myna, Indian myna, Indian mynah, kabairohakka, maina, mainá común, maina comune, mainato, majna brunatna, majna obecná, manu, manu kaomani, manu kavamani, manu rataro, manu teve, Martin triste, merle des Moluques, mynah, pihamaina, piru, talking myna, treurmaina
Synonyms: Acridotheres tristas (Linnaeus, 1766)
7. Aedes albopictus (insect) English     
The Asian tiger mosquito is spread via the international tire trade (due to the rainwater retained in the tires when stored outside). In order to control its spread such trading routes must be highlighted for the introduction of sterilisation or quarantine measures. The tiger mosquito is associated with the transmission of many human diseases, including the viruses: Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis.
Common Names: Asian tiger mosquito, forest day mosquito, mosquito tigre, moustique tigre, tiger mosquito, tigermücke, zanzare tigre
Synonyms: Culex albopictus Skuse, 1895, Culex albopictus Skuse,1895
8. Agave americana (herb, shrub)
Agave americana is a large, rhizomatous succulent that grows in a wide range of conditions including cliffs, urban areas, woodlands, grasslands, riparian zones, beaches and sandy areas, and rocky slopes. A. americana is tolerant of wind, salt, high temperatures, and extreme drought. It can grow in shallow, very dry, low fertility soil and can colonise bare sand. It is grown for many reasons- ornamental, medicinal and agricultural. In South Australia Agave americana mainly invades disturbed sites, road sides and coastal vegetation. It may also harbour introduced animal species, such as rabbits, making feral animal control more difficult.
Common Names: agave, agave d'Amérique, American agave, American aloe, American century plant, American-aloe, Amerikanische agave, century plant, garingboom, Hundert-jährige agave, maguey, maguey americano, pita común, pite, spreading century-plant, wild century-plant, yucca
Synonyms: Agave rasconensis Trel. ex Standl., Agave zonata Trel., Aloe americana (L.) Crantz
9. Ageratum conyzoides (herb) English     
Ageratum conyzoides is a weed distributed in many tropical and subtropical countries and is often difficult to control. It is an established weed in the Himalayas where several invasion research studies have been conducted in the Shiwalik Ranges. It has been found that Ageratum significantly reduces total biomass and species number, that is, biodiversity. It also changes vegetation community structure and modifies the soil regieme.
Common Names: a‘amia, agerato, agerato, ageratum, ageratum, asipukpuk, asipukpuk, azier françois, bahu-bahu, bahug-bahug, bandotan, barba de chivo, baume, baume blanc, baume mauve, belohanua, berokan, billy goat weed, blue Ageratum, blue flowered groundsel, blue top, boko-boko-wiwiri, botebotekoro, botekoro, bouton, bouton blan, bouton ble, budbuda, budbuda, bulak-manok, bulak-manok, camará apeba, camará iapó, camará japê, camará-opela, catinga de barrão, catinga de bode, catinga de bode, celestina, chuva, co cut-heo, efoe momoe, erva de santa maria, erva de santa-lúcia, erva de são joão, erva de são josé, goat weed, gobu, gundhaubon, herbe a femme, herbe a pisser, herbe a sorcier, herbe de bouc, hierba del perro, hierba del zorro, hierbe de chivo, huarmi, huarmi, hwo-hsiang-ji, imiesu, jambo-serila, kakalding, kakalding, kakkoazami, kamabuag, kamabuag, kolokong-kabanyo, kolokong-kabayo, kulong-kogong-babae, lau taioti, Leberbalsam, macela de são joão, macela francesa, mahakaua, maile hohono, maile honohono, maile kula, maire vaihi, maria preta, mata mothemothe, matruço, mbotembotekoro, mentrasto, mother brinkly, mumutung, Neela Phulnu, ngmak, olloowaisiip, oochunt, pain doux, petit pain doux, Phulkuri, pica roxo, picão roxo, ruput tahi-ayam, sekose sea, sogovanua, songovanua, tae‘oti, tamasondji bata, te‘ehosi, tekote tea, tropic ageratum, tropical whiteweed, white weed, winter weed, ya-sap-raeng, ya-tabsua, zerisson blanc
Synonyms: Ageratum album Willd. Ex Steud. 1821, Ageratum caeruleum Hort. ex. Poir., Ageratum coeruleum Desf., Ageratum conyzoides var hirtum (Lam.) DC. 1836, Ageratum cordifolium Roxb. 1832, Ageratum hirsutum Lam. 1810, Ageratum hirtum Lam. 1783, Ageratum humile Salisb. 1796, Ageratum latifolium Car., Ageratum maritimum H.B.K., Ageratum mexicanum Sims., Ageratum nanum Hort. Ex Sch. Bip. 1858, Ageratum obtusifolium Lam., Ageratum odoratum Vilm. 1866, Ageratum suffruiticosum Regal 1854, Cacalia mentrasto Vell.
10. Ailanthus altissima (tree, shrub) English     
Ailanthus altissima is a very aggressive plant, a prolific seed producer (up to 350,000 seeds in a year), grows rapidly, and can overrun native vegetation. It also produces toxins that prevent the establishment of other plant species. The root system is aggressive enough to cause damage to sewers and foundations.
Common Names: Chinese sumac, stinking shumac, tree-of-heaven
11. Alternanthera philoxeroides (aquatic plant, herb) English     
Alternanthera philoxeroides, commonly known as alligator weed, is a perennial stoloniferous herb that can be found in many parts of the world, infesting rivers, lakes, ponds and irrigation canals, as well as many terrestrial habitats. The aquatic form of the plant has the potential to become a serious threat to waterways, agriculture and the environment. The terrestrial form of Alternanthera philoxeroides grows into a dense mat with a massive underground rhizomatous root system. The canopy can smother most other herbaceous plant species. It has proven to be extremely expensive to attempt controlling Alternanthera philoxeroides.
Common Names: alligator weed, pig weed, xi han lian zi cao
Synonyms: Achyranthes philoxeroides (Mart.) Standl., Alternanthera paludosa Bunbury, Alternanthera philoxerina Suess., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. forma angustifolia Suess., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. acutifolia (Mart. ex Moq.) Hicken, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. lancifolia Chodat, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. luxurians Suess., Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. var. obtusifolia (Mart. ex Moq.) Hicken, Bucholzia philoxeroides Mart., Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq., Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq. var. acutifolia Mart. ex Moq., Telanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Moq. var. obtusifolia Mart. ex Moq.
12. Ambrosia artemisiifolia (herb) English     
Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a summer annual herbaceous plant that is native to temperate North America in the United States and Canada. Also commonly known as ragweed this forb establishes easily in human impacted and disturbed areas in high abundance. It is considered an invasive species in Europe, parts of Asia and Australia, although it is not an extremely competitively aggressive species and is mainly considered a noxious weed that interferes with other cultivated crops. The main impact of this plant is the copious amount of pollen produced from male flowers that are allergens to sensitive people, compounding health problems like rhinitis, oculorhinitis, asthma and causing skin irritations.
Common Names: ambroisie à feuille d'armoise, ambroisie annuelle, ambroisie élevée, ambrosia aux feuilles d'armoise, ambrosia con foglie di atremisia, ambrosia de hojas de ajenjo, ambrozja bylicolistna, ambrozja bylicowata, annual ragweed, artemisia del pais, Aufrechte Ambrosie, Aufrechtes Traubenkraut, bastard wormwood, Beifußambrosie, Beifussblättriges Ambrosie, Beifussblättriges Traubenkraut, beiskambrosia, bitterweed, blackweed, bynke-ambrosie, carrot-weed, common ragweed, hay-fever weed, hog-weed, Hohes Traubenkraut, kietine ambrozija, low ragweed, malörstambrosia, marunatuoksukki, parlagfu, petite herbe à poux, pujulehine ambroosia, ragweed, roman bitterweed, Roman wormwood, römischer Wermut, Shinners ragweed, short ragweed, small ragweed, Stalin weed, stammerweed, stickweed, vadkender, vermellapu ambrozija, wild tansy
Synonyms: Ambrosia absynthifolia (Michx., 1803), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. subsp. diversifolia (Piper, 1837), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. jamaicensis (Griseb. 1861), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. octocornis (Kuntze, 1891), Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. var. quadricornis (Kuntze, 1891), Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. artemisiifolia, Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior (Descourt., 1821), Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. elatior f. villosa (Fernald & Griscom, 1935), Ambrosia artemisiifolia var. paniculata (Michx.), Ambrosia diversifolia (Piper), Ambrosia elata (Salisbury, 1796), Ambrosia elatior L., Ambrosia elatior L. var. heterophylla (Muhlenburg ex Willedenow, 1913), Ambrosia glandulosa (Scheele, 1849), Ambrosia heterophylla (Muhlenburg ex Willdenow, 1803), Ambrosia longistylus (Nuttall, 1840), Ambrosia media (Rydberg, 1910), Ambrosia monophylla (Rydberg, 1922), Ambrosia paniculata (Michaux, 1803, Ambrosia simplicifolia (Raeuschel, 1797), Iva monophylla (Walter, 1788)
13. Ameiurus nebulosus (fish) English   
Ameiurus nebulosus, the brown bullhead, is a species of catfish native to North America and introduced to a number of other countries around the world as a game fish. It is a hardy species that can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions, including water pollution, allowing it to successfully establish outside of its native range. Some concern has been raised over its invasive potential, but there is a lack of information on its effects.
Common Names: barbotte brune, bici-cu-coarne, Brauner katzenwels, brown bullhead, bruine Amerikaanse dwergmeerval, brun dværgmalle, brun dvärgmal, bullhead, catfish, common bullhead, common catfish, dværgmalle, dvärgmal, dvergmalle, horned pout, hornpout, kanalnyi somik, Katzenwels, marbled bullhead, minister, mudcat, northern brown bullhead, piikkimonni, poisson chat, somn American, somn pitic, sumcek krpatý, sumecek americký, sumik karlowaty, Zwergwels
Synonyms: Ameirus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Ameirus nebulosus Lesueur, 1819, Ameiurus lacustris (Walbaum, 1792), Ameiurus vulgaris (Thompson, 1842), Amiurus catus (Linnaeus, 1758), Amiurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Amiurus vulgaris (Thompson, 1842), Ictalurus nebulosus marmoratus (Holbrook, 1855), Ictalurus nebulosus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Ictalurus nebulosus pannonicus Harka & Pinter, 1990, Ictalurus nebulosus (Lesueur, 1819), Pimelodus atrarius DeKay, 1842, Pimelodus catus (Linnaeus, 1758), Pimelodus felis Agassiz, 1850, Pimelodus nebulosus Lesueur, 1819, Pimelodus vulgaris Thompson, 1842, Silurus coenosus Richardson, 1836, Silurus felis Linnaeus, 1766, Silurus nigrescens Lesueur
14. Anoplophora chinensis (insect)
Both the citrus and Asian longhorn beetles originate from Eastern Asia where they seriously damage forest and agricultural plant hosts; both pose a potential economic and ecological threat to urban and natural environments where they are introduced in North America and Europe. Phytosanitary standards and regulations are the basis for preventative management to avoid unintentional international movement of such plant pests.
Common Names: black and white citrus longhorn, capricorne á points blancs, citrus longhorn beetle, citrus longhorned beetle, citrus root cerambycid, CLHB, gomadara-kamikiri, hosi-kamikiri, mulberry long-horned beetle, mulberry white spotted longicorn, Sky ox beetle, Starry night sky beetle, white spotted citrus longhorned beetle, white spotted longicorn beetle
Synonyms: Anoplophora chinensis Breuning 1944, Anoplophora malasiaca malasiaca Samuelson 1965, Anoplophora malasiaca Thomson, Anoplophora perroudi Pic 1953, Anoplophora sepulchralis Breuning 1944, Callophora afflicta Thomson 1865, Callophora luctuosa Thomson 1865, Calloplophora abbreviata Thomson 1865, Calloplophora malasiaca Thomson 1865, Calloplophora sepulcralis Thomson 1865, Cerambyx chinensis Forster 1771, Cerambyx farinosus Houttuyn 1766, Cerambyx pulchricornis Voet 1778, Cerambyx sinensis Gmelin 1790, Lamia punctator Fabricius 1777, Melanauster chinensis macularius Kojima 1950, Melanauster chinensis Matsumura 1908, Melanauster chinensis var. macularia Bates 1873, Melanauster chinensis var. macularis Matsushita 1933, Melanauster chinensis var. Sekimacularius Seki 1946, Melanauster chinensis Forster, Melanauster macularius Kolbe 1886, Melanauster malasiacus Aurivillius 1922, Melanauster perroudi Pic 1953
15. Anoplophora glabripennis (insect) English     
  See eradication or other absence information
The Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis is a large wood-boring beetle that is native to countries in Asia, such as Japan, Korea and China. The beetle spends most of its life within the inner wood of a variety of hardwood trees as larvae which tunnel and feed on the cambium layer, eventually killing the tree. It was first detected in New York 1996, although it is thought to have arrived in the 1980s in solid wood packing material from China. It has since been detected in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Illinois, California, Ontario (Canada) and parts of Europe. The Asian longhorn beetle threatens 30-35% of the trees in urban areas of eastern USA. The economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts on the United States would be devastating if the beetle continues to spread. Potential losses have been estimated in the tens to hundreds of billions of US dollars. Current control measures focus on rapidly delimiting new infestations, imposing quarantine and cutting down and burning of infected trees.
Common Names: ALB, Asian longhorn beetle, Asian longhorned beetle, Asiatischer Laubholzkäfer, longicorne Asiatique, starry sky beetle
Synonyms: Anoplophora nobilis
16. Aphanomyces astaci (oomycete) English     
Aphanomyces astaci commonly referred to as crayfish plague is an oomycete or water mould that infects only crayfish species. It is endemic of North America and is carried by North American crayfish species; signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii and Orconectes limosus. A. astaci was introduced into Europe through imports of North American species of crayfish. Native European crayfish populations are not resistant to this oomycete. It has since devastated native crayfish stocks throughout the continent.
Common Names: crayfish plague, Wasserschimmel
17. Arundo donax (grass) English  français     
Giant reed (Arundo donax) invades riparian areas, altering the hydrology, nutrient cycling and fire regime and displacing native species. Long ‘lag times’ between introduction and development of negative impacts are documented in some invasive species; the development of giant reed as a serious problem in California may have taken more than 400 years. The opportunity to control this weed before it becomes a problem should be taken as once established it becomes difficult to control.
Common Names: arundo grass, bamboo reed, caña, caña común, caña de Castilla, caña de la reina, caña de techar, cana- do-reino, cana-do-brejo, cane, canne de Provence, canno-do-reino, capim-plumoso, carrizo, carrizo grande, cow cane, donax cane, E-grass, fiso palagi, giant cane, giant reed, grand roseau, kaho, kaho folalahi, la canne de Provence, narkhat, ngasau ni vavalangi, Pfahlrohr, reed grass, river cane, Spaanse-riet, Spanisches Rohr, Spanish cane, Spanish reed, wild cane
Synonyms: Aira bengalensis (Retz.) J.F. Gmel., Amphidonax bengalensis (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Amphidonax bengalensis Roxb. ex Nees., Amphidonax bifaria (Retz.) Nees ex Steud., Arundo aegyptiaca hort. ex Vilm., Arundo bambusifolia Hook. f., Arundo bengalensis Retz., Arundo bifaria Retz., Arundo coleotricha (Hack.) Honda., Arundo donax var. angustifolia Döll., Arundo donax var. coleotricha Hack., Arundo donax var. lanceolata Döll., Arundo donax var. procerior Kunth., Arundo donax var. versicolor (P. Mill.) Stokes, Arundo glauca Bubani., Arundo latifolia Salisb., Arundo longifolia Salisb. ex Hook. f., Arundo sativa Lam., Arundo scriptoria L., Arundo versicolor P. Mill., Cynodon donax (L.) Raspail., Donax arundinaceus P. Beauv., Donax bengalensis (Retz.) P. Beauv., Donax bifarius (Retz.) Trin. ex Spreng., Donax donax (L.) Asch. and Graebn.
18. Aulacaspis yasumatsui (insect)
  See eradication or other absence information
Aulacaspis yasumatsui (cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS)) or the Asian cycad scale, is highly damaging to cycads, which include horticulturally important and endangered plant species. The cycad scale is an unusually difficult scale insect to control, forming dense populations and spreading rapidly, with few natural enemies in most localities where it has been introduced. The scale has the potential to spread to new areas via plant movement in the horticulture trade.
Common Names: Asian cycad scale, cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS), cycad scale, sago palm scale, snow scale, Thai scale
19. Bidens pilosa (herb) English     
Bidens pilosa is a cosmopolitan, annual herb which originates from tropical and Central America. Its hardiness, explosive reproductive potential, and ability to thrive in almost any environment have enabled it to establish throughout the world. Generally introduced unintentionally through agriculture or sometimes intentionally for ornamental purposes, B. pilosa is a major crop weed, threat to native fauna, and a physical nuisance.
Common Names: abissawa, acetillo, adzrskpi, agberi-oku, akesan, alonga, alongoï, amonoablanfè, amor seco, anansee mpaane, anasipagné, arponcito, aseduro, asta de cabra, batimadramadramatakaro, beggar's tick , bident hérissé, bident poilu, bidente pilosa, black fellows, black jack, broom stick, broom stuff, cacha de cabra, cadillo, carrapicho-deagulha, cobbler's peg, dada, dadayem, devil's needles, diaani, diandu, dinenkui, dwirantwi, dzani pipi, eyinata, fisi'uli, gonoretti, gyinantwi, hairy beggar ticks, herbe d'aiguille, herbe villebague, hierba amarilla, iréné, iuna, kamik tuarongo, kandane, kete kete, ki, ki nehe, ki pipili, kichoma mguu, kichoma nguo, kiradale, klakuo, kofetoga, kofetonga, kokosa, ko-sendagusa, kukwe kwo, kurofidie, lebason, légué, manamendigo, masquia, matua kamate, mazote, mbatikalawau, mbatimandramandra, nana, nangua, nanguadian, nehe, nguad, niani, nidul-lif, niroa, papunga chipaca, passoklo, pega-prga, perca, pétéoré, picão-preto, pilipili, piquants noirs, piripiri, piripiri, piripiri kerekere, piripiri niroa, pisau-pisau, puriket, rosilla, sanyi, sanyina, sirvulaca, sornet, sosolé, Spanish needle, tabason, tagiaani, tebasson, tombo-maga, zagaï zagagbé, zagoi ini, zebeyuzébogue, zegbei zegbagwè, zikilli wissi, Zweizhan
Synonyms: Bidens leucantha (L.) Willd., Bidens leucantha Willd. var. sundaica (Blume) Hassk., Bidens odorata, Bidens sundaica (Blume), Coreopsis leucantha L.
20. Branta canadensis (bird)
Branta canadensis, Canada geese are very adaptable. They can live in a broad range of habitats, which includes cohabitation with humans. In addition, Canada geese are highly fecund and lacking in amount of predators. Population growth of this species over the past years has caused problems in many different areas including environmental, aesthetic, and human health. Canada geese can either be migratory or resident, which enables them to occupy a large geographical range. This species has created issues not only in areas where it has been introduced, but also in its native locations due to the population explosion of the species. Although this species has created problems, it also has been of economic use as well as being, at times, an enjoyable aspect of wildlife.
Common Names: bernache du Canada, branta kanadarra, Canada goose, ganso Canadiense, ganso do Canadá, oca del Canadá
Synonyms: Anas canadensis Linnaeus, 1758, Branta canadensis interior Todd, 1938, Branta canadensis maxima Delacour, 1951, Branta canadensis moffitti Aldrich, 1946 , Branta canadensis parvipes Cassin, 1852
21. Buddleja davidii (shrub) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Buddleja davidii is a shade-intolerant woody weed from China, which, with small wind-dispersed seeds, rapidly colonises bare or disturbed sites. It is cultivated for ornamental purposes for its pretty flowers and ability to attract butterflies. It often takes hold in disturbed areas, riparian areas or open woodlands and has proven to be one of the worst weeds to forestry managers in New Zealand, where it out-competes Pinus radiata seedlings. Approval for release of a biological control agent, a leaf-chewing beetle Cleopus japonicus, has recently been given in New Zealand.
Common Names: arbre aux papillons, buddleia, butterfly bush, orange eye, summer lilac
Synonyms: Buddleja variabilis Hemsley
22. Bugula neritina (bryozoan)
Bugula neritina (brown bryozoan) is an erect, bushy bryozoan. It is an abundant fouling organism that colonises any freely available substratum, including artificial underwater structures and vessel hulls.
Common Names: brown bryozoan, bryozoan, common bugula
Synonyms: Anamarchis neritina, Sertularia neritina
23. Carassius auratus (fish) English  français   
Native to Asia, goldfish (Carassius auratus) have been introduced worldwide due to their popularity as pond and aquarium fish. Releases, both intentional and unintentional, have meant that this species has formed wild populations in many new locations. Concerns have been raised about the impacts that goldfish have on the aquatic community, including increasing turbidity, predation upon native fish, and helping to facilitate algal blooms.
Common Names: aranyhal, caras rosu, caras-auriu, carassin doré, carassio dorato, carpa dorada, cheisopsaro, chernyi teleskop, chrysopsaro, chryssopsaro, ciprino dorato, cyprin doré, dorade de Chine, edible goldfish, funa, gibel carp, gold crucian carp, golden carp, Goldfisch, goldfish, goudvis, Goudvis, Guldfisk, guldfisk, gullfisk, I'a'ula'ula, ikan mas, kam tsak, kam ue, kapr zlatý, kaprík zlatý, karas, karas cinsky, karas stríbritý, karas stribrity vychodoasijsky, karas vetší, karas zlatý, karas zlocisty, karas zlocisty a. chinski, karuss, kin-buna, kirmizi balik, kultakala, mahi-e-hoz, native carp, ngan tsak, peixe dourado, peixe encarnado, peixe-dourado, pesce dorato, pesco rosso, peshk i kuq, pez dorado, pez rojo, pimpão, poisson rouge, serebryanyi karas', sølvkaruds, sølvkarusse, tawes, tsak ue, zlatnakarracuda, zolotaja rybka
Synonyms: Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Carassius auratus cantonensis (Tchang, 1933), Carassius carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Carassius chinensis (Gronow, 1854), Carassius encobia (Bonaparte, 1845), Carassius gibelioides (non Cantor, 1842), Cyprinus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Cyprinus langsdorfi (Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1842), Cyprinus maillardi (Guichenot, 1863), Cyprinus mauritianus (Bennett, 1832), Cyprinus thoracatus (Valenciennes, 1842), Leuciscus auratus (Mauduyt, 1849-51)
24. Carpobrotus edulis (succulent) English     
Carpobrotus edulis is a mat-forming succulent native to South Africa which is invasive primarily in coastal habitats in many parts of the world. It was often introduced as an ornamental plant or used for planting along roadsides, from which it has spread to become invasive. Its main impacts are smothering, reduced regeneration of native flora and changes to soil pH and nutrient regimes.
Common Names: balsamo, Cape fig, figue marine, freeway iceplant, ghaukum, ghoenavy, highway ice plant, higo del Cabo, higo marino, Hottentosvy, hottentot fig, Hottentottenfeige, iceplant, ikhambi-lamabulawo, Kaapsevy, patata frita, perdevy, pigface, rankvy, sea fig, sour fig, suurvy, umgongozi, vyerank
Synonyms: Mesembryanthemum edule L., Mesembryanthemum edulis
25. Castor canadensis (mammal)
  See eradication or other absence information
Castor canadensis (beaver) is native to North America, and has been introduced to Tierra del Fuego in southern South America, Finland, France, Poland and Russia in recent times. In its introduced range, the damming activity of the beaver can cause flooding which can damage forests. They also have the ability to quickly cut down large numbers of trees. In Finland, they compete with native beaver populations. In their native range, they cause flooding on major highways by plugging highway culverts.
Common Names: American beaver, beaver, Canadian beaver, castor, castor americano, North American beaver
26. Caulerpa taxifolia (alga) English     
Caulerpa taxifolia is an invasive marine alga that is widely used as a decorative plant in aquaria. A cold-tolerant strain was inadvertently introduced into the Mediterranean Sea in wastewater from the Oceanographic Museum at Monaco, where it has now spread over more than 13,000 hectares of seabed. Caulerpa taxifolia forms dense monocultures that prevent the establishment of native seaweeds and excludes almost all marine life, affecting the livelihoods of local fishermen.
Common Names: caulerpa, killer alga, lukay-lukay, Schlauchalge, sea weed
Synonyms: Fucus taxifolius Vahl, 1802
27. Cenchrus echinatus (grass)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Cenchrus echinatus is an annual grass that is a native of tropical America, but has now widely colonised tropical and temperate zones worldwide. Though it is typically associated with dry, sandy habitats it can also grow in moist areas, where it may be long-lived and reach a much larger size. It is recognisable by the burrs it produces, which readily attach themselves to animals and clothing, making C. echinatus easily dispersed. It is fairly easily managed by physical and chemical means, though the soil seed reservoir means followup treatments are necessary.
Common Names: ‘ume‘alu, abrojo, bur grass, burgrass, burr grass, cabeza de negro, cachorro, cadillo, cadillo tigre, capim-amoroso, capim-carrapicho, capim-roseta, capim-timbete, caretón morado, cauit-cauitan, cenchrus épineux, common sandbur, eakung, espolón, field sandbur, golden grass, guizazo, hedgehog grass, hefa, herbe e cateaeux, iakung, kãlõklõk, karumwij, konpeito-gusa, legalek, lek e lek, lellik, mau‘u kuku, mosie vihilango, Mossman river grass, motie vihilago, mouku talatala, mozote, parango, pega-pega, piripiri, piri-piri, pua pipii, puu ta‘a ta‘a, quaramiyumut, roseta, sand bur, sand burr, sandburr, se bulabula, se mbulabula, se mbulambula, southern sandbur, southern sandbur grass, spiny sandbur, te anti, te kateketeke, te uteute ae kateketeke, vao papalagi, vao tui tui, vao tuitui, zacate banderilla
Synonyms: Cenchrus echinatus var. hillebrandianus (A.S. Hitchc.) F. Br.
28. Ceratitis capitata (insect) English  français 
Ceratitis capitata is considered a major tephritid fruit fly pest of economic importance attacking more than 300 different hosts, primarily temperate and subtropical fruits. The medfly as it is commonly called has invaded many countries and caused major economic losses for fruit farmers. C. capitata has the ability to tolerate cooler climates better than most other species of fruit flies. It lays its eggs under the skin of fruit, usually around already broken skin. Due to this reproduction habit, C. capitata thrives in agricultural areas where fruit is left out and becomes damaged. It spreads to new locations via exports and the local sale of fruit that contains eggs.
Common Names: medfly, Mediterranean fruit fly
Synonyms: Ceratitis citriperda MacLeay , Ceratitis hispanica De Brême, Paradalaspis asparagi Bezzi, Tephritis capitata Wiedemann , Trypeta capitata Wiedemann, 1824
29. Ceratocystis platani (fungus)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Ceratocystis platani is a fungal pathogen that causes canker stain of plane trees in the genus Platanus. The fungus, thought to be native to south-eastern United States, was introduced to Italy in the 1940s. It rapidly infects plane trees, causing disruption of water movement, cankers and eventually death. It has since spread throughout Europe and threatens natural and planted populations of economically, ecologically and aesthetically important plane trees.
Common Names: canker stain, canker-stain-of-plane-tree
Synonyms: Ceratocystis fimbriata f.sp. platani, Endoconidiophora fimbriata f. platani
30. Ceratostoma inornatum (mollusc) English   
Ceratstoma inornatum is an oyster driller that destroys populations of oysters, especially that of Crassostrea gigas. In stocked populations though it causes 25% mortality. It is native to Asia and was introduced to the west coast of USA and the Atlantic coast of France.
Common Names: Asian drill, Asian oyster drill, Japanese oyster drill
Synonyms: Ocenebra japonica (Dunker, 1860), Ocinebrellus inornatus (Recluz, 1851)
31. Cervus nippon (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Shansi Sika, Sika, Sika deer
32. Chrysanthemoides monilifera (herb) English     
Boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. monilifera), and bitou bush (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp. rotundata) are South African coastal plants that have become invasive in Australia and New Zealand. They can invade both undisturbed and disturbed areas, and proliferate because of their rapid growth, large seed production, lack of predators or pathogens, and adaptability to new environments. C. monilifera outcompetes native vegetation and can form dense canopies.
Common Names: bitou bush, boneseed, saltbush
33. Cichla ocellaris (fish) English   
Cichla ocellaris is a piscivorus fish that has been introduced for sport fishing. Studies have concluded that where introduced this species predates on native species, competes for resources with others, and causing a cascading effect throughout the entire trophic food chain, but there are also contradictory studies that attribute increases in native fish populations to the introduction of C. ocellaris.
Common Names: aboné, aborrecichlide, butterfly peacock bass, eyespot cichlid, Grüner Augenfleck-Kammbarsch, isokikla, isokirjoahven, kounanni, kunan, lukanani, malisamba, matawalé, pavon, peacock bass, peacock cichlid, sargento, toekoenari, toukounalé, toukounaré, tuc, tucunare, tucunaré açu, tucunare comun, tukunali
Synonyms: Acharnes speciosus, Cichla argus, Cichla atabapensis, Crenicichla orinocensis, Cychla argus, Cychla trifasciata
34. Clarias gariepinus
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The pan-African/Asian sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822) is a threat to endemic aquatic fish, particularly in South Africa and India. In the Periyar River-Lake system (Kerala, India) the catfish has a dietary overlap with endemic fish including the following IUCN Redlist Endangered fish: the Periyar labia (Crossocheilus periyarensis), the Periyar barb (Hypselobarbus periyarensis) and the Periyar trout (Lepidopygopsis typus). Potential migration from Periyar Lake to upstream Periyar Tiger Reserve could place the following IUCN Vulnerable endemic fish at risk: the Periyar stone sucker (Garra periyarensis), the Periyar blotched loach (Nemacheilus menoni) and the Periyar reticulated loach (Nemacheilus periyarensis).
Common Names: Aalbüschelwels, Abu shanab, African catfish, African mushi, Afrikaanse meerval, Afrikanischer Raubwels, Afrikanischer Wels, Afrikansk ålemalle, Afrikansk Vandrarmal, Ambaazaa, Ambaza, Andouma, Arira, Aro, Attek, Bagre-africano, Balbout, Baleewu, Bambara, Barbel, Bavhuri, Bombe, Bomu, Bwituka, Cá Trê Phi, Catfish, Chibomu, Cik, Cogo, Common catfish, Dera, Ejengi, Eyisombi, Garmut, Gol, Gwol, Harlei, Imunu, Inkube, Ishonzi, Isombi, Jättikonnamonni, Kabambare, Kambale, Kambale Mumi, Kambali, Kamongo, Karmut, Kemudu, Keríckovec jihoafrický, Kiemensackwels, Klarias, Kopito, Kor, Lokate, Macharufu, Male, Mangwana, Mburi, Mlamba, Mlamba, Mudfish, Mulonge, Mumi, Mumi, Muta, Namazu, Ndombe, Ndombe-Mbundamusheke, Nisu, North African catfish, Nsomba, Obito, Ongala, Pet cick, Pet der, Pez gato, Pez-gato, Poisson-chat nord-africain, Sfamnun matzui, Sharptooth catfish, Sharptoothed catfish, Silure, Singre, Singri, Skerptandbaber, Skerptand-baber, Skerptand-baber, Sombi, Stawada, Talage, Tarwada, Thamba, T-nima, Toucouleurs, Trey andaing afrik, Tukpe, Umihenzi, Vere, Vering, Wels, Yess, Yuzhnoafrikanskaya zubatka
Synonyms: Clarias capensis Valenciennes 1840, Clarias depressus Myers 1925, Clarias lazera Valenciennes 1840, Clarias longiceps Boulenger 1899, Clarias macracanthus Günther 1864, Clarias malaris Nichols & Griscom 1917, Clarias microphthalmus Pfeffer 1896, Clarias micropthalmus Pfeffer 1896, Clarias moorii Boulenger 1901, Clarias mossambicus Peters 1852, Clarias muelleri Pietschmann 1939, Clarias notozygurus Lönnberg & Rendahl 1922, Clarias orontis Günther 1864, Clarias robecchii Vinciguerra 1893, Clarias smithii Günther 1896, Clarias syriacus Valenciennes 1840, Clarias tsanensis Boulenger 1902, Clarias vinciguerrae Boulenger 1902, Clarius gariepinus Burchell 1822, Clarius guentheri Pfeffer 1896, Clarius xenodon Günther 1864, Heterobranchus anguillaris non Linnaeus 1758, Macropteronotus anguillaris non Linnaeus 1758, Macropteronotus charmuth Lacepède 1803, Silurus anguillaris non Linnaeus 1758, Silurus gariepinus Burchell 1822
35. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides (alga) English     
Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides is an alga that has been introduced around the globe through shellfish aquaculture, recreational boating, and transport on ship hulls. The species fouls shellfish beds and causes a myriad of impacts on shellfish communities. This species also causes a nuisance to humans when it accumulates on beaches and rots producing a foul odor. C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides has been documented altering benthic communities and habitats causing serious environmental implications.
Common Names: dead man's fingers, green fleece, green sea fingers, oyster thief, Sputnik weed
Synonyms: Codium mucronatum var. tomentosoides van Goor
36. Corbicula fluminea (mollusc) English   
Corbicula fluminea is a freshwater clam that has caused millions of dollars worth of damage to intake pipes used by power, water, and other industries. Many native clams are declining as C. fluminea outcompetes them for food and space. C. fluminea requires well-oxygenated waters and prefers fine, clean sand, clay, and coarse sand substrates. C. fluminea spreads when it is attached to boats or carried in ballast water, used as bait, sold through the aquarium trade, and carried with water currents.
Common Names: Asian clam, Asiatic clam, prosperity clam
Synonyms: Corbicula fluminalis (Muller, 1774), Corbicula leana (Prime), Corbicula manilensis (Philippi, 1884)
37. Cortaderia selloana (grass) English  français     
Cortaderia selloana is a tall tussock grass that can reach heights of 4 metres. It is found in subtropical regions in habitats such as disturbed areas along roads and trails. It forms dense stands that can exlude other plants and quickly become a fire hazard, and its sharp leaves can cut skin and limit recreational use. It is often planted as an ornamental, and is also used as a wind barrier along highways and fodder for stock. A combination of physical and chemical control is required to manage this species.
Common Names: herbe de la pampa, pampas grass, silver pampas grass, silwergras, Uruguayan pampas grass
Synonyms: Arundo selloana Schult. and Schult. f., C. argentea (Nees) Stapf, Cortaderia dioica (Spreng.) Speg., Gynerium argenteum Nees
38. Corvus splendens (bird) English   
  See eradication or other absence information
The house crow (Corvus splendens) has established itself in at least 25 countries. It proliferates in human settlements and disturbed habitats and is especially suited to coastal settlements. It can even penetrate harsh desert environments once man has become established there. The house crow causes problems across a range of areas, including crop and livestock sustainability and poses a risk to native avifauna. It also carries a range of human pathogens but a link with human disease is yet to be established.
Common Names: bæjakráka, Ceylon crow, Colombo crow, corbeau familier, cornacchia grigia indiana, corneille de l'Inde, corneja India, corvo delle case, cuervo casero, domaca vrana, gagak rumah, Glanzkrähe, gralha-indiana, grey-necked crow, Hauskrähe, hint kargasi, huiskraai, huiskraai, huskrage, huskråka, huskråke, iegarasu, Ie-garasu, Indian crow, Indian house-crow, Indijine varna, intianvaris, Kunguru Bara-Hindi, maniyan kakai, nalla kakka, õuevares, préachán binne, town crow, vrána domácí, vrana lesklá, vrána lesklá, wrona orientalna
39. Crassostrea gigas (mollusc) English  français   
The bivalve Crassostrea gigas is a filter feeder. It has been introduced from Asia across the globe. In North America and the Australasia-Pacific regions C. gigas is known to settle into dense aggregations, and exclude native intertidal species. It has been documented destroying habitat and causing eutrophication of the water bodies it invades.
Common Names: giant oyster, giant Pacific oyster, immigrant oyster, Japanese oyster, Miyagi oyster, Pacific oyster
Synonyms: Ostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793 , Ostrea laperousi Schrenk, 1861 , Ostrea talienwhanensis Crosse, 1862
40. Crassula helmsii (aquatic plant, succulent)
Crassula helmsii is a macrophyte native to Australia and New Zealand. It has become an especially problematic invasive in the United Kingdom and has established troublesome populations throughout western Europe and in southeastern United States. It establishes dense, floating or submerged populations that displace native aquatic plants, decrease biodiversity, alter water conditions, and harm the asethetic and recreational of bodies of water. It rapidly spreads and recolonizes via vegetative reproductions from plant fragments.
Common Names: Australian stonecrop, Australian swamp stonecrop, Crassule des étangs, Helms Dickblatt, New Zealand pygmyweed, swamp stonecrop, Watercrassula
Synonyms: Bulliarda recurva (Hook. f.), Crassula recurva (Hook. f.) Ostenf., Tillaea helmsii Kirk, Tillaea recurva (J.D. Hook.)
41. Crepidula fornicata (mollusc) English   
Crepidula fornicata is a protandrous hermaphrodite mollusc, which means that the animals start their lives as males and then subsequently may change sex and develop into females. This species can tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions. Populations are particularly well developed in wave-protected areas such as bays, estuaries or sheltered sides of wave-exposed islands. C. fornicata competes with other filter-feeding invertebrates for food and space, and often occur in enormous numbers. Few management options are available to combat this species. Dredging operations to clear slipper limpets from oyster beds have been attempted in some areas, but it was concluded that further spread of the species could not be prevented.
Common Names: American limpet, common Atlantic slippersnail, crépidule, oyster-pest, Pantoffelsnecke, slipper limpet, Toffelsneg
Synonyms: Crepidula densata Conrad, Crepidula maculata Rigacci, Crepidula mexicana Rigacci, Crepidula nautiloides auct. non Lesson, Crepidula roseae Petuch, Crepidula violacea Rigacci, Crepidula virginica Conrad, Crypta nautarum Mörch, Patella fornicata Linné
42. Cryphonectria parasitica (fungus) English     
Cryphonectria parasitica is a fungus that attacks primarily Castanea spp. but also has been known to cause damage to various Quercus spp. along with other species of hardwood trees. American chestnut, C. dentata, was a dominant overstorey species in United States forests, but now they have been completely replaced within the ecosystem. C. dentata still exists in the forests but only within the understorey as sprout shoots from the root system of chestnuts killed by the blight years ago. A virus that attacks this fungus appears to be the best hope for the future of Castanea spp., and current research is focused primarily on this virus and variants of it for biological control. Chestnut blight only infects the above-ground parts of trees, causing cankers that enlarge, girdle and kill branches and trunks.
Common Names: chestnut blight, Edelkastanienkrebs
Synonyms: Endothia parasitica
43. Cryptococcus fagisuga
The beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga), along with Neonectria ascomycete fungi form the disease-complex responsible for beech bark disease (BBD) of American and European beech. Beech scale infests mainly larger sized beech trees, feeding on host tissues and causing small fissures on the bark. This initial damage to the tree allows Neonectria to enter the tree, which kills host tissue and eventually girdles the tree causing it to die. In North America the main fungi involved are N. faginata and N. ditissima, whereas in Europe N. ditissima and N. coccinea are responsible for the disease. BBD can dramatically alter forest stand composition and structure, through loss of large trees and proliferation of smaller trees that originate from root sprouting. Reduction of beech nut production and loss of large trees in infected stands may affect mammals and birds that use beech nuts as important food source and old trees as habitat. Around 1% of American beech is estimated to be resistant to BBD. Research is currently focused on modes of inheritance and propagation methods.
Common Names: beech scale, beech scale insect, felted beech coccus, felted beech scale, woolly beech scale, woolly beech scale insect
Synonyms: Cryptococcus fagi Baer.
44. Ctenopharyngodon idella (fish) English   
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is a large cyprinid introduced worldwide as a biological control of aquatic vegetation as well as a food fish. It is a voracious feeder which is incredibly efficient at removing aquatic weeds. However they can completely eliminate vegetation from water systems, resulting in widespread ecological effects. Grass carp are also known to compete with native fish, carry parasites such as Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus opsarichthydis), and induce other harmful effects to introduced waters.
Common Names: amur, amur bialy, amur biely, amur i bardhe, amurkarpfen, beli amur, belyi amur, bílý amur, byal amur, Cá Châm Treng, carpa China, carpa do limo, carpa erbivora, carpa herbivora, carpe de roseau, carpe herbivore, Chinese carp, Chinese graskarper, chortofagos kyprinos, crap-de-iarba, gardd carp, græskarpe, graskarp, gräskarp, gräskarp, graskarpe, graskarpen, graskarper, graskarpfen, grass carp, hullu, hullugende, kap makan rumput, kap rumput, Pla Chao Hea, Pla Chao Heu, pla van heu, ruohokarppi, silver orfe, sôgyo, tongsan, trey srokchen, waan ue, white amur
Synonyms: Ctenopharingodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Valenciennes, 1844), Ctenopharyngodon laticeps (Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus idella (Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus idella (Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus idellus (Valenciennes, 1844), Leuciscus tschiliensis (Valenciennes, 1844), Pristiodon siemionovii (Valenciennes, 1844), Sarcocheilichthys teretiusculus (Valenciennes, 1844)
45. Cyperus rotundus (sedge) English     
Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge) is a weed in over 90 countries and the world's worst invasive weed based on its distribution and effect on crops. Its complex underground network of tubers, basal bulbs, roots and rhizomes ensure its ability to survive and reproduce during adverse conditions. Further biological features, such as its adaptation to high temperatures, solar radiation and humidity, have turned this weed into a serious problem in subtropical and even arid regions.
Common Names: ‘oniani lau, ‘oniani rau, ‘oniani tita, alho-bravo, almendra de tierra, balisanga, boto-botonis, brown nut sedge, capim-alho, capim-dandá, castanuela, castañuela, cebollín, chaguan humatag, chufa, coco, coco grass, coquillo, coquillo purpura, coquito, cortadera, hamasuge, herbe à oignons, ivako, junça, juncia, juncia real, kili‘o‘opu, kili'o'opu, mala-apulid, malanga, matie ‘oniani, matie'oniani, mau‘u mokae, mau‘u mokae, mauku ‘oniani, mauku'oniani, mot ha, mothe, mumuta, mutha, nut grass, nut sedge, nutgrass, oniani, oniani lau, oniani rau, oniani tita, pakopako, pakopako, pakopako, purple nut sedge, purple nut sedge, purple nutsedge, red nut sedge, Rundes Zypergras, soro ni kabani, soronakambani, souchet à tubercules, souchet d'Asie, souchet en forme d'olive, souchet rond, suo cao, sur-sur, tamanengi, te mumute, tiririca, tiririca-vermelha, tuteoneon, vucesa, vuthesa, xiang fu zi, ya haeo mu, ya khon mu, zigolo infestante
Synonyms: Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla, Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti, Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler, Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler, Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf., Cyperus tuberosus Roxb, Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek
46. Cyprinus carpio (fish) English  français     
The introduction of fish as a source of protein for human consumption into tropical and subtropical lake systems is continuing apace. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has been cultured for 2500 years and is also a popular angling and ornamental fish; is the third most frequently introduced species in the world. Its method of feeding churns up the sediments on the bottom of the water and uproots macrophytes, making it an keystone ecosystem engineer that altering habitats for native fish and other native aquatic species.
Common Names: Cá Chép, carp, carpa, carpat, carpe, carpe, carpe commune, carpeau, carpo, cerpyn, ciortan, ciortanica, ciortocrap, ciuciulean, common carp, crapcean, cyprinos, escarpo, Europäischer Karpfen, European carp, fancy carp, feral carp, German carp, grass carp, grivadi, ikan mas, Japanese domesticated carp, kapoor-e-maamoli, kapor, kapr obecný, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp, karp dziki a. sazan, karpa, karpar, karpe, Karpe, karpen, karper, karpfen, karpion, karppi, kerpaille, king carp, koi, koi carp, korop, krapi, kyprinos, læderkarpe, lauk mas, leather carp, leekoh, lei ue, mas massan, mirror carp, olocari, Oriental carp, pa nai, pba ni, pla nai, ponty, punjabe gad, rata pethiya, saran, Saran, sarmão, sazan, sazan baligi, scale carp, sharan, skælkarpe, soneri masha, spejlkarpe, sulari, suloi, tikure, trey carp samahn, trey kap, ulucari, weißfische, wild carp, wildkarpfen
Synonyms: Carpio carpio gibbosus (Kessler, 1856), Carpio flavipinna Valenciennes, 1842, Carpio vulgaris Rapp, 1854, Cyprinus acuminatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Cyprinus acuminatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus angulatus Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus atrovirens Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus bithynicus Richardson, 1857, Cyprinus carpio anatolicus Hanko, 1924, Cyprinus carpio aralensis Spiczakow, 1935, Cyprinus carpio brevicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio elongatus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio fluviatilis Pravdin, 1945, Cyprinus carpio longicirri Misik, 1958, Cyprinus carpio monstrosus Walecki, 1863, Cyprinus carpio oblongus Antipa, 1909, Cyprinus chinensis Basilewsky, 1855, Cyprinus conirostris Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus festetitsii Bonaparte, 1845, Cyprinus flamm Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus fossicola Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus haematopterus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus melanotus Temminck & Schlegel, 1846, Cyprinus nordmannii Valenciennes, 1842, Cyprinus sculponeatus Richardson, 1846, Cyprinus thermalis Heckel, 1843, Cyprinus tossicole Elera, 1895, Cyprinus vittatus Valenciennes, 1842
47. Diaphorina citri (insect)
Diaphorina citri or Asian citrus psyllid is one of the most serious pests of citrus in the world. It causes damage through direct feeding and its toxic saliva, leading to leaf distortion and curling in young tender growth. In addition the copious amounts of honeydew it excretes causes sooty molds to grow which blemish leaves and reduce photosynthesis. However it is the ability of D. citri to vector the Asian and American forms of the huanglongbing (HLB) disease which makes this so damaging. HLB is caused by phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter. HLB causes chlorosis resembling zinc deficiency, twig dieback, stunting of growth and reduced fruit size and quality. Trees usually die after several years and entire orchards may be devastated. HLB seriously threatens citrus industries worldwide. At present there are no curative methods for trees infected with the bacteria, so control methods have focused on reducing D. citri populations. Control is achieved through a combination of physical, chemical and biological methods.
Common Names: Asian citrus psyllid, Asiatic citrus psyllid, Citrus psylla, Oriental citrus psyllid, Psilideo de l'aranjeira, Psylle de l'oranger
Synonyms: Euphalerus citri Crawford
48. Dreissena polymorpha (mollusc) English     
Common Names: Dreiecksmuschel, Dreikantmuschel, dreisena, Eurasian zebra mussel, moule zebra, racicznica zmienna, Schafklaumuschel, svitraina gliemene, tavaline ehk muutlik rändkarp, vaeltajasimpukka, vandremusling, vandringsmussla, wandering mussel, Wandermuschel, zebra mussel, zebra mussel, Zebramuschel, Zebra-Muschel
Synonyms: Mytilus hagenii, Mytilus polymorpha Pallas 1771, Mytilus polymorphus (Pallas), Tichogonia chemnitzii (Rossm.)
49. Egeria densa (aquatic plant) English  français     
Egeria densa is a submersed, freshwater perennial herb that forms dense monospecific stands that restrict water movement, trap sediment, and cause fluctuations in water quality. It has also affected the status of certain threatened species. It has been introduced worldwide through the aquarium trade, and even in its native range can become a nuisance species causing local economic impacts. Chemical control is the most effective option for management of E. densa. Mechanical control is not recommended because fragments of the plant left behind can readily re-colonize and move downstream. The introduction of grass carp offers biological control of this species, but care must be taken because carp can introduce their own negative effects on the environment.
Common Names: Brazilian elodea, Brazilian waterweed, Brazilian-waterweed, common waterweed, dense waterweed, egeria, leafy elodea, South American waterweed
Synonyms: Anacharis densa (Planch.) Victorin, Elodea densa (Planch.) Caspary, Philotria densa (Planch.) Small & St. John
50. Elminius modestus (crustacean)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Elminius modestus has spread successfully throughout the Western Europe coastal areas, since its introduction to the southeast coast of the Uk most probably on the hull of ships from New Zealand and /or Australia between 1940 and 1943. There are several factors that aid Elminius success as an invader. Elminius larval stages are eurythermal and euryhaline, enabling them to survive in a wide range of habitat types. E. modestus is a highly fecund species and has a short generation time. It is highly tolerant of changes in tempertaure and salinity. E. modestus compete with native barnacle species for space. It has been observed that the successful range expansion of the barnacle could be facilitated by a changing climate with warmer seas and tempertaures.
Common Names: Australian barnacle, Australische Seepocke, Australseepocke, Firepladet rur, Kruisridderpok, New Zealand barnacle, Nieuw-Zeelandse zeepok, Sterretje
Synonyms: Austrominius modestus
51. Elodea canadensis (aquatic plant) English     
Elodea canadensis a submergent, aquatic plant, native to North America, has spread rapidly and easily throughout the world. Particularly in Europe, this species is very invasive and is considered a weed due to its ability to grow and multiply fairly rapidly in many diverse habitats and conditions. It is capable of causing problems of economic importance, habitat alteration, competition and threat to biodiversity. In addition, this species is not easily manageable. For these reasons, this species has been the focus of many experiments and research in the hopes of establishing a greater knowledge of growth habits, the true threat it causes, and possible prevention methods.
Common Names: Almindelig vandpest, American elodea, American elodea, American elodea, American waterweed, anacharis, brede waterpest, broad waterweed, Canada waterweed, Canadian pondweed, Canadian pondweed, Canadian water pest, Canadian waterweed, common waterweed, ditch moss, elodee du Canada, elodeja, gemeine wasserpest, Kanada vesihain, Kanada vesikatk, Kanadan vesirutto, Kanadese waterpes, Kanadine elodeja, Kanadische wasserpest, Moczarka kanadyjska, oxygen weed, Peste d'aqua comune, peste d'eau, Vandpest, vandpest, vanlig vattenpest, Vasspest, Vattenpest, vesirutto, water-thyme
Synonyms: Anarcharis alsinastrum Bab., Anarcharis canadensis (Michaux) Planchon, var planchonii (Caspary) Victorin 1931, Anarcharis canadensis Planch , Anarcharis linearis (Rydberg) Victorin 1931, Anarcharis planchonii Caspary) Rydb. , Anarcharis pomeranica (Rchb.) Peterm. , Elodea brandegeeae St. John , Elodea ioensis Wylie , Elodea latifolia Caspary , Elodea linearis (Rydb.) St. John , Elodea oblongifolia Michx. Ex Caspary, Elodea planchonii Caspary , Helodea canadensis Reichb. , Philotria canadensis (Michx.) Britt. , Philotria iowensis (Wylie) Wylie 1911, Philotria linearis Rydberg , Philotria planchonii (Caspary) Rydb. , Serpicula canadensis (Michaux) 1829, Serpicula verticillata Rostk. & Schmidt , Udora canadensis (Michaux) Nuttall 1818
52. Equus caballus (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Equus caballus is a large non-ruminant herbivorous mammal that is not dissimlar in appearance to the domestic horse. E. caballus has an average lifespan of 25 - 30 years, with 20 years of sexual activity. While preferred habitat is open grasslands, E. caballus has been also known to invade desert, semi-desert plains, coastal areas, subalpine regions, tropical savannah grasslands, forests, scrublands and wetlands. In some regions they are protected as they are seen as a valuable asset, but in other places they are considered a pest, as they compete with livestock for resources, degrade plant habitats by grazing and trampling, contaminate water sources, damage fences and decrease native biodiversity.
Common Names: feral horse, horse
53. Eriocheir sinensis (crustacean) English     
Eriocheir sinensis (the Chinese mitten crab) is a migrating crab which has invaded Europe and North America from its native region of Asia. During its mass migrations it contributes to the temporary local extinction of native invertebrates. It modifies habitats by causing erosion due to its intensive burrowing activity and costs fisheries and aquaculture several hundreds of thousands of dollars per year by consuming bait and trapped fish as well as by damaging gear.
Common Names: Chineesche Wolhandkrab, Chinese freshwater edible crab, Chinese mitten crab, Chinese river crab, Chinesische Wollhandkrabbe, crabe Chinois, hiina villkäpp-krabi, Kinas cimdinkrabis, Kinesisk ullhandskrabba, Kinesisk ullhåndskrabbe, Kinijos krabas, Kitajskij mokhnatorukij krab, krab welnistoszczypcy, Shanghai crab, villasaksirapu
Synonyms: Eriocheir japonicus de Haan, Eriocheir leptognathus Rathbun
54. Eupatorium cannabinum (herb) English     
Eupatorium cannabinum is a woody perennial herb that prefers to inhabit and invade moist habitats such as swamps, marshes and stream banks. It forms dense monotypic stands that compete with and eventually crowd out native species. This species also has the ability to alter the nutrient structure of habitats it invades.
Common Names: boneset, common Dutch agrimony, common hemp agrimony, eupatorio, gravel root, hemp agrimony, hindheal, holy rope, khad al bint, Koninginnenkruid, koyunpitragi, linwe di tchet, St John's herb, water agrimony
55. Felis catus (mammal) English  français     
Felis catus was domesticated in the eastern Mediterranean c. 3000 years ago. Considering the extent to which cats are valued as pets, it is not surprising that they have since been translocated by humans to almost all parts of the world. Notable predators, cats threaten native birdlife and other fauna, especially on islands where native species have evolved in relative isolation from predators.
Common Names: cat, domestic cat, feral cat, Hauskatze, house cat, poti, pusiniveikau
56. Ficopomatus enigmaticus (annelid)
Ficopomatus enigmaticus is a reef building tubeworm, believed to be native to Australia and regions of the Indian Ocean. It has established populations worldwide and is an aggressive species that dominates habitats, significantly altering water conditions and physical environments resulting in changes to native communities. F. enigmaticus is also an abundant fouling species. It has caused problems in cooling intakes of power plants and is extremely common in harbours and on ships hulls.
Common Names: Australian tubeworm, australsk kalkrørsorm, Tüten-Kalkröhrenwurm
Synonyms: Mercierella enigmatica (Fauvel, 1923)
57. Gambusia affinis (fish) English  français     
Gambusia affinis is a small fish native to the fresh waters of the eastern and southern United States. It has become a pest in many waterways around the world following initial introductions early last century as a biological control agent for mosquitoes. In general, it is considered to be no more effective than native predators of mosquitoes. The highly predatory mosquito fish eats the eggs of economically desirable fish and preys on and endangers rare indigenous fish and invertebrate species. Mosquito fish are difficult to eliminate once established, so the best way to reduce their effects is to control their further spread. One of the main avenues of spread is continued, intentional release by mosquito-control agencies. G. affinis is closely related to he eastern mosquito fish (G. holbrooki), which was formerly classed as a sub-species. Their appearance, behaviour and impacts are almost identical, and they can therefore be treated the same when it comes to management techniques. Records of G. affinis in Australia actually refer to G. holbrooki.
Common Names: Barkaleci, Dai to ue, Gambusia, Gambusie, Gambusino, Gambuzia, Gambuzia pospolita, Gambuzija, guayacon mosquito, Isdang canal, Kadayashi, Koboldkärpfling, Kounoupopsaro, live-bearing tooth-carp, Mosquito fish, Obyknovennaya gambuziya, pez mosquito, San hang ue, Silberkärpfling, tes, Texaskärpfling, Topminnow, western mosquitofish, Western mosquitofish
Synonyms: Fundulus inurus (Jordan & Gilbert, 1882), Gambusia affinis affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Gambusia gracilis Girard, 1859, Gambusia humilis Günther, 1866, Gambusia patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853), Haplochilus melanops Cope, 1870, Heterandria affinis Baird & Girard, 1853, Heterandria patruelis Baird & Girard, 1853, Zygonectes brachypterus Cope, 1880, Zygonectes gracilis (Girard, 1859), Zygonectes inurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882, Zygonectes patruelis (Baird & Girard, 1853)
58. Gambusia holbrooki (fish) English  français   
Eastern mosquito fish, Gambusia holbrooki is a small, aggressive live-bearing fish that originates from the southern United States. It has been introduced worldwide as a mosquito-control agent. G. holbrooki have been implicated in damage to native fish, amphibian and invertebrate populations.
Common Names: eastern gambusia, gambusia, mosquitofish, plague minnow, topminnow
Synonyms: Gambusia affinis holbrooki
59. Genetta genetta (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Common Genet, Genette Commune , Gineta , Ibiza Common Genet , Ibiza Genet , small-spotted genet
60. Gonipterus scutellatus (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Gonipterus scutellatus, or the eucalyptus snout beetle, is native to Australia. It is specific to Eucalyptus species, and G. scutellatus is considered to be one of the major defoliators of Eucalyptus spp. worldwide. It causes damage to eucalyptus in both larval and adult stages, in particular to the young leaves and repeated defoliation by G. scutellatus can lead to tree death. However, the egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens has been introduced as a successful biological control agent in several countries.
Common Names: eucalyptus snout beetle, eucalyptus weevil, Eukalyptusrüssler, gorgojo del eucalipto, gum tree weevil
61. Gracilaria vermiculophylla (aquatic plant)
Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Ohmi) Papenfuss is a red alga and was originally described in Japan in 1956 as Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla. It is thought to be native and widespread throughout the Northwest Pacific Ocean. G. vermiculophylla is primarily used as a precursor for agar, which is widely used in the pharmaceutical and food industries. It has been introduced to the East Pacific, the West Atlantic and the East Atlantic, where it rapidly colonises new environments. It is highly tolerant of stresses and can grow in an extremely wide variety of conditions; factors which contribute to its invasiveness. It invades estuarine areas where it outcompetes native algae species and modifies environments.
Synonyms: Gracilaria asiatica Zhang & Xia, Gracilariopsis vermiculophylla Ohmi
62. Gunnera tinctoria (herb) English     
Gunnera tinctoria is a large herbaceous plant that forms dense colonies that shade out and suppress native vegetation. This species is a vigorous seeder, and birds facilitate its spread. Its ability to reproduce rhizomatically is yet another reason for its invasive nature. Intense effort is required to control this species.
Common Names: Chilean gunnera, Chilean rhubarb, giant rhubarb, nalca, panque
Synonyms: Gunnera chilensis Lam., Gunnera scabra (Ruiz.&Pav.), Panke tinctoria Molina (basionym)
63. Gymnocephalus cernuus (fish) English   
Gymnocephalus cernuus is introduced into new locations in the ballast water of ships. Introductions also occur through escaped or discarded live bait. It has become a threat to the Great Lakes in North America and some lakes in Europe. Gymnocephalus cernuus has become invasive due to its reproduction ablity; its wide habitat range and its aggressive feeding habits.
Common Names: blacktail, Eurasian ruffe, pope, redfin darter, river ruffe, ruffe
Synonyms: Acerina cemua (Linnaeus, 1758), Acerina czekanowskii, Acerina fischeri, Acerina vulgaris, Perca cermua Linnaeus, 1758
64. Harmonia axyridis (insect)
Harmonia axyridis (Harlequin ladybird), is native to Asia and has been used extensively around the world for biological control of various aphid species. While it is a popular control agent, it has also brought with it several negative effects. Its establishment appears to decrease the diversity of native Coccinellidae. Harmonia axyridis can also quickly become a human nuisance when it seeks shelter during the winter months and takes up residency in the walls and insulation of houses and other structures. Surprisingly, Harmonia axyridis has also attained status as a pest of fruit production; particularly in the vineyards of the Midwestern USA.
Common Names: Asian lady beetle, Asiatischer Marienkafer, Halloween lady beetle, Harlequin lady beetle, Harlequin ladybird, Japanese lady beetle, la coccinelle asiatique, multicolored Asian lady beetle, multivariate lady beetle, pumpkin lady beetle, southern lady beetle, veelkeurig aziatisch lieveheersbeestje
65. Hemigrapsus sanguineus (crustacean)
Hemigrapsus sanguineus is commonly called the Asian shore crab and is native to the Asia-Pacific region. It has a very broad diet and, in its introduced range, has the potential to affect populations of native species, such as crabs, fish and shellfish by disrupting the food web. It also occupies habitats very similar to native mud crabs. Hemigrapsus sanguineus may compete with larger species, like the blue crab, rock crab and the non-native green crab.
Common Names: Asian shore crab, Japanese shore crab
66. Heracleum mantegazzianum (herb) English     
Heracleum mantegazzianum is native to Asia and has been introduced into Europe and North America. It is characterised by its size and may grow to 4.5 to 6 metres in height. It is most common along roadsides, vacant lots, streams and rivers, and can be considered an invasive freshwater weed. It forms a dense canopy, out-competing native riparian species and results in an increase in soil erosion along the stream banks where it occurs. Heracleum mantegazzianum germinates from early spring throughout the growing season, after exposure to winter temperatures. H. mantegazzianum exudes a clear watery sap that sensitises the skin to ultraviolet radiation which can result in severe burns. Populations in urban and suburban areas represent an increasing public health hazard. Glyphosate is considered the most effective herbicide.
Common Names: barszcz mantegazyjski, barszcz mantegazziego, berce de caucase, berce de Mantegazzi, berce du caucase, bjarnarkló, cartwheel flower, giant cow parsnip, giant cow persicum, giant hogweed, Herkulesstaude, hiid-karuputk, jättebjörnloka, jättefloka, kæmpe-bjørneklo, kæmpe-bjørneklo, kaukasianjattiputki, Kaukasischer Barenklau, kaukasisk jattefloka, kaukasisk jättefloka, kjempebjonnkjeks, mantegaci latvanis, mantegaco barštis, Riesenbarenklau, tröllahvönn, wild rhubarb
Synonyms: Heracleum asperum M. Bieb., Heracleum giganteum Fischer ex Hornem., Heracleum lehmannianum Bunge, Heracleum persicum Desf. Ex Fischer, Heracleum sibricum Sphalm , Heracleum stevenii Manden, Heracleum villosum Fischer ex Sprengel
67. Hyphantria cunea (insect)
Biological invasions of insects, plants and fungal pest species often cause substantial disturbance to forest ecosystems as well as severe socio-economic impacts. Posing an agricultural and economic threat, Hyphantria cunea is significant due to its high polyphagy, which puts a wide variety of plant species at potential risk. Hyphantria cunea is commonly known as the fall webworm and can be a pest in both natural and planted forests.
Common Names: American white moth, Amerikanischer Webebär, Amerikanischer weisser Bärenspinner, Amerika-siro-hitori, black-headed webworm, chenille à tente estivale, chenille blanche, ecaille fileuse, écaille fileuse, falena tessitrice, fall budworm, fall webworm, fall webworm moth, gusano de la bolsa, hvid bjoernespinder, hvid bjørnespinder, hvit bjoernespinner, hvit bjørnespinner, ifantria americana, mulberry moth, noctuelle d'automne, redheaded webworm, Spinner, Weisser Baeren, vid bjöernspinnare, Webebär, Amerikanischer, weiser Bärenspinner, weisser amerikanischer Bärenspinner, weisser Bär
Synonyms: Hyphantria textor (Harris)
68. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (fish) English   
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix is a carp, native to Asia. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have been introduced around the world for aquaculture purposes and also for controlling excessive growth of phytoplankton in natural waters. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have the potential to reduce native diversity by competing for and depleting zooplankton populations, altering the food web. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have also been found to carry and transmit the disease Salmonella typhimurium.
Common Names: amour argenté, asimokyprinos, ballgjeri i bardhe, belli-gende, belyi tolstolob, belyi tolstolobik, bin ue, byal tolstolob, carpa argentata, carpa plateada, carpa-prateada, carpe argentée, carpe asiatique, carpe chinoise, Chinese schemer, cho ue, crap argintiu, crap-chinezesc-argintiu, fehér busa, fytofag, hakuren, hopeapaksuotsa, kap perak, kasaf, kopur noqreai, lin ue, phytophague, pla leng hea, pla leng heu, pla lin, pla pae long, pla pin hea, pla pin heu, silberkarpfen, silver carp, silverkarp, silwerkarp, sølvkarpe, Sølvkarpe, tolpyga, tolpyga biala, tolstolob, tolstolob biely, tolstolobik, tolstolobik bílý, tolstolobik obecný, tongsan putih, toplyga biala, tovstolob zvychajnyi, zilverkarper
Synonyms: Abramocephalus microlepis Steindachner, 1869 , Cephalus mantschuricus Basilewsky, 1855 , Hypophthalmichthys dabry Guichenot, 1871 , Hypophthalmichthys dybowskii Herzenstein, 1888 , Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Hypothalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Hypothamicthys molitrix (Valenciennes, 1844) , Leuciscus hypophthalmus Richardson, 1945 , Leuciscus molitrix Valenciennes, 1844 , Onychodon mantschuricus Basilewsky, 1872
69. Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (fish) English   
Hypophthalmichthys nobilis commonly known as bighead carp are native to Asia. They have been introduced around the world for aquaculture purposes. They are also used to control excessive growths of phytoplankton in natural waters. These species have the potential to reduce native diversity by competing for and depleting zooplankton populations thus altering the food web. H. nobilis have also been found to carry and transmit various diseases. H. nobilis is also known by its synonym Aristichthys nobilis.
Common Names: amour à grosse tête, amour marbré, ballgjeri laraman, belli-gende, big head, bighead, bighead carp, boon tau ue, cá mè hoa, carpa cabeza grande, carpa cabezona, carpa dalla testa grande, carpe à grosse tête, carpe chinoise, carpe marbrée, crap argintiu nobil, dai tau, fa lin, gefleckter silberkarpfen, grootkopkarper, Hak lin, kap kepala besar, kapoor-e-sargondeh, kokuren, marmarokyprinos, marmoripaksuotsa, marmorkarp, marmorkarpe, marmorkarpfen, novac, pastar tolstolob, pestryi tolstolob, piestryi tolstolobik, pla song hea, pla song heu, pla tao teo, sung ue, tolpyga pstra, tolstolebec pestrý, tolstolob pestrý, tolstolobec pestrý, tolstolobik pestrý, tongsan, tovstolob strokatyi
Synonyms: Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson, 1845) , Hypophthalmichthys mantschuricus Kner, 1867 , Leuciscus nobilis Richardson, 1845
70. Impatiens glandulifera (herb) English     
Impatiens glandulifera, or Himalayan balsam, is a problematic invasive which has spread throughout Europe, parts of North America and New Zealand following introductions as an ornamental. It is an annual herb which thrives in riparian zones and disturbed areas. Its high reproductive rate, early germintation, propensity for establishing thick stands, rich nectar production, hardiness, and habitat tolerance and plasticity have allowed it to spread rapidly, dominate landscapes, and compete with and displace native plant species. Eradication has proven very difficult once established and preventative measures are recommended.
Common Names: balsamie de l'himmalaya, bitine sprige, Drüsiges Springkraut, Himalayan balsam, Indian balsam, Indisches Springkraut, jättebalsamin, jättipalsami, Kæmpe-Balsamin, kjempespringfrø, Niecierpek gruczolowaty, Niecierpek himalajski, ornamental jewelweed, policeman's helmet, puku sprigane, risalísa, verev lemmalts, Washington orchid
Synonyms: Impatiens glanduligera Lindley, Impatiens roylei Walpers.
71. Imperata cylindrica (grass) English  français     
Native to Asia, cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) is common in the humid tropics and has spread to the warmer temperate zones worldwide. Cogon grass is considered to be one of the top ten worst weeds in the world. Its extensive rhizome system, adaptation to poor soils, drought tolerance, genetic plasticity and fire adaptability make it a formidable invasive grass. Increases in cogon grass concern ecologists and conservationists because of the fact that this species displaces native plant and animal species and alters fire regimes.
Common Names: alang-alang, blady grass, Blutgras, carrizo, cogon grass, gi, impérata cylindrique, japgrass, kunai, lalang, ngi, paille de dys, paillotte, satintail, speargrass
Synonyms: Imperata arundinacea Cirillo, Lagurus cylindricus L.
72. Lagarosiphon major (aquatic plant) English  français     
Lagarosiphon major is a rhizomatous, perennial, submerged aquatic plant. It can inhabit freshwater lakes, dams and slow-moving streams. Lagarosiphon major can form dense floating mats in deep-water reservoirs and other water bodies and it can block the intakes of hydro-electric systems. Dense growth of Lagarosiphon major can block light penetration into waterways, eliminating growth of native water plants and affecting associated populations of aquatic invertebrates. Lagarosiphon major can also restrict the passage of boats and limit recreational activities like swimming and angling. Storms can tear weed mats loose and deposit large masses of rotting vegetation on beaches, spoiling their amenity value.
Common Names: African elodea, curly waterweed, elodée africaine, Lagarosiphon, lagarosiphon majeur, oxygen weed, South African oxygen weed, submerged onocotyledon
Synonyms: Elodea crispa
73. Lasius neglectus (insect)
Lasius neglectus is a recent arrival in Europe. Some of its populations have attained pest status but on other sites, the ant is still in an arrested state, perhaps in the lag-phase, lacking the major characteristics of invaders. Its negative effects are caused by the enormous numbers of ants tending aphids on trees and occupation of electrical conduits in homes and gardens.
Common Names: invasive garden ant
74. Leuciscus idus (fish) English   
Leuciscus idus (orfe) are a large-bodied freshwater fish native to Europe. They are valued as a sport fish in many countries and have been introduced to a number of locations for this purpose. Concerns have been raised about their potential to damage to native aquatic ecosystems but there seems to be a lack of information regarding any proven effects.
Common Names: Gäse, golden orfe, Goldorfe, Iaz, id, ide, ide, ide dorée, ide mélanote, ide rouge, ido, jalec tmavy, jalec tmavý, jasek, jász, jaz, jelec jesen, Jesen, jesen nížinný, jesen obecný, jez, jezuve, leukiskos-tsiróni, lugojanel, mazdruga, Nerfling, orfe, Orfe, orff, rimte, ryba májová, säyne, silver orfe, strandkarpe, vaduvita, vederbuk, véron, Weißfisch, winde, yaz
Synonyms: Cyprinus idbarus Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinus idus Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinus jeses Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinus microlepidotus Ekström, 1835, Cyprinus orfus Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinus orphus Linnaeus, 1758, Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758), Idus melanotus orientalis Sinitzyn, 1900, Idus melanotus Heckel, 1843, Idus miniatus Bonaparte, 1845, Idus miniatus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Idus oxianus Kessler, 1877, Leuciscus idus auratus Bade, 1901, Leuciscus idus idus sibiricus Kirillov, 1958, Leuciscus idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758), Leuciscus idus lapponicus Günther, 1868, Leuciscus idus oxianus (Kessler, 1877), Leuciscus neglectus Selys-Longchamps, 1842, Squalius oxianus Kessler, 1877
75. Linepithema humile (insect) English     
Linepithema humile (the Argentine ant) invades sub-tropical and temperate regions and is established on six continents. Introduced populations exhibit a different genetic and social makeup that confers a higher level of invasiveness (due to an increase in co-operation between workers in the colony). This allows the formation of fast growing, high density colonies, which place huge pressures on native ecosystems. For example, Linepithema humile is the greatest threat to the survival of various endemic Hawaiian arthropods and displaces native ant species around the world (some of which may be important seed-dispersers or plant-pollinators) resulting in a decrease in ant biodiversity and the disruption of native ecosystems.
Common Names: Argentine ant, Argentinische Ameise, formiga-Argentina
Synonyms: Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr, 1868)
76. Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana) (amphibian) English     
The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus (=Rana catesbeiana)) is native to North America. It has been introduced all over the world to over 40 countries and four continents. Many introductions have been intentional with the purpose of establishing new food sources for human consumption. Other populations have been established from unintentional escapes from bullfrog farms. Consequences of the introduction of non-native amphibians to native herpetofauna can be severe. The American bullfrog has been held responsible for outbreaks of the chytrid fungus found to be responsible for declining amphibian populations in Central America and elsewhere. They are also important predators and competitors of endangered native amphibians and fish. The control of this invasive in Europe partly relies upon increasing awareness, monitoring and education about the dangers of releasing pets into the wild. Strict laws are also in place to prevent further introductions. Eradication is achieved largely by physical means including shooting, spears/gigs, bow and arrow, nets and traps.
Common Names: bullfrog, grenouille taureau, North American bullfrog, Ochsenfrosch, rana toro, Stierkikker
Synonyms: Rana catesbiana Shaw, 1802
77. Lonicera japonica (vine, climber) English  français     
Lonicera japonica is an extremely vigorous vine which grows up through the canopy, smothering and ultimately killing the host tree. It competes with native plants for light and nutrients and prevents the understorey and small trees from developing, causing a reduction in forest diversity. Lonicera japonica is shade and drought tolerant, though it needs full to partial sunlight to grow successfully. It spreads rapidly via above-ground runners that root at nodes and its seeds may be eaten by birds and then dispersed. It is planted in gardens and along roadsides for landscaping purposes and can also be spread by the dumping of garden waste.
Common Names: chèvrefeuille, chèvrefeuille du Japon, Chinese honeysuckle, Hall's honeysuckle, Japanese honeysuckle, Japanisches Geissblatt, madreselva, madressilva
Synonyms: Caprifolium hallianum Hort., Lonicera brachypoda DC., Lonicera flexuosa Thun., Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, Lonicera japonica var. chinensis (P.W. Wats.) Baker, Nintooa japonica , Nintooa japonica (Thunb.) Sweet
78. Macfadyena unguis-cati (vine, climber) English  français     
Macfadyena unguis-cati is a perennial, climbing liana found primarily in tropical forests. It is native to the Central and South Americas and the West Indies, but currently is represented on every continent except Antartica. It is an invasive species in much of its range and is said to be “one of the most destructive exotic vines”. Macfadyena unguis-cati effects all layers of infected forest ecosystems by rapidly spreading both vertically and horizontally across everything with which it makes contact, overwhelming both the understorey plants and the canopy trees. Macfadyena unguis-cati species becomes established quickly and is difficult to eliminate due to its rapid growth, extensive root system, and prolific seed production. Methods of manual, chemical, and biological control for Macfadyena unguis-cati are available.
Common Names: bejuco de gato, cat-claw creeper, catclaw-trumpet, catclawvine, cat's claw climber, cat's claw creeper, cat's claw vine, cat's-claw, claw vine, funnel-creeper, griffe à chatte, katteklouranker, liane patate, macfadyena, patte d'oiseau, paz y justicia, riffe chatte, uña de gato, yellow trumpet vine
Synonyms: Batocydia unguis-cati (L.) Mart. ex Britt., Bignonia tweedieana Lindl., Bignonia unguis-cati L., Doxantha unguis-cati (L.) Miers
79. Melaleuca quinquenervia (tree) English  français     
The broad-leaved paperbark tree or melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) can reach heights of 25 meters and hold up to 9 million viable seeds in a massive canopy-held seed bank. This fire-resistant wetland-invader aggressively displaces native sawgrass and pine communities in south Florida, alters soil chemistry and modifies Everglades ecosystem processes. Melaleuca is notoriously difficult to control, however, bio-control (integrated with herbicidal and other methods) holds a promising alternative to traditional control methods.
Common Names: aceite de cayeput, ahambo, balsamo de cayeput, belbowrie, bottle brush tree, broadleaf paperbark tree, broadleaf teatree, broad-leaved paperbark tree, cajeput, capeputi, corcho, five-veined paperbark tree, itahou, Japanese paper wasp, kayu putih, kinindrano, Mao-Holzrose, melaleuca, niaouli, niaouli, numbah, oli, paper bark tree, paperbark teatree, punk tree, white bottlebrush tree
Synonyms: Melaleuca leucadendron ß angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca leucadendron var. albida, Melaleuca leucadendron var. coriacea Poir., Melaleuca leucadendron var. rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca maideni R.T. Baker, Melaleuca rubriflora Vieillard ex Brongn. & Gris, Melaleuca smithii R.T. Baker, Melaleuca viridiflora var. angustifolia L.f., Melaleuca viridiflora var. ß rubriflora Brongn. & Gris, Metrosideros coriacea Poir., Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav.
80. Merremia tuberosa (vine, climber) English  français     
Merremia tuberosa is a climbing vine that is native to Mexico and parts of central America that has become invasive on various Pacific islands and parts of the United States. The vine overgrows tall hardwood forest canopies and smothers native trees and shrubs. Its population on Niue is reported as especially aggressive.
Common Names: bara- asa-gao, bejuco de golondrin, Brazilian jalap, Ceylon morning glory, foco de luz, Hawaiian wood rose, liane à tonelle, liane Gandelour, liane sultane jaune, liane-jaune, quiebra caje- te, quiebra machet, quinamacal, rosa de barranco, rose des bois, Spanish arborvine, Spanish woodbine, wood rose, xixcamátic, yellow morning-glory
Synonyms: Batatas tuberosa (L.) Bojer, Ipomoea tuberosa L., Operculina tuberosa (L.) Meisn.
81. Micropterus salmoides (fish) English  français     
Micropterus salmoides (bass) has been widely introduced throughout the world due to its appeal as a sport fish and for its tasty flesh. In some places introduced Micropterus salmoides have affected populations of small native fish through predation, sometimes resulting in the their decline or extinction. Its diet includes fish, crayfish, amphibians and insects.
Common Names: achigã, achigan, achigan à grande bouche, American black bass, bas dehanbozorg, bas wielkogeby, bass, bass wielkgebowy, biban cu gura mare, black bass, bolsherotnyi amerikanskii tscherny okun, bol'sherotyi chernyi okun', buraku basu, fekete sügér, forelbaars, forellenbarsch, green bass, green trout, großmäuliger Schwarzbarsch, huro, isobassi, khorshid Mahi Baleh Kuchak, lakseabbor, largemouth bass, largemouth black bass, lobina negra, lobina-truche, northern largemouth bass, okounek pstruhový, okuchibasu, Öringsaborre, Ørredaborre, ostracka, ostracka lososovitá, perca Americana, perche d'Amérique, perche noire, perche truite, persico trota, stormundet black bass, stormundet ørredaborre, tam suy lo ue, zwarte baars
Synonyms: Aplites salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Grystes megastoma Garlick, 1857, Huro nigricans Cuvier, 1828, Huro salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Labrus salmoides Lacepède, 1802, Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède, 1802), Perca nigricans (Cuvier, 1828)
82. Mus musculus (mammal) English  français     
  See eradication or other absence information
The house mouse (Mus musculus) probably has a world distribution more extensive than any mammal, apart from humans. Its geographic spread has been facilitated by its commensal relationship with humans which extends back at least 8,000 years. They cause considerable damage to human activities by destroying crops and consuming and/or contaminating food supplies intended for human consumption. They are prolific breeders, sometimes erupting and reaching plague proportions. They have also been implicated in the extinction of indigenous species in ecosystems they have invaded and colonised. An important factor in the success of M. musculus is its behavioural plasticity brought about by the decoupling of genetics and behaviour. This enables M. musculus to adapt quickly and to survive and prosper in new environments.
Common Names: biganuelo, field mouse, Hausmaus, house mouse, kiore-iti, raton casero, souris commune, wood mouse
83. Musculista senhousia (mollusc) English   
Musculista senhousia is a small, short-lived mytilid mussel native to east Asia which has successfully spread to New Zealand, Australia, the Mediterranean and the Pacific coast of the USA. It can grow rapidly and is capable of marked habitat alteration through the construction of byssal mats on the surface of soft sediments.
Common Names: Asian date mussel, Asian mussel, cuckoo mussel, date mussel, green bagmussel, green mussel, hototogisu, Japanese mussel, senhouse mussel, Senhouse's mussel
Synonyms: Brachidontes (Arcuatula) senhousia Kira, 1959 , Brachidontes (Musculista) senhousia Kira, 1962 , Brachidontes aquarius Grabau and King, 1928 , Modiola (Arcuatula) arcuatula Hanley, 1844 , Modiola bellardiana Tapparone-Canefri, 1874 , Modiola senhausii Reeve, 1857 , Modiola senhousia Benson in Cantor, 1842 , Modiolus senhousei Hanna, 1966 , Musculista senhausia Morton, 1974 , Musculus (Musculista ) senhousia Yammamoto & Habe, 1958 , Volsella senhausi Smith, 1944
84. Mustela nivalis (mammal)
Mustela nivalis (weasel) are the smallest mustelid species and the smallest member of the order Carnivora. They have a large native range throughout the Holoarctic and have been introduced to New Zealand and other islands where they feed on native birds, mammals, invertebrates and reptiles leading to population declines of some species
Common Names: belette pygmée, least weasel
85. Mya arenaria (mollusc)
Mya arenaria (soft shell clam) has a large global distribution, largely due to its adaptability to varying environments. Impacts of Mya arenaria range from habitat alteration to massive bioaccumulation.
Common Names: almindelig sandmusling, eastern soft-shell clam, hietasimpukka, liela smilšgliemene, liiva-uurikkarp, long-necked clam, nannynose, sand gaper, Sandklaffmuschel , sandmusslan, sandskel, smelinuke, soft-shell clam, steamer clam, vanlig sandskjell
Synonyms: Mya hemphillii
86. Myiopsitta monachus (bird) English   
Myipositta monachus (monk parakeets) are popular in the pet trade business. Their distinction as the only nest-building parrot has allowed them to adapt to cold climates and urban areas, thus increasing their range when intentionally or unintentionally released. In Argentina, where Myipositta monachus are native, they are reported to cause one billion dollars worth of crop damage annually. They have, as yet, not significantly harmed any other invaded region.
Common Names: burátpapagáj, catita com?n, caturra-da-argentina, convue veuve, cotorra argentina, grey-breasted parakeet, grey-headed parakeet, matto grasso, mniszka, Mönchssittich, monk parakeet, monniksparikiet, munkkiaratti, munkparakit, papo branco, parrocchetto monaco, perruche-souris, quaker conure, quaker parakeet, quaker parrot
Synonyms: Psittacus monachus (Boddaert, 1783)
87. Myocastor coypus (mammal) English     
Myocastor coypus (coypu) is a large semi-aquatic rodent which originated from South America. However, due to escapes and releases from fur farms there are now large feral populations in North America, Europe and Asia. Their burrows penetrate and damage river banks, dykes and irrigation facilities. Myocastor coypus' feeding methods lead to the destruction of large areas of reed swamp. Habitat loss caused by coypus impacts plant, insect, bird and fish species.
Common Names: Biberratte, coipù, coypu, nutria, ragondin, ratão-do-banhado, Sumpfbiber
88. Myrmica rubra (insect)
Myrmica rubra, commonly known as the European fire ant, is an aggressive ant species which has been introduced from its native Eurasia to eastern North America, where it appears able to reach sizeable densities. It has a painful sting, and also impacts on native ants and other invertebrates, and reptiles.
Common Names: European fire ant, European imported fire ant, Kiiro-kushike-ari
Synonyms: Atta rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmecia) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmica) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica rubra (Linnaeus), Manica rubra (Linnaeus), Myrmica laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica laevinodis var. bruesi (Weber), Myrmica levinodis (Dalla Torre), Myrmica longiscapus (Curtis), Myrmica rubra laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica rubra r. champlaini (Forel), Myrmica rubra st. laevinodis (Nylander)
89. Mytilopsis leucophaeata (mollusc) English   
Mytilopsis leucophaeata is a bivalve mollusk native to the Gulf of Mexico and portions of the North American Atlantic coast that has invaded Europe and non-native locations of North America. It establishes dense populations that attach to natural and artificial surfaces and has become a problematic biofouler, especially to electrical and industrial plant cooling systems. Its ecological effects have yet to be determined.
Common Names: brackish water mussel, Conrad's false mussel, dark false mussel
Synonyms: Congeria cochleata , Congeria cochleatus , Mytilopsis cochleatus , Mytilopsis leucophaeta , Mytilopsis leucophaetus
90. Neovison vison (=Mustela vison) (mammal)
Mustela vison (American mink) is part of the mustelid family (order Carnivora). They live alone along riverbanks and lakeshores and have been introduced to many countries to set up mink breeding farms for producing fur. From these farms Mustela vison have consequently escaped and become naturalised in many locations. In some instances there have been intentional releases by fur farmers hoping to produce better quality "free-range" fur (mainly in Eastern Europe) and intentional release by animal activists. In countries where fur farms still operate, mink still frequently escape into the surrounding environment. In introduced locations the mink has proved to be an extremely competitive predator which has had a huge impact on prey populations.
Common Names: American mink, mink
91. Nicotiana glauca (shrub) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Introduced in Hawaii, Ascension, Bermuda, Saint Helena and Canary islands Nicotiana glauca thrives in disturbed habitats as well as sandy beaches and coastal areas. It may pose a threat to pristine environments and native wildlife by altering habitats.
Common Names: gandul, guang yan cao, kidachi tabako, mustard tree, paka, tabac canaque, tabaco moro, tabaco moruno, tabaco negro, tree tabacco, wild tobacco, wildetabak
92. Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (insect)
Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus is a mosquito native to Japan, Korea and eastern China. It has the potential to be an enzootic or epizootic vector of at least three kinds of encephalitis and may serve as a bridge vector for West Nile Virus. It breeds natural rockpools and a range of artificial containers, and is thought to have been introduced to the United States in infested automobile tyres. It is rapidly expanding its range and is now present in at least 32 states including Hawaii and two Canadian provinces.
Common Names: Asian bush mosquito, Asian rock pool mosquito
Synonyms: Aedes japonicus (Reinert, 2000)
93. Oncorhynchus mykiss (fish) English  français     
Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout) are one of the most widely introduced fish species in the world. Native to western North America, from Alaska to the Baja Peninsula, Oncorhynchus mykiss have been introduced to numerous countries for sport and commercial aquaculture. Oncorhynchus mykiss is highly valued as a sportfish, with regular stocking occurring in many locations where wild populations cannot support the pressure from anglers. Concerns have been raised about the effects of introduced trout in some areas, as they may affect native fish and invertebrates through predation and competition.
Common Names: Alabalik, Alabalik türü, Amerikaniki Pestrofa, Aure, Baiser, Baja California rainbow trout, Brown trout, Coast angel trout, Coast rainbow trout, Coast range trout, Dagova pastarva, Forel rajduzhna, Forelle, Hardhead, Kamchatka steelhead, Kamchatka trout, Kamloops, Kamloops trout, Kirjolohi, K'wsech, Lord-fish, Masu, Nijimasu, Orret, Pastrva, Pestropha, pstrag teczowy, Pstrag teczowy , Pstruh duhový, Pstruh dúhový, rainbow trout, Rainbow trout , Redband, redband trout, Regenbogenforelle, Regenbogenforelle , Regenboogforel, Regnbåge, Regnbågslax, Regnbogasilungur, Regnbueørred, Regnbueørret, Salmon trout, Salmones del Pacífico, Silver trout, Stahlkopfforelle, Stålhovedørred, Steelhead, steelhead trout, Steelhead trout , Summer salmon, Sxew'k'em, Trofta ylberi, Trofte ylberi, Trota, Trota iridea, Trucha, trucha arco iris, Trucha arco iris , Trucha arcoiris, truite arc-en-ciel, Truta , Truta-arco-iris, Urriöi
Synonyms: Fario gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Onchorrhychus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Oncorhynchus kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Parasalmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo gairdneri irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdneri shasta (Jordan, 1894), Salmo gairdneri (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gairdnerii irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo gairdnerii (Richardson, 1836), Salmo gilberti (Jordan, 1894), Salmo iridea (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo irideus argentatus (Bajkov, 1927), Salmo irideus (Gibbons, 1855), Salmo kamloops whitehousei (Dymond, 1931), Salmo kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo masoni (Suckley, 1860), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) , Salmo nelsoni (Evermann, 1908), Salmo purpuratus (Pallas, 1814), Salmo rivularis kamloops (Jordan, 1892), Salmo rivularis (Ayres, 1855), Salmo stellatus (Girard, 1856), Salmo truncatus (Suckley, 1859)
94. Ophiostoma ulmi sensu lato (fungus) English     
Dutch elm disease (DED) is a wilt disease caused by a pathogenic fungus disseminated by specialised bark beetles. There have been two destructive pandemics of the disease in Europe and North America during the last century, caused by the successive introduction of two fungal pathogens: Ophiostoma ulmi and Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, the latter much more aggressive. The vector is represented by bark beetles, various different species of scolyts living on elm trees. These beetles breed under the bark of dying elm trees. The young adults fly from the DED infected pupal chambers to feed on healthy elm trees. As a consequence, spores of the fungus carried on the bodies of these beetles are deposited in healthy plant tissue. Ophiostoma ulmi sensu lato can also spread via root grafts.
Common Names: dutch elm disease, Schlauchpilz
Synonyms: Ceratocystis ulmi
95. Orconectes rusticus (crustacean) English   
Orconectes rusticus, the rusty crayfish, is an aquatic invasive spread by anglers who use them as bait. It is native to the portions of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky and has spread to surrounding areas as well as northeastern United States. O. rusticus is an aggressive and rapidly spreading crayfish that displaces cogeners, reduces macrophyte and invertebrate abundance, preys on native snails, and reduces sport fish populations.
Common Names: rusty crayfish
96. Oxalis pes-caprae (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Oxalis pes-caprae is a short, perennial herb that is native to southern Africa. It mainly reproduces vegetatively via bulbs, and can form large clonal colonies. Colonies flower synchronously, with distinctive bright yellow flowers that are large and cup-shaped. It is commonly found growing in agricultural areas, cultivated areas, fields, disturbed/ruderal zones, gardens, wasteland, riparian zones, dunes and scrubland.
Common Names: African woodsorrel, Bermuda buttercup, buttercup oxalis, Englishweed, sour sorrel, sourgrass, soursob, yellow sorrel
Synonyms: Bolboxalis cernua (Thunb.) Small, Oxalis cernua Thunb., Oxalis libica Viv., Oxalis pleniflora Lanfranco
97. Oxyura jamaicensis (bird) English   
Oxyura jamaicensis (ruddy duck) is native to North America. It was imported into wildfowl collections in the UK in the 1940s and subsequently escaped to form a feral population from which birds are now spreading as far as Spain, where they threaten the globally endangered white-headed duck (Oxyura leucocephala) with extinction through introgressive hybridisation and competition. A regional trial of control measures, in which over 2,000 birds have been controlled, is ongoing in the UK. Control programmes are also in place in France, Spain and Portugal and are urgently needed in The Netherlands and Belgium. Oxyura jamaicensis are relatively easy to shoot as they tend not to leave water-bodies during control activities.
Common Names: Amerikansk kopparand, Amerikansk skarveand, erismature rouse, gobbo della giamaica, hrókönd, malvasía cabeciblanca, northern ruddy duck, rosse stekelstaarteend, ruddy duck, schwartzkopf ruderente, stivhaleand
Synonyms: Anas jamaicensis Gmelin 1789
98. Pacifastacus leniusculus (crustacean)
Pacifastacus leniusculus is a large, hardy cool temperate freshwater crayfish that is found in rivers and lakes. It is endemic to northwestern USA and southwestern Canada, from where it was introduced into more southerly states, as well as into Europe and Japan. Pacifastacus leniusculus is an aggressive competitor and has been responsible for displacing indigenous crayfish species wherever it has been introduced. In addition, it acts as a vector for the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci, to which all non-North American crayfish are susceptible, but to which it is relatively immune. Pacifastacus leniusculus is a large, relatively fast-growing species with high fecundity. Consequently, it has proved a good aquacultural species and supports capture fisheries in the western USA and Europe, particularly in Finland and Sweden.
Common Names: Californian crayfish, Pacific crayfish, signal crayfish
Synonyms: Astacus leniusculus Dana, 1852, Pacifastacus leniusculus Bott, 1950, Potamobius leniusculus Ortmann, 1902
99. Paratrechina longicornis (insect) English  français 
Paratrechina longicornis (the crazy ant) is a tramp ant, which, by definition, is an ant that is widely dispersed through commerce and other human-assisted avenues. It is extremely easy to identify by observing its rapid and erratic movements. Paratrechina longicornis is highly adaptable to various environments and can be a major pest. It occurs in large numbers in homes or outdoors and is capable of displacing other ants and possibly other invertebrates. Paratrechina longicornis forages over long distances away from its nest, making the nest hard to find and the ants difficult to control.
Common Names: crazy ant , hairy ant , higenaga-ameiro-ari , long-horned ant, slender crazy ant
Synonyms: Formica gracilescens Nylander (1856) , Formica longicornis Latreille (1802) , Formica vagans Jerdon (1851) , Paratrechina currens Motschoulsky (1863) , Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille) (1925), Prenolepis (Nylanderia) longicornis Emery (1910) , Prenolepis longicornis Roger (1863) , Tapinoma gracilescens F. Smith (1858)
100. Phoenix canariensis (tree, palm) English     
Phoenix canariensis is a palm tree native and endemic to the Canary Islands. It is very hardy and can establish in a variety of soil conditions. It its younger stages Phoenix canariensis fronds can be harmful to humans and animals, due to sharp barbs that can cut off and embed themselves under the skin, eventually causing infection. Some individuals are also known to be allergic to the plant. Phoenix canariensis has also been documented as displacing native species and altering habitat.
Common Names: Canary date palm, Canary Island date palm , dattier des Canaries, phoenix palm
101. Phytophthora cinnamomi (oomycete) English     
The oomycete, Phytophthora cinnamomi, is a widespread soil-borne pathogen that infects woody plants causing root rot and cankering. It needs moist soil conditions and warm temperatures to thrive, and is particularly damaging to susceptible plants (e.g. drought stressed plants in the summer). P. cinnamomi poses a threat to forestry, ornamental and fruit industries, and infects over 900 woody perennial species. Diagnostic techniques are expensive and require expert identification. Prevention and chemical use are typically used to lessen the impact of P. cinnamomi.
Common Names: cinnamon fungus, green fruit rot, heart rot, jarrah dieback, phytophthora crown and root rot, Phytophthora Faeule der Scheinzypresse, phytophthora root rot, seedling blight, stem canker, wildflower dieback
102. Phytophthora lateralis (oomycete)
Phytophthora lateralis is the causal agent of a serious root disease of Port Orford-cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana), an ecologically and economically important tree. It advances quickly and can kill large trees within several years. The disease has devastated the ornamental planting and timber industry of Port Orford-cedar throughout the Pacific Northwest causing losses of millions of dollars. In natural ecosystems P. lateralis reduces populations of this important tree in riparian areas, which may have flow on effects to terrestrial and aquatic life. Control efforts are focused on reducing spread of this pathogen via roads, and the development of resistant populations.
Common Names: cedar root disease, Port Orford-cedar root disease, Port-Orford cedar root rot, root rot of Chamaecyparis
103. Phytophthora ramorum (oomycete)
Until 2000, Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of Sudden Oak Death, was undiscovered and unnamed. This water mould or oomycete is the cause of much concern in North America and Europe due to three factors: (i) the high level of local destruction it causes in California, (ii) the lack of knowledge of its epidemiology (due to its recent discovery), and (iii) its high prevalence in nurseries (which increases the potential of spread to a new location and/or country). The oomycete has an extensive host range, covering many plant genera and several families and including treees and shrubs and woody and herbaceous perennials. Phytophthora ramorum causes canker development, shoot drooping and leaf blight. Spores spread to new locations mainly by the nursery trade and are spread locally by vectors: soil, water and articles associated with humans.
Common Names: maladie de l’encre des chênes rouges, mort subite du chêne, ramorum blight, ramorum dieback, ramorum leaf blight, SOD, sudden oak death
104. Pittosporum undulatum (tree, shrub) English     
Pittosporum undulatum is an evergreen tree that is often used as an ornamental plant, due to its attractive fragrant flowers. It is native to south-eastern Australia but has now spread to a number of islands in the Pacific and Caribbean, as well as islands in the Atlantic and to South Africa. It is also invasive In Australia outside its native range. Research is being carried out in Jamaica to determine the most effective methods of control for this species.
Common Names: Australian cheesewood, mock orange, native daphne, orange pittosporum, sweet pittosporum, Victorian box, Victorian laurel, wild coffee
105. Poecilia reticulata (fish) English  français   
Poecilia reticulata is a small benthopelagic fish native to Brazil, Guyana, Venezuela and the Caribbean Islands. It is a popular aquarium species and is also commonly used in genetics research. In the past Poecilia reticulata was widely introduced for mosquito control but there have been rare to non-existing measurable effects on mosquito populations. It can occupy a wide range of aquatic habitats and is a threat to native cyprinids and killifishes. It is a carrier of exotic parasites and is believed to play a role in the decline of several threatened and endangered species.
Common Names: guppie , guppii , guppy, hung dzoek ue, ikan seribu, lareza tripikaloshe, lebistes, lepistes, Mexicano, miljoenvis, miljoonakala, million fish, millionenfisch, millions, poisson million, queue de voile, rainbow fish, sarapintado, Sardinita, Wilder Riesenguppy, zivorodka duhová
Synonyms: Acanthophacelus guppii (Günther, 1866), Acanthophacelus reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Girardinus guppii Günther, 1866, Girardinus reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Haridichthys reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Heterandria guppyi (Günther, 1866), Lebistes poecilioides De Filippi, 1861, Lebistes poeciloides De Filippi, 1861, Lebistes reticulatus (Peters, 1859), Poecilia reticulatus Peters, 1859, Poecilioides reticulatus (Peters, 1859)
106. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. (=Fallopia japonica (Houtt. Dcne.) (herb, shrub) English  français     
Polygonum cuspidatum is an herbaceous perennial native to Japan. It has been introduced to Europe and North America as an ornamental and is also used to stabilise soil, especially in coastal areas. It requires full sun and is found primarily in moist habitats but also grows in waste places, along roadways and other disturbed areas. Once established, P. cuspidatum forms dense stands that shade and crowd out all other vegetation, displacing native flora and fauna, and the overwintering canes and leaves are slow to decompose.
Common Names: crimson beauty, donkey rhubarb, German sausage, huzhang , itadori , Japanese bamboo, Japanese fleece flower, Japanese knotweed, Japanese polygonum, kontiki bamboo, Mexican-bamboo , peashooter plant, renouée du Japon, reynoutria fleece flower, sally rhubarb
Synonyms: Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) Dcne., Pleuropterus cuspidatus (Sieb. & Zucc.) Moldenke, Pleuropterus zuccarinii (Small) Small, Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc., Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. var. compactum (Hook f.) Bailey, Polygonum zuccarinii Small, Reynoutria japonica Houtt.
107. Potamopyrgus antipodarum (mollusc) English   
Potamopyrgus antipodarum is an aquatic snail native to New Zealand that has invaded Australia, Europe, and North America. It can inhabit a wide range of ecosystems, including rivers, reservoirs, lakes, and estuaries. P. antipodarum may established extremely dense populations that can comprise over 95% of the invertebrate biomass in a river, alter primary production, and compete with or displace native mollscs and macroinvertebrates. They can spread rapidly in introduced areas and are able to withstand desiccation, a variety of temperature regimes, and are small enough that many types of water users could be the source of introduction to new areas.
Common Names: Jenkin's spire shell, New Zealand mudsnail
Synonyms: Hydrobia jenkinsi (Smith, 1889), Potamopyrgus jenkinsi (Smith, 1889)
108. Procambarus clarkii (crustacean)
Procambarus clarkii is a highly adaptable, tolerant, and fecund freshwater crayfish that may inhabit a wide range of aquatic environments. It is native to parts of Mexico and the United States and has established throughout the world as a result of commercial introductions for harvest as a food source. Invasive populations have been reported from Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, and South America. Impacts include aggressive competition with native crayfish, introduction of the crayfish plague, reduction of macrophyte assemblages, alteration of water quality, predation on and competition with a variety of aquatic species, and negative impacts on agricultural and fishing industries. Management strategies for P. clarkii include trapping and removing populations, creating barriers to prevent its spread, prohibiting the transport of live crayfish, and improving public education about it risks to the environment. Encouraging farming of native species as well as research on economically productive harvesting of native crayfish has the potential to reduce further introductions.
Common Names: Louisiana crayfish, red swamp crayfish
109. Psidium guajava (tree, shrub) English  français     
Psidium guajava is a tropical tree or shrub. It is native to central America from Mexico to northern South America. It has been introduced to most tropical and sub-tropical locations around the world for its edible fruit. In some countries the harvesting, processing and export of the fruit forms the basis of a sizeable industry. Due in part to its ability to grow on a variety of soils and across a range of climates, P. guajava has become invasive . Pastures and fields are overrun and native plants are outcompeted by this species, which has the ability to form dense thickets. This has led to its designation in many areas as a noxious weed to be controlled or eradicated. It is ranked by some authorities amongst the highest invasive categories.
Common Names: abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, farang, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, ku'ava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa momona, kuhfahfah, kuma, kuwawa, lemon guava, ma-kuai, ma-man, ngguava ni India, nguava, oi, pauwa, perala, petokal, quwawa, sapari, si da, te kuava, te kuawa, tokal, trapaek sruk, tuava, tu'ava, tu'avu, tumu tuava, tuvava, xalxocot
Synonyms: Guajava pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava var. pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava (L.) Kuntze, Psidium aromaticum, Psidium cujavillus Burm. f., Psidium guajava var. cujavillum (Burman) Krug and Urb., Psidium guajava var. guajava, Psidium guava Griseb., Psidium guayava Raddi, Psidium igatemyensis Barb. Rodr., Psidium pomiferum L., Psidium pumilum var. guadalupense, Psidium pumilum Vahl, Psidium pyriferum L.
110. Psittacula krameri (bird)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri, is native to central Africa and Asia and is a colourful, distinctive-looking bird. It is known as one of the most successful avian invaders in the world, with established populations in over 35 countries outside its native range. P. krameri has been shown to have adverse impacts on native bird species and carry diseases. It is thought that its reproductive success, establishment and range expansion in non-native areas is related to climate similarities of non-native areas to that of its native range.
Common Names: Perruche À Collier, ring-necked parakeet, rose-ringed parakeet, rose-ringed Parrakeet
111. Rapana venosa (mollusc) English   
Rapana venosa is a predatory marine snail which may impact both natural and cultivated populations of oysters, mussels and other molluscs. In areas where it has been introduced it has caused significant changes to the ecosystem. It has a high ecological fitness as evidenced by its high fertility, fast growth rate and tolerance to low salinity, high and low temperatures, water pollution and oxygen deficiency. Long distance dispersal is facilitated by ship ballast water, in which the larvae of the snail is found in its plankton phase.
Common Names: Asian rapa whelk, rapa whelk, veined rapa whelk, veined whelk
Synonyms: Rapana pontica (Nordsieck, 1969), Rapana thomasiana (Crosse, 1861)
112. Rattus norvegicus (mammal) English  français   
  See eradication or other absence information
The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is globally widespread and costs primary industry hundreds of millions of dollars per year. It has caused or contributed to the extinction or range reduction of native mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates through predation and competition. It restricts the regeneration of many plant species by eating seeds and seedlings, eats food crops and spoils human food stores by urinating and defecating in them. Additional economic damage is caused by chewing through power cables and spreading diseases.
Common Names: brown rat, common rat, isorotta, Norway rat, pouhawaiki, rat surmolot, Rata de noruega, rata noruega, ratto di fogna, ratto grigio, rotta, sewer rat, surmolotto, tikus riul, topo delle fogne, Wanderratte, water rat
Synonyms: Epimys norvegicus Miller, 1912, Mus decumanus Pallas, 1778, Mus hibernicus Thompson, 1837, Mus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769
113. Rattus rattus (mammal) English  français     
  See eradication or other absence information
A native of the Indian sub-continent, the ship rat (Rattus rattus) has now spread throughout the world. It is widespread in forest and woodlands as well as being able to live in and around buildings. It will feed on and damage almost any edible thing. The ship rat is most frequently identified with catastrophic declines of birds on islands. It is very agile and often frequents tree tops searching for food and nesting there in bunches of leaves and twigs.
Common Names: black rat, blue rat, bush rat, European house rat, Hausratte, roof rat, ship rat
Synonyms: Mus alexandrinus Geoffroy, 1803, Mus novaezelandiae Buller, 1870, Mus rattus Linnaeus, 1758, Musculus frugivorus Rafinesque, 1814
114. Rhithropanopeus harrisii (crustacean)
Rhithropanopeus harrisii is a small estuarine crab native to the Atlantic Coast of North America. It has invaded many locations in Europe and North America and is presumed to have dispersed mainly via oyster translocations and shipping. Anecdotal reports indicate that it can alter food webs, compete with native species, foul pipe systems, and be a vector of the white spot baculovirus.
Common Names: Brackwasserkrabbe, estuarine mud crab , Golandsky crab, Harris mud crab , krabik amerykanski, Østamerikansk brakvandskrabbe, white-fingered mud crab, Zuiderzee crab, Zuiderzeekrabbe, Zuiderzeekrabbetje
Synonyms: Heteropanope tridentata De Man J. G. (1892), Pilumnus harrisii (Gould, 1841), Pilumnus tridentatus (Maitland, 1874), Rhithropanopeus harrisii ssp. tridentatus (Buitendijk and Holtuis 1949)
115. Rhododendron ponticum (shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Rhododendron ponticum often simply called rhododendron, is an evergreen shrub that has been widely cultivated as an attractive ornamental species. In ideal conditions R. ponticum can form dense stands which can inhibit the regeneration of native species and alter plant and animal communities. Control of R. ponticum is best achieved using a combination of physical and chemical methods, however this is usually an expensive and labour intensive process due to the high numbers of wind dispersed seed produced and the ability to resprout vigorously from its stumps and roots.
Common Names: common rhododendron, Pontian rhododendron, rhododendron
Synonyms: Rhododendron lancifolium Moench, Rhododendron speciosum (Willd.) Sweet.
116. Robinia pseudoacacia (tree) English  français     
Robinia pseudoacacia is a leguminous deciduous tree native to the southeastern United States that has been widely introduced to other parts of North America. It is commonly found in disturbed areas such as old fields, degraded woods, forest edges, and roadsides, but it poses the greatest threat to dry and sand prairies and oak savannas. R. pseudoacacia has been planted on reclaimed land to control erosion and has been used for ornamental purposes. It reproduces vigorously by root suckering and stump sprouting to form groves of trees interconnected by a common root system.
Common Names: acacia blanc, black locust, false acacia, Post locust, robinia akacjowa, robinier, robinier faux acacia, robinier faux-acacia, yellow locust
Synonyms: Robinia pseudoacacia var. rectissima (L.) Raber
117. Salvelinus fontinalis (fish) English   
Introduced as a highly desirable fish for both angling and aquaculture throughout the world, Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) is an invasive that threatens native amphibians and fish, as well as the ecology of lakes and streams. Several native fish and amphibians face threatened or endangered status as a result of their introduction. Removal of Salvelinus fontinalis has been conducted in many places to allow for the recovery of endemic species.
Common Names: Âait, aanaatlik, aanak, American brook charr, Amerikanischer bachsaibling, Amerikanischer saibling, Amerikanski goletz, Amerikanskiy golets, ana, Âna, anakleq, anokik, anuk, aurora trout, azad mahi cheshmahi, Bachsaibling, bäckröding, baiser, Beekforel, bekkeror, bekkerøye, breeder, bronforel, brook char, brook charr, brook trout, brookie, char, coaster, common brook trout, eastern brook trout, eastern speckled trout, Elsässer saibling, fântânel, giigaq, humpbacked trout, i ha luk, iqaluk, iqaluk tasirsiutik, kawamasu, kaynak alabaligi, kildeorred, kildeørred, lindableikja, lord-fish, masamek, masamekos, masamekw, masumèk, mountain trout, mud trout, native trout, omble de fontaine, pastrav fântânel, pataki szajbling, pstrag zrodlany, puronieriä, salmerino di fontaine, salmerino di fontana, salmerino di fonte, salter, salvelino, salvelinos, saumon de fontaine, sea trout, siven, siven americký, sivon americký, sivon potocny, slob, speckled char, speckled trout, specks, squaretail, square-tail, squaretailed trout, Tiegerfisch, trout, trucha de arroyo, truite, truite de mer, truite mouchetée, truta-das-fontes, whitefin
Synonyms: Baione fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814), Salmo canadensis Griffith & Smith, 1834, Salmo fontinalis Mitchill, 1814, Salmo hudsonicus Suckley, 1861, Salvelinus timagamiensis Henn & Rinckenbach 1925
118. Salvelinus namaycush (fish) English   
Salvelinus namaycush is a freshwater fish of the trout family, found primarily in lakes and large rivers worldwide. The distribution is broad due to the sport fishing industry and the demand for Salvelinus namaycush. In many of the introduced locations Salvelinus namaycush is an invasive species and reduces native biodiversity through competition and predation of endemic species. There have been some successful attempts to control Salvelinus namaycush using gillnetting and trapping.
Common Names: akalukpik, Amerikanische Seeforelle, Amerikanischer seesaibling, Amerikansk søørred, Canadarødding, Canadaröding, Canadarøding, Canadaröye, Canadarøye, Col-lic-puk, cristivomer, Great Lakes char, Great Lakes trout, grey trout, harmaanieriä, hupin, iclook, idlorak, ihok, iiuuraq, ikalukpik, ikhiloktok, ikhloark, ilortoq, iqluq, ishioraliktâq, islorak, isok, isuuq, isuuqiaq, isuuqiq, isuuraaryuk, isuuraq, ivitaruk, kanadarødding, kanadaröding, kanadarøding, keyteeleek, k'wit'thet, k'wsech, lake charr, lake trout, laker, landlocked salmon, Mackinaw trout, Masamacush, milaqkkâyoq, mountain trout, murta, naaqtuuq, näluarryuk, namaycush, namekus, nauktoq, nemakos, nemeks, némèkus, omble d'Amérique, omble du Canada, salmon trout, salvelino-lacustre, severoamerikanskiy kristivomer, shamet skelex, shmexwalsh, sigguayaq, siscowet, siscowet, siuktuuk, siuyuktuuq, siven obrovký, sivon velký, sk'wel'eng's schaanexw, slhop' schaanexw, spak'ws schaanexw, taque, togue, touladi, trota di lago americana, trucha lacustre, truite de lac d'Amérique, truite grise, truta-do-lago
Synonyms: Cristivomer namaycush (Walbaum, 1792), Cristovomer namayacush (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo amethystinus (Mitchill, 1818, Salmo amethystus (Mitchill, 1818, Salmo confinis (DeKay, 1842), Salmo ferox (Perley, 1852), Salmo namaycush (Walbaum, 1792), Salmo pallidus (Rafinesque, 1817), Salvelinus namaycush (Walbaum, 1792)
119. Salvinia molesta (aquatic plant, herb) English  français     
Salvinia molesta is a floating aquatic fern that thrives in slow-moving, nutrient-rich, warm, freshwater. A rapidly growing competitive plant, it is dispersed long distances within a waterbody (via water currents) and between waterbodies (via animals and contaminated equipment, boats or vehicles). It is cultivated by aquarium and pond owners and it is sometimes released by flooding, or by intentional dumping. S. molesta can form dense vegetation mats that reduce water-flow and lower the light and oxygen levels in the water. This stagnant dark environment negatively affects the biodiversity and abundance of freshwater species, including fish and submerged aquatic plants.Salvinia invasions can alter wetland ecosystems and cause wetland habitat loss. Salvinia invasions also pose a severe threat to socio-economic activities dependent on open, flowing and/or high quality waterbodies, including hydro-electricity generation, fishing and boat transport.
S. molesta in 2013 was elected as the one of the '100 of the World's Worst Invasive Alien Species' to replace the Rinderpest virus which was declared eradicated in the wild in 2010
Common Names: African payal , African pyle, aquarium watermoss, fougère d’eau, giant salvinia , giant salvinia , kariba weed , koi kandy, salvinia, water fern , water spangles
Synonyms: Salvinia auriculata Aubl.
120. Sargassum muticum (aquatic plant) English     
Sargassum muticum is a large brown seaweed that forms dense monospecific stands. It can accumulate high biomass and may quickly become a strong competitor for space and light. Dense Sargassum muticum stands may reduce light, decrease flow, increase sedimentation and reduce ambient nutrient concentrations available for native kelp species. Sargassum muticum has also become a major nuisance in recreational waters.
Common Names: Butblæret sargassotang, Japanischer Beerentang, Japans bessenwier, Japansk drivtang, Japweed, sargasse, sargasso, sargassosnärje, strangle weed, Tama-hahaki-moku, Wireweed
Synonyms: Sargassum kjellmanianum f. muticus Yendo
121. Schizoporella unicornis (bryozoan)
Schizoporella unicornis, or single horn bryozoan, is an encrusting bryozoan native to Japan. It has been unintentionally introduced along with the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), or by hull fouling, to several locations throughout the world. Schizoporella unicornis is an abundant fouling organism known to inhibit growth and settlement of native bryozoa.
Common Names: single horn bryozoan
Synonyms: Lepralia unicornis (Johnston, 1874), Schizoporella unicornis (Lagaaiji, 1952)
122. Scyphophorus acupunctatus (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information  See eradication or other absence information
Scyphophorus acupunctatus is becoming a major pest of native Agavaceae and Dracaenaceae species worldwide. Native to Mexico, it has decimated populations of Agave crops there, in particular species used in the tequila and henequen industries. The importation of ornamental Agave plants worldwide has facilitated S. acupunctatus to establish in many parts of the world, particularly in Central America and the Carribean, in Africa, Asia and South America. On its host species, it causes rot and sometimes mortality due to its larvae boring holes which then facilitates micro-organims entering the host. Due to the species being found generally inside the host species, typical insecticides have proven ineffective. However research on the species' pheromones has shown that these could be a potential management tool, attracting individual adults away from hosts to collection sites.
Common Names: Acapiche del nardo, Agave billbug, Agave snout weevil, Agave snout-nosed beetle, Agave snout-nosed weevil, Agave weevil, black weevil, sisal borer, sisal weevil
Synonyms: Rhyncophorus asperulus Dietz, Scyphophorus anthracinus Gyllenhal, Scyphophorus interstitialis Gyllenhal, Scyphophorus robustior Horn
123. Senecio angulatus (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Creeping groudsel, Senecio angulatus is a prolific vine that has the ability to form thickets of more than 20 mteres that can cover and smother native flora. Native to South Africa it has been introduced as an ornamental plant to several locations. It is reported as being invasive in New Zealand and Australia. The herbicides triclopyr and metsulfuron methyl have been found to be effective against S. angulatus.
Common Names: canary creeper, Cape ivy, climbing groundsel, creeping groundsel, senecione, séneçon anguleux
124. Senecio inaequidens (shrub) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information  See eradication or other absence information
Senecio (Asteraceae) contains circa 1500 species worldwide of which 133 are considered weeds. Senecio inaequidens is a dominant invasive species throughout western Europe and is one of the most rapidly spreading introduced plant species in Europe.
Common Names: Bezemkruiskruid, Boerstånds, Boersvineblom, Buurivillakko, groundsel, guano bush, narrow-leaved ragwort, sénecon Sud-africain, Schmalblättriges Kreuzkraut, senecione Sudafricano, séneçon du Cap, Smalbladet Brandbæger, small-leaved groundsel , South African ragwort , Starcek úzkolistý, Starzec nierównozebny, Südafrikanisches Greiskraut, Ungleichzähniges Greiskraut
Synonyms: Senecio burchelli, Senecio carnulentis, Senecio douglasii, Senecio fasciculatus minor, Senecio harveianus, Senecio lautus, Senecio paniculatus, Senecio reclinatus, Senecio vimineus
125. Sesbania punicea (shrub)
Commonly known as Brazilian rattlebox, Sesbania punicea is a deciduous, leguminous shrub that has been widely distributed from its native South American range as an attractive ornamental species. Escapes from cultivation have led to naturalisation in some areas where S. punicea rapidly forms dense impenetrable stands in riparian areas, preventing river access, excluding native species and altering habitats. Hydrology of the rivers in these riparian areas can be affected especially during flood events, raising water levels and increasing the rate of erosion. Biological control of S. punicea has been achieved in South Africa using three different weevil species and trials from the United States and South Africa have shown its vulnerability to a range of herbicides.
Common Names: Brazilian glory-pea, Brazilian rattlebox, Chinese wisteria , coffee weed, rattelbox, rattlebox, rattlepod, red sesbania, rooi sesbania, ruttle bush, scarlett wisteria, sesbania
Synonyms: Daubentonia punicea (Cav.) DC, Daubentonia tripetii Poit., Piscidia punicea Cav. , Sesbania tripetii, Sesbania tripetii (Poit.) hort. ex Hubb.
126. Solanum sisymbriifolium (herb) English     
Solanum sisymbriifolium is a viscid, hairy herb native to South America that is currently distributed throughout the world. It is valued for its many uses, which include its use as a trap crop for potato cyst nematodes, and the use of its fruit as both a source of solasodine (used to synthsise hormones) and as a food for birds and humans. However, it acts as an invasive weed in some parts of its range by out-competing local vegetation. Biological control methods for Solanum sisymbriifolium have been determined and applied in some regions.
Common Names: alco-Chileo, arrabenta cavalo, dense-thorn bitter apple, doringtamatie, espina colorada, fire and ice plant, jeweelie, joão bravo, jua das queimadas, jua de roca, klebriger nachtschatten, litchi tomato, liuskakoiso, manacader, morelle de balbis, mullaca espinudo, ocote mullaca, pilkalapis baklazanas, puca-puca, raukenblatt-nachtschatten, red buffalo-burr, revienta caballo, sticky nightshade, tomatillo, tutia, tutia o Espina Colorada, uvilla, viscid nightshade, wild tomato, wildetamatie
Synonyms: Solanum balbisii Dunal., Solanum balbisii var. bipinnata Hook., Solanum balbisii var. oligospermum Sendtn., Solanum balbisii var. purpureum Hook., Solanum bipinnatifidum Larrañaga., Solanum brancaefolium Jacq., Solanum decurrens Balb., Solanum edule Vell., Solanum formosum Weinm., Solanum inflatum Hornem., Solanum mauritianum Willd., Solanum opuliflorum Port., Solanum rogersii S.Moore., Solanum sabeanum Buckley., Solanum sisymbrifolium Lam., Solanum sisymbriifolium purpureiflorum Dunal., Solanum sisymbriifolium forma albiflorum Kuntze., Solanum sisymbriifolium forma lilacinum Kuntze., Solanum sisymbriifolium var. bipinnatipartitum Dunal., Solanum sisymbriifolium var. brevilobum Dunal., Solanum sisymbriifolium var. gracile Mattos., Solanum sisymbriifolium var. heracleifolium Sendtn., Solanum sisymbriifolium var. macrocarpum Kuntze., Solanum sisymbriifolium var. oligospermum, Solanum subviscidum Schrank, Denkschr., Solanum thouinii C.C. Gmel., Solanum viscidum Schweigg., Solanum viscosum Lag., Solanum xanthacanthum Willd.
127. Spartina alterniflora (grass) English     
Spartina alterniflora commonly known as smooth cord grass is a species that inhabits marsh habitat in its native range, where introduced It is known to establish itself in wave-protected mud and sand flats and grow very quickly into dense impenetrable stands. When introduced this species can have a negative effect on native species including some endangered. It can also hybridize with native non-invasive species of Spartina and offspring are known to have increased vigor and growth rates than either parent.
Common Names: Atlantic cordgrass , saltmarsh cordgrass , salt-water cordgrass, smooth cordgrass
Synonyms: Spartina alterniflora var. glabra (Muhl. ex Bigelow) Fern., Spartina alterniflora var. pilosa (Merr.) Fern.
128. Styela clava (tunicate)
Styela clava is a fouling organism native to the Pacific Coast of Asia. Because of its hardy nature and ability to withstand salinity and temperature fluctuations, Styela clava easily establishes wherever it is introduced. It can reach extreme densities and out-compete native organisms for food in the water column. Styela clava also predate on the larvae of native species causing population declines. It is a nuisance to mussel and oyster farmers.
Common Names: Asian tunicate , club tunicate, leathery sea squirt, rough sea squirt
Synonyms: Bostryorchis clava Redikorzev, 1916, Styela barnharti Ritter and Forsyth, 1917, Styela clava clava Nishikawa, 1991, Styela clava Herdman, 1881, Styela mammiculata Carlisle 1954
129. Sus scrofa (mammal) English  français     
  See eradication or other absence information
Sus scrofa (feral pigs) are escaped or released domestic animals which have been introduced to many parts of the world. They damage crops, stock and property, and transmit many diseases such as Leptospirosis and Foot and Mouth disease. Rooting pigs dig up large areas of native vegetation and spread weeds, disrupting ecological processes such as succession and species composition. Sus scrofa are omnivorous and their diet can include juvenile land tortoises, sea turtles, sea birds, endemic reptiles and macro-invertebrates. Management of Sus scrofa is complicated by the fact that complete eradication is often not acceptable to communities that value feral pigs for hunting and food.
Common Names: kuhukuhu, kune-kune, petapeta, pig, poretere, razorback, te poaka, Wildschwein
130. Tamias sibiricus (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Siberian chipmunk
131. Tapinoma melanocephalum (insect) English  français 
Tapinoma melanocephalum is known as a tramp ant as its spread around the globe has been assisted by human activities. It is highly flexible in the habitats it occupies, providing there is some form of disturbance allowing it to establish ahead of more dominant ant species, and it nests readily outdoors or indoors. Tapinoma melanocephalum is a household pest, as well as disturbing greenhouse environments and can transport pathogenic microbes in hospitals.
Common Names: albaricoque , awate-konuka-ari , black-headed ant, ghost ant, hormiga bottegaria , house infesting ant , tiny yellow house ant, tramp ant
Synonyms: Formica familiaris Smith, F. 1860, Formica melanocephalum Fabricius, 1793, Formica nana Jerdon, Myrmica pellucida Smith, F. 1857, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius): Mayr, 1862, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australe Santschi 1928, Tapinoma melanocephalum var. australis Santschi 1928
132. Trachemys scripta elegans (reptile) English  français     
The red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) has been the most popular turtle in the pet trade with more than 52 million individuals exported from the United States to foreign markets between 1989 and 1997. Despite the vast worldwide occurrence of the sliders little is known of their impact on indigenous ecosystems, clearly research and education on the dangers of releasing pet turtles into the wild are needed. Their omnivorous diet and ability to adapt to various habitats, gives them great potential for impacting indigenous habitats.
Common Names: Buchstaben-Schmuckschildkröte, Krasnoukhaya cherepakha, Nordamerikansk terrapin, punakorvakilpikonna, punakõrv-ilukilpkonn, raudonausis vežlys , raudonskruostis vežlys, red-eared slider, red-eared slider terrapin, rödörad vattensköldpadda, rødøret terrapin, rødøreterrapin , Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkroete, Rotwangen-Schmuckschildkröte , sarkanausu brunurupucis, slider, tortue à tempe rouge, tortue de Floride, zólw czerwonolicy, zólw czerwonouchy, zólw ozdobny
Synonyms: Chrysemys scripta (Boulenger 1889), Chrysemys scripta var. elegans Boulenger 1889, Emys elegans Wied 1839, Emys holbrooki Gray 1844, Emys sanguinolenta Gray1855, Pseudemys scripta elegans Stebbins 1985, Pseudemys scripta (Jordan 1899), Testudo scripta Schoepff, 1792, Trachemys lineata Gray 1873
133. Trachycarpus fortunei (palm)
Trachycarpus fortunei, commonly known as the Chinese windmill palm, is an evergreen palm that is primarily cultivated for ornamental purposes. Recognisable by its large, fan-shaped leaves, it can grow in varied climates - from warm-temperate to sub-tropical. It is one of the cold-hardiest palm species. This temperature sensitivity has allowed T. fortunei to be used as a bioindicator for tracking climate change, as recent range increases correlate with climactic warming. Seeds are spread by birds, and plants are frequently documented as escaped from cultivation. However, seedlings are climatically more sensitive than adult palms and thus seedlings are not always successful in establishing, particularly in areas at the edge of the plant’s distribution. Invaded environments include fragmented and natural forests, disturbed areas, riparian zones, shrub and scrublands, urban areas and wetlands.
Common Names: Chinese fan palm, Chinese windmill palm, chusan palm, hemp palm, hochstämmige Hanfpalme, palma de jardín , palmeira-moinho-de-vento-da-China, palmier de Chine, windmill palm
Synonyms: Chamaerops excesla, Chamaerops fortunei, Trachycarpus caespitosus, Trachycarpus excelsa, Trachycarpus wagnerianus
134. Triadica sebifera (tree) English  français     
Triadica sebifera is a tree in the Euphorbiaceae family which typically reaches a maximum height of 15m at maturity. It is adapted to a variety of disturbed sites and a wide range of soil conditions. Triadica sebifera aggressively displaces native plants and forms monospecific stands within decades of its appearance. It is also able to alter nutrient cycles by enhancing productivity in ecosystems by the addition of nitrogen and phosphorous from the rapid decay of its leaves which produce tannins. Triadica sebifera is shade, sun, drought, flood, freeze and salt tolerant and is also suspected of reducing nesting habitat for a variety of avian species. Management of this species is an arduous process and not suitable for all infested sites.
Common Names: árbol del sebo, arbre à suif, boiré, candleberry-tree, chicken tree, Chinese tallow, Chinesischer talgbaum, Florida aspen, popcorn tree, tallow tree, vegetable tallow, white waxberry
Synonyms: Croton sebiferum L, Excoecaria sebifera Müll. Arg, Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb, Stillingia sebifera (L.) Michx, Triadica sinensis Lour
135. Undaria pinnatifida (aquatic plant, alga) English     
The kelp (Undaria pinnatifida) is native to Japan where it is cultivated for human consumption. It is an opportunistic weed which spreads mainly by fouling ship hulls. It forms dense underwater forests, resulting in competition for light and space which may lead to the exclusion or displacement of native plant and animal species.
Common Names: apron-ribbon vegetable, Asian kelp, haijiecai, Japanese kelp, miyeuk, qundaicai, wakame
Synonyms: Alaria pinnatifida Harvey1860, Ulopteryx pinnatifida (Harvey) Kjellman 1885
136. Verbena rigida (herb) English     
Verbena rigida is a perennial herb native to South America. It is popular for garden cultivation due to its conspicuous bright purple flowers that have an extended blooming period. However it has escaped cultivation in a number of countries around the world and has invaded native grasslands, crop fields and roadside areas.
Common Names: creeping verbena, handy garden verbena, jarvao, large-veined verbena, lila vasfu, purple verbena, rigid verbena, sandpaper verbena, slank jernurt, slender vervain, sporýš tuhý, stiff verbena, tuberous vervain, urgebao, veined verbena, verveine
Synonyms: Verbena bonariensis L. forma robustior Chodot, Verbena bonariensis L. forma venosa (Gillies & Hook.) Chodat, Verbena bonariensis L. forma venosa (Gillies & Hook.) Voss, Verbena bonariensis L. var. rigida (Spreng.) Kuntze, Verbena doniana Steud., Verbena rigida forma obovata Hayek, Verbena rigida Spreng. forma paraguayensis Moldenke, Verbena rigida Spreng. var. alba Moldenke , Verbena rigida Spreng. var. glandulosa Moldenke, Verbena rigida Spreng. var. lilacina (Harrow) Moldenke, Verbena rigida Spreng. var. reineckii (Briq.) Moldenke, Verbena rigida var. obovata, Verbena rugosa D.Don, Verbena scaberrima Cham., Verbena venosa Gillies & Hook
137. Vespa velutina nigrithorax (insect)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Asian black hornet, Asian hornet, Frelon à pattes jaunes, frelon asiatique, yellow-legged hornet
138. Watersipora subtorquata (bryozoan)
Watersipora subtorquata (d’Orbigny, 1852) is a loosely encrusting bryozoan. It is tolerant to copper based anitfouling coatings and is infamous for fouling ships hulls and facilitating the fouling and spread of other marine invasives. Watersipora subtorquata is considered cosmopolitan and widely invasive among cool temperate water ports. Preventative measures are the only practical means of control at this time.
139. Xenopus laevis (amphibian) English   
Xenopus laevis (the African clawed frog) is the standard experimental amphibian used in laboratories pan-globally. Escapees have formed viable and invasive populations in many climates, where individuals are generalist aquatic carnivores, predating on invertebrates, amphibians and fish.
Common Names: African clawed frog, clawed frog, clawed toad, common platanna , Glatter Krallenfrosch, upland clawed frog
Synonyms: Bufo laevis (Daudin 1802), Dactylethera boiei (Tschudi 1838), Dactylethera laevis (Blanford 1870), Dactylethra capensis (Cuvier 1829), Dactylethra delalandii (Cuvier 1836), Dactylethra levis (Duméril and Bibron 1841), Engystoma laevis (Fitzinger 1826), Leptopus oxydactylus (Mayer 1835), Pipa laevis (Merrem 1820), Xenopus boiei (Wagler 1827)
140. Ziziphus mauritiana (tree, shrub) English  français     
Ziziphus mauritiana is widely cultivated in dry areas throughout the tropics. It tolerates extremely dry habitats and is an extremely valuable tree for people that live in such climates. Ziziphus mauritiana has a multitude of uses, including culinary and medicinal. It can form dense stands and become invasive in some areas, including Fiji and Australia. In Australia Ziziphus mauritiana has the capacity to greatly expand its current range in northern and northeastern Australia. The main industry affected is the cattle industry but Ziziphus mauritiana also has environmental impacts in woodland and savanna ecosystems.
Common Names: appeldam, aprin, baer, baher, bahir, bedara, ber, bor, Chinee apple, Chinese apple, Chinese date, coolie plum, crabapple, dindoulier, dunk, dunks, dunks, gingeolier, Indian cherry, Indian jujube, Indian plum, jujube, jujube, jujube du pays, jujubier, jujubier, jujubier indien, liane croc chien, Malay jujube, mangustine, manzana (apple), manzanas, manzanita, manzanita (little apple), masson, ma-tan, perita haitiana, petit pomme, phutsa, pomme malcadi, pomme surette, ponsigne, prune Saint Paul, putrea, tao, tao nhuc, widara, widara, yuyubi, yuyubo
Synonyms: Rhamnus jujuba L., Rhamnus mauritiana Soyer-Willemet, Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Lam., non P. Mill., Ziziphus aucheri Boiss., Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn., Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn. var. fruticosa Haines, Ziziphus jujuba (L.) Gaertn. var. stenocarpa Kuntze, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. deserticola A. Chev., Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. var. orthacantha (DC.) A. Chev., Ziziphus orthacantha DC, Ziziphus poiretii G. Don, Ziziphus rotundata DC.

Biostatus not specified

1. Cryptococcus fagisuga
The beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga), along with Neonectria ascomycete fungi form the disease-complex responsible for beech bark disease (BBD) of American and European beech. Beech scale infests mainly larger sized beech trees, feeding on host tissues and causing small fissures on the bark. This initial damage to the tree allows Neonectria to enter the tree, which kills host tissue and eventually girdles the tree causing it to die. In North America the main fungi involved are N. faginata and N. ditissima, whereas in Europe N. ditissima and N. coccinea are responsible for the disease. BBD can dramatically alter forest stand composition and structure, through loss of large trees and proliferation of smaller trees that originate from root sprouting. Reduction of beech nut production and loss of large trees in infected stands may affect mammals and birds that use beech nuts as important food source and old trees as habitat. Around 1% of American beech is estimated to be resistant to BBD. Research is currently focused on modes of inheritance and propagation methods.
Common Names: beech scale, beech scale insect, felted beech coccus, felted beech scale, woolly beech scale, woolly beech scale insect
Synonyms: Cryptococcus fagi Baer.
2. Myrmica rubra (insect)
Myrmica rubra, commonly known as the European fire ant, is an aggressive ant species which has been introduced from its native Eurasia to eastern North America, where it appears able to reach sizeable densities. It has a painful sting, and also impacts on native ants and other invertebrates, and reptiles.
Common Names: European fire ant, European imported fire ant, Kiiro-kushike-ari
Synonyms: Atta rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmecia) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica (Myrmica) rubra (Linnaeus), Formica rubra (Linnaeus), Manica rubra (Linnaeus), Myrmica laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica laevinodis var. bruesi (Weber), Myrmica levinodis (Dalla Torre), Myrmica longiscapus (Curtis), Myrmica rubra laevinodis (Nylander), Myrmica rubra r. champlaini (Forel), Myrmica rubra st. laevinodis (Nylander)
3. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (micro-organism)
Virulent Newcastle disease (vND) or Newcastle Disease (NDV) is a contagious and fatal strain of Newcastle disease which is carried by numerous wild and domestic bird species. Newcastle disease virus is a paramyxovirus that is contagious and fatal to avian fauna. It is probably one of the most infectious diseases of poultry in the world and death rates of 100 percent can occur in unvaccinated flocks. Many birds die without showing any clinical signs and the virus may even cause mortality in vaccinated flocks. Newcastle virus is easily spread by bird secretions and excretions and once contracted there is no treatment. Current methods of control are aimed at preventing its spread and include restricting the import of live birds from countries where the disease is present and culling infected birds.
Common Names: atypical geflugelpest, avian distemper, avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), avian pest, avian pneumoencephalitis, exotic newcastle disease, Korean fowl plague, pseudo-fowl pest, pseudo-poultry plague, pseudovogel-pest, Ranikhet disease, Tetelo disease
Synonyms: Ranikhet Disease, Velogenic Newcastle Disease
4. Pinus spp. (tree) English     
Pinus spp.(pines) are considered to be the most ecologically and economically significant tree genus in the world, distinguished from other conifers in their role as an aggressive post-disturbance coloniser. The natural range for pines is in the northern hemisphere, but they have been cultivated in many parts of the world, forming the foundation of exotic forestry enterprises in many southern hemisphere countries. In many of these areas, pines have invaded the adjacent natural vegetation, and they are now amongst the most widespread and damaging invasive alien trees in the world.
Common Names: Austrian pine (P. nigra ssp. nigra), big cone pine (P. coulteri), bishop pine (P. muricata), contorta (P. contorta), lodgepole pine (P. contorta), maritime pine (P. pinaster), Monterrey pine (P. radiata), Ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa), radiata pine (P. radiata), remarkable pine (P. radiata, Scots pine (P. sylvestris), wilding pines
5. Plasmodium relictum (micro-organism) English     
The protozoa, Plasmodium relictum, is one of the causative parasites of avian malaria and may be lethal to species which have not evolved resistance to the disease (e.g. penguins). It may be devastating to highly susceptible avifauna that has evolved in the absence of this organism, such as native Hawaiian birds. The parasite cannot be transmitted directly from one bird to another, but requires a mosquito to move from one bird to another. In Hawaii, the mosquito that transmits Plasmodium relictum is the common house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Passerine birds are the most common victims of avian malaria.
Common Names: avian malaria, paludisme des oiseaux, Vogelmalaria
Synonyms: Haemamoeba relicta Grassi and Feletti 1891, Plasmodium capistrani Russell 1932, Plasmodium inconsta Hartman 1927
6. Psidium guajava (tree, shrub) English  français     
Psidium guajava is a tropical tree or shrub. It is native to central America from Mexico to northern South America. It has been introduced to most tropical and sub-tropical locations around the world for its edible fruit. In some countries the harvesting, processing and export of the fruit forms the basis of a sizeable industry. Due in part to its ability to grow on a variety of soils and across a range of climates, P. guajava has become invasive . Pastures and fields are overrun and native plants are outcompeted by this species, which has the ability to form dense thickets. This has led to its designation in many areas as a noxious weed to be controlled or eradicated. It is ranked by some authorities amongst the highest invasive categories.
Common Names: abas, abwas, amarood, amrut, apas, araca, banjiro, bayabas, bayawas, biyabas, dipajaya jambu, djamboe, djambu, farang, goaibeira, goavier, goeajaaba, goejaba, goiaba, goiabeiro, gouyav, gouyave, goyave, goyavier, guabang, guahva, guava, guave, guavenbaum, guayaba, guayaba silvestre, guayabilla, guayabo, guayave, guayavo, guwafah, guyaaba, guyabas, guyava, jambu batu, jambu batu, jambu berase, jambu biji, jambu kampuchia, jambu klutuk, jamphal, jamrukh, kautoga, kautoga tane, kautonga, kautonga tane, koejawal, kuabang, kuafa, kuahpa, kuava, ku'ava, kuawa, kuawa ke'oke'o, kuawa lemi, kuawa momona, kuhfahfah, kuma, kuwawa, lemon guava, ma-kuai, ma-man, ngguava ni India, nguava, oi, pauwa, perala, petokal, quwawa, sapari, si da, te kuava, te kuawa, tokal, trapaek sruk, tuava, tu'ava, tu'avu, tumu tuava, tuvava, xalxocot
Synonyms: Guajava pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava var. pyrifera (L.) Kuntze, Myrtus guajava (L.) Kuntze, Psidium aromaticum, Psidium cujavillus Burm. f., Psidium guajava var. cujavillum (Burman) Krug and Urb., Psidium guajava var. guajava, Psidium guava Griseb., Psidium guayava Raddi, Psidium igatemyensis Barb. Rodr., Psidium pomiferum L., Psidium pumilum var. guadalupense, Psidium pumilum Vahl, Psidium pyriferum L.
7. West Nile virus (micro-organism) English   
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus native to Africa, Europe, and Western Asia. WNV is mostly transmitted by Culex mosquitoes in a cycle involving birds as amplifying hosts. However infected mosquitoes can also transmit the virus to other animals and humans. Most animals are “dead-end” hosts and do not contribute to virus spread or evolution in nature, because infection in non-avian species results in low virus levels that is insufficient for infection of mosquitoes.
Since its introduction into the United States in the New York City area in 1999 WNV has continued to expand its range across the United States and into Canada, Mexico and Central and South America. WNV causes severe disease humans, horses and other vertebrates. Most people infected with West Nile virus have only mild illness. However the virus can also cause severe neuroinvasive diseases, often leading to death. No specific medication exists to treat West Nile virus infection, and there is currently no vaccine available for humans. Control measures focus on reducing mosquito breeding habitat: standing water in urban areas, agricultural areas, and wetlands.
Common Names: West Nile virus

Native Species

1. Acanthus mollis (herb)
Acanthus mollis is a dicotyledon herb that has a tall inflorescence - up to 2 m high. It is cultivated for ornamental reasons and often grows in the wild as a garden escape. A. mollis is native to southern Europe, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, the Mediterranean islands, Turkey, Syria and the Canary Islands.
Common Names: acanto-grego, Artist's acanthus, bear's breech , bear's breeches, oyster plant, sea-dock, sea-holly
2. Acer platanoides (tree) English     
Acer platanoides is a decidous maple, native to Europe. It is commonly planted as an ornamental along streets and in parks. It has escaped and invaded natural forested habitats all over North America. The dense canopy of A. platanoides's shades out native species and the shallow root system prevents native species from establishing. Its foliage releases toxins that alter the soils fungal and microbial composition. The full impact of this species has not been seen yet as the majority of Acer platanoides are still in the sapling stage awaiting openings in the canopy.
Common Names: érable plane, Norway maple, Spitzahorn
Synonyms: Acer platanoides f. stollii Schwer., Acer platanoides subsp platanoides , Acer platanoides subsp turkestanicum , Acer platanoides var schwedleri K. Koch, Acer platanoides var schwedleri Nichols., Acer turkestanicum
3. Aegilops triuncialis (grass)
Aegilops triuncialis (barb goatgrass) is an annual grass with a native range throughout Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Basin. It has invaded the United States, where it is particularly invasive in California. It is expanding its range in the state and becoming a dominant grass in foothill grasslands of central California. It outcompetes native grasses, reduces habitat for threatened species, affects microbial communities and alters nutrient cycling dynamics. Management of this species is one of the most important issues in rangeland management in California.
Common Names: aegilope-alongado, barb goat grass, barbed goat grass, blat bord, goat grass, halmuca tregishtëe, jointed goat grass, langähriges Hartgras, rompesacos, trigo-montesino
Synonyms: Aegilopodes triuncialis (L.) Á. Löve [= Aegilops triuncialis var. triuncialis], Aegilopodes triuncialis subsp. persica (Boiss.) Á. Löve [= Aegilops triuncialis var. persica], Aegilops elongata Lam. [= Aegilops triuncialis var. triuncialis], Aegilops persica Boiss. [= Aegilops triuncialis var. persica], Aegilops squarrosa L. [= Aegilops triuncialis var. triuncialis], Aegilops triuncialis subsp. persica (Boiss.) Zhuk. [= Aegilops triuncialis var. persica], Aegilops triuncialis subsp. triuncialis [= Aegilops triuncialis var. triuncialis], Aegilops triuncialis var. assyriaca Eig [= Aegilops triuncialis var. triuncialis], Triticum persicum (Boiss.) Aitch. & Hemsl. [= Aegilops triuncialis var. persica], Triticum triunciale (L.) Raspail [= Aegilops triuncialis var. triuncialis]
4. Agrostis capillaris (grass) English     
Agrostis capillaris is a perennial grass that inhabits various environments ranging from urban to coastal wetland, including grassland as well as near arctic regions of the world. In areas of invasion A. capillaris reduces native biodiversity through disease transmission and competition. The many valuable uses of Agrostis capillaris have resulted in its widespread introduction into many non-native ranges around the world.
Common Names: agrostide commune, agróstide común, agrostide fine, agrostide ténue, agróstide tenue, browntop, capellini delle praterie, chépica alemana, colonial bent, colonial bent grass, common bent grass, gemeines Straußgras, Gewoon struisgras, heno ahumado, hierba fina, kus otu, New Zealand bent grass, Prince Edward Island bent grass, Rhode Island bent, Rhode Island bent grass, rödven, Rotes Straußgras, Rotstraußgras, waipu
Synonyms: Agrostis alba var. vulgaris, Agrostis sylvatica Huds., Agrostis tenius, Agrostis tenius Sibthorp, Agrostis tenuis var. aristata, Agrostis tenuis var. hispida, Agrostis tenuis var. pumila, Agrostis vulgaris
5. Agrostis gigantea (grass)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Agrostis gigantea commonly known as redtop, is reported to be weedy or invasive in some states in the USA and provinces in Canada. Native to temperate and tropical Asia, parts of Europe and North Africa, it was introduced for use as turf or lawn grass, as a fodder and forage species or for erosion control and revegetation purposes. Its impacts include displacement of native species in habitats where it is not managed properly.
Common Names: agróstide blanca, agrostide blanche, agrostide géante, agróstide mayor, black bent, black bent grass, bonnet grass, fiorin, Fioringras, pasto quila, redtop, Riesenstraußgras, water bentgrass, weiße Straußgras
Synonyms: Agrostis alba alba Linnaeus, Agrostis alba auct. non L., Agrostis gigantea Roth var. dispar (Michx.) Philipson, Agrostis nigra With., Agrostis stolonifera L. ssp. gigantea (Roth) Schübl. & G. Martens, Agrostis stolonifera L. var. major (Gaudin) Farw.
6. Alnus glutinosa (tree)
Alnus glutinosa is a member of the birch family (Betulaceae) and is native to Eurasia and the northern part of Africa. Members of the Alnus genus are commonly known as alders; A. glutinosa is known as black alder. It can grow up to 50 feet high. It is often cultivated for erosion control, to improve soil and as an ornamental. A. glutinosa is fast growing and can grow in a wide range of soils; this trait increases its invasiveness in susceptible environments. Association with species of the genus Frankia enable A. glutinosa to fix nitrogen (Frankia is a genus of nitrogen fixing filamentous bacteria that live in symbiosis with actinorhizal plants and form root nodules, similar to Rhizobia). A. glutinosa invades damp ecosystems near water sources, wetalnds and riparian zones.
Common Names: alder, black alder, common alder, European alder, European black alder, sticky alder, swartels
Synonyms: Alnus alnus (L.) Britt., Alnus barbata C.A. Mey., Alnus rotundifolia Miller, Betula alnus glutinosa L., Betula glutinosa L. Lam.
7. Anas platyrhynchos (bird) English  français   
The mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) is the most common and widely distributed dabbling duck, having a widespread global distribution throughout the northern hemisphere. This migratory species is a highly valued game bird and the source of all domestic ducks with the exception of the Muscovy. Introductions and range expansions of A. platyrhynchos for game purposes pose a threat of competition and hybridization to native waterfowl. Also, recent studies hold the mallard as a likely vector for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) (H5N1).
Common Names: canard colvert, mallard
Synonyms: Anas boschas Linnaeus, 1758, Anas oustaleti Salvadori, 1894
8. Anser anser (bird)
Gene-flow between Anser anser and other Anatidae bird species may threaten the genetic integrity of those species and sub-species.
Common Names: domestic goose, Ganso-comum, Graugans, Grauwe Gans, greylag goose, Husa velká, Merihanhi, Oca selvatica, Sery Gus, white domestic goose
9. Asparagus officinalis (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is described as a persistant weed of cultivated land in its introduced range. It is found growing in waste places and along roadsides. It is classified as invasive in New Zealand and the Galapagos islands.
Common Names: asparagus, asperge, espargo, espárrago, esparraguera, garden asparagus, oranda-kiji-kakushi, Spargel
Synonyms: Asparagus caspius Hohen., Asparagus longifolius Fisch. ex Steud., Asparagus officinalis subsp. officinalis , Asparagus officinalis var. caspius (Hohen.) Asch. & Graebn., Asparagus polyphyllus Steven ex Ledeb.
10. Bellis perennis (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The English daisy Bellis perennis is a pasture weed that can get aggressive and dominant sometimes leading to lower pasture production. It is found growing in lawns, pastures (especially wetter areas), waste places, forest margins and clearings, stream banks, seepages, cultivated land, dunes and tussock grassland.
Common Names: English daisy, European daisy, Gänseblümchen, lawn daisy, pâquerette, Tausendschön, vellorita
11. Bromus inermis (grass) English     
Bromus inermis is an invasive, perennial C3 grass that has made an extensive impact on the grasslands of North America. B. inermis has become established by invading disturbed prairies and through repeated introductions for soil retention and livestock graze. It is known to have negative impacts on growth of native plants by slowing their growth and increasing extinction. B. inermis is also known to significantly impact the population dynamics and movement behaviour of several native arthropod species in North American prairies.
Common Names: arva rozsnok, Austrian brome, awnless brome, bladfaks, brome de hongrie, brome sans arete, bromo inerme, bromo suave, bromo-liso, capim-cevadinha, cebadilla perenne, foderlosta, forasacco spuntato, grannelose trespe, Hungarian brome, idänkattara, ko suzume no chahiki, koster bezostyj, kweekdravik, magyar roz rok, rehukattara, Russian brome, smooth brome, smooth bromegrass, staklos hejre, stoklosa bezostna, sverep bezbbranný, vihneetön kattara, wehrlose trespe, wu mang que mai
Synonyms: Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub
12. Bromus rubens (grass) English     
Bromus rubens is a tufted, cool-season annual bunchgrass commonly found growing on shallow dry soil or poor textured, clayey soil. It becomes extremely competitive with other grasses and displaces native species. Red brome can produce large amount of biomass that increase the amount and continuity of fine fuels. The lack of a soil seed bank provides one avenue of control for this species.
Common Names: foxtail brome, foxtail chess, red brome
Synonyms: Anisantha rubens (L.) Nevski, Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (L.) Husnot
13. Bubulcus ibis (bird) English   
Bubulcus ibis are small stocky herons that associate with grazing species of mammals both domestic and wild. They have strong migratory instincts and disperse thousands of miles in the direction of their choosing. They are, for the most part, self-introduced. They have been observed 'feeding on' native species of birds. They are known to host ticks that could introduce and spread certain tick-borne diseases.
Common Names: Afrikaanse koereiger, buff-backed heron, cattle egret, depulgabuey, elephant bird, garcilla bueyera, garcilla garrapatera, garcita de ganado, garrapatera, garrapatosa, garza de ganado, garza de vaquèra, garza ganadera, héron garde-boeufs, hippopotomus egret, Indian cattle egret, rhinoceros egret
Synonyms: Ardea ibis, Ardeola ibis, Bulbucus ibis
14. Butomus umbellatus (aquatic plant) English     
Butomus umbellatus commonly known as flowering rush, is a moderately tall, rush like perennial found on shores of lakes, ponds and riverbanks. It can tolerate water as deep or deeper than 2 metres, extending to the deepest range of emergent marsh species. Flowering rush can displace native riparian vegetation, and can be an obstacle to boat traffic. Once established, populations' increase and can persist indefinitely. Control of this species is very difficult, especially with herbicides because they easily wash away from the narrow leaves of this plant. Extensive physical methods of control must be employed to manage this invasive exotic. It can be spread over long distances by garden planting, and once established in a watershed it spreads locally by rhizomes and root pieces that break off. Muskrats use parts of the plant and contribute to its local spread. Boaters can also transport flowering rush on their equipment.
Common Names: butome à ombelle, flowering rush, flûteau, grassy rush, jonc fleuri, water gladiolus
15. Calluna vulgaris (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Heather, Calluna vulgaris native to Africa, temperate Asia and Europe is an invasive weed in its introduced range in Australia, the United States, Canada and New Zealand. It has also been reported in the sub-Antarctic islands of Falklands and the Crozet Archipelago. Impacts include displacement of native species both plants and insects, and disruption of natural processes of plant regeneration and succession in tussock and shrub lands. Its seeds are known to remain viable in the soil for over 33 years.
Common Names: biercol, heather, ling, red-heath, Scotch heather, Scots heather
Synonyms: Erica vulgaris L
16. Camelina sativa (herb) English     
Camelina sativa can prosper in many different climates and soils. Its ability to survive in a diverse range of habitats enables it to be introduced fairly easily into new environments. It is considered a common weed in many areas, but other areas embrace it for the use of its oils as a food, fuel or for its possible medicinal value. This is a hermaphroditic species, which contains seeds after pollination that are known for the oils that they produce.
Common Names: big-seed false flax, camelina, camelina pilosa, caméline ciliée, Cameline cultivee, false flax, German sesame, gold-of-pleasure, Huttentut, large-seeded false flax, Leindotter, Lin bâtard, Oljedodre, Ruistankio, Saatdotter, Sæd-Dodder, Siberian oilseed
Synonyms: Camelina parodii Ibarra & La Porte, Myagrum sativum L. (basionym)
17. Carcinus maenas (crustacean) English     
Carcinus maenas is native to Europe and northern Africa and has been introduced to the North America, Australia, parts of South America and South Africa. It is a voracious food generalist and in some locations of its introduced range it has caused the decline of other crab and bivalve species. Its success with invasion has also caused numerous other problems that require management.
Common Names: European green crab, European shore crab, green crab, le crabe enragé, le crabe vert, le crabe vert Europeén, shore crab, Strandkrabbe
Synonyms: Cancer maenas Linnaeus, 1758, Cancer marinus sulcatus Rumph, 1705, Carcinides maenas (Linnaeus, 1758), Carcinus maenas Leach, 1814, Portunus maenas Leach, 1814
18. Cardamine flexuosa (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Woodland bittercress, Cardamine flexuosa is a highly variable perrenial herb which flowers vigourously and forms dense root mats that can exclude other species. Seeds possibly remain viable in the seed bank for up to seven years requiring intensive management for control/eradication.
Common Names: wavy bittercress, wavy-leaved bittercress, wood bittercress, woodland bittercress
Synonyms: Cardamine hirsuta ssp. flexuosa (With.), Cardamine konaensis (St. John)
19. Centaurea biebersteinii (herb) English     
Centaurea biebersteinii is a biennial or short-lived perennial composite and a very aggressive invader. It has been reported to grow on a wide variety of habitats, especially industrial land, including gravel pits, stockpiles, power lines, grain elevators, railroad, equipment yards, pasture, range, and timbered range. It is often associated with irrigation, preferring areas of high available moisture. It appears best adapted to well-drained, light- to coarse-textured soils that receive summer rainfall. Seeds may germinate over a wide range of soil depths, soil moisture content and temperatures. Dispersal is generally passive as seeds are shaken from drying capitula. Movement over greater distances requires transport by rodents, livestock, vehicles, or hay or commercial seed.
Common Names: gefleckte Flockenblume, gewöhnliche Rispen-Flockenblume, spotted knapweed
Synonyms: Acosta maculosa auct. non Holub, Centaurea maculosa auct. non Lam.
20. Centaurea melitensis (herb) English     
Centaurea melitensis is a herb of the family Asteraceae. C. melitensis is native to Africa and Europe and was introduced to the United States. It is a highly competitive species that forms dense, impenetrable stands that displaces native and desirable vegetation. C. melitensis usually invades open, disturbed sites and is often spread by humans and livestock via transportation of contaminated crop seed or hay.
Common Names: Abremanos, Croix de Malte, Maltese star thistle, Malteser Flockenblume, Napa thistle, tocalote
21. Centaurea solstitialis (herb) English     
Centaurea solstitialis is a winter annual that can form dense impenetrable stands that displace desirable vegetation in natural areas, rangelands, and other places. It is best adapted to open grasslands with deep, well-drained soils and an annual precipitation range of 25 to 150cm per year. It is intolerant of shade. Although populations can occur at elevations as high as 2,400 m, most large infestations are found below 1,500 m. Human activities are the primary mechanisms for the long distance movement of C. solstitialis seed. The short, stiff, pappus bristles are covered with barbs that readily adhere to clothing, hair, and fur. The movement of contaminated hay and uncertified seed are also important long distance transportation mechanisms. Wind disperses seeds over short distances.
Common Names: geeldissel, golden star thistle, sonnwend-Flockenblume, St. Barnaby's thistle, yellow centaury, yellow cockspur, yellow star thistle
Synonyms: Leucantha solstitialis (L.) A.& D. Löve
22. Cirsium arvense (herb) English  français     
Cirsium arvense is an herbaceous perennial in the Aster family. It occurs in nearly every upland herbaceous community within its range, and is a particular threat in grassland communities and riparian habitats. C. arvense is shade intolerant and can tolerate soils with up to 2% salt content. It grows on all but waterlogged, poorly aerated soils, including clay, clay loam, silt loam, sandy loam, sandy clay, sand dunes, gravel, limestone, and chalk, but not peat. It spreads primarily by vegetative means, and secondarily by seed. The seeds spread as a contaminant in agricultural seeds in hay and in cattle and horse droppings and on farm machinery. It produces an abundance of bristly-plumed seeds that are easily dispersed by the wind and they may also be transported by water.
Common Names: Californian thistle, Canada thistle, Canadian thistle, creeping thistle, field thistle, perennial thistle
Synonyms: Carduus arvensis (L.) Robson, Cirsium arvense var. argenteum (Vest) Fiori, Cirsium arvense var. horridum Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium arvense var. integrifolium Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium arvense var. mite Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium arvense var. vestitum Wimmer & Grab., Cirsium incanum (Gmel.) Fisch., Cirsium setosum (Willd.) Bess. ex Bieb., Serratula arvensis L.
23. Clematis vitalba (vine, climber) English     
Clematis vitalba is a perennial vine with climbing, woody stems that can grow 20 to 30 metres long. In the native ranges C. vitalba is associated with chalk and limestone areas, but outside of its native range, this species is found in forestlands and in the margins and openings of forested lands. It is also found in riparian areas established with willows, in waste areas, and in coastal and lowland areas. This species physically smothers and collapses indigenous forest and causes a loss of indigenous plant species. When this loss occurs there is an influx of exotic plants into gaps or grazing damage by livestock. Control using a combination of mechanical and chemical methods can be effective but is very expensive. Much research is being conducted in the hopes of discovering biological means to control this species.
Common Names: evergreen clematis, Gewoehnliche Waldrebe, old man's beard, powojnik pnacy, traveler's-joy
24. Columba livia (bird) English  français   
Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.
Common Names:  pombo-doméstico, agreste, b? câu, bákteduvvá, balandis, bareski-golumbaika, baresko-golumbo, bjargdúfa, bládúgva, bládúva, bydue, calman-creige, calmane creggey, carrier pigeon, colm aille, colom roquer, colom roquer, colom wyls, colomba salvaria, colomen ddôf, colomen y graig, colomp salvadi, columba da chasa, columba selvadia, columbu agreste, columbu aresti, columbu de is arrocas, colu'r aille, common pigeon, didu, div gulab, divlji golub, dobato, domaci golob, domestic dove, domestic pigeon, dubet, dziwi holb, Felsentaube, feral pigeon, feral rock pigeon, golab miejski¦Golab skalny, golab skalny, golub pecinar, golub pecinar, gradski Golub, güvercin, haitz-uso, Haustaube, Strassentaube, holub domácí, holub skalní, homing pigeon, húsdúfa, kaljutuvi, kalliokyyhky, kawarabato, kawara-bato, kesykyyhky, kieminis, klinšu balodis, klippduva, klippedue, kolombo, kolomm an garrek, naminis karvelis, paloma, paloma bravia, paloma casera, paloma común, paloma de castilla, paloma doméstica, pecinar, pëllumbi i egër i shkëmbit, piccione, piccione domestico, piccione selvatico, piccione selvatico semidomestico, piccione terraiolo, piccione torraiolo, pichon, pigeon, pigeon biset, pigeon biset domestique, pigeon de ville, pigeon domestique, pomba brava, pombo da rocha, pombo o pombo-doméstico, pombo-das-rochas, porumbel de stânca, pustynnik, rock dove, rock dove pigeon, rock pigeon, rotsduif, ruve, sizij golub, sizy Golub, sizyj golub', skalen g'l'b, šyzy holub, szirti galamb, tamduva, tidori, tidu, Tkhakapuyt Aghavni, tudun tal-gebel, tzidu, Verwilderte Haustaube, Xixella, yuan ge, ziwy golub
25. Coronilla varia (herb) English     
Coronilla varia is a perennial herb with creeping stems that may reach 0.6 - 2 metres. It is tolerant of drought, heavy precipitation, and cold temperatures, but it is intolerant of shade. C. varia is adapted to all coarse and medium textured soils, but it does not grow well in fine textured, saline, and alkaline soils. It reproduces prolifically and spreads rapidly via creeping rhizomes. In the United States C. varia has been extensively planted for erosion control along many roads and other disturbed areas. It has also been widely planted for ground cover on steep banks, mine reclamation, and as a cover crop on cropland.
Common Names: arvejilla morada, axseed, bunte Kronwicke, coronilla morada, coronille bigarrée, coronille variée, crown-vetch, ruda inglesa, trailing crown-vetch
Synonyms: Securigera varia (L.) Lassen subsp. orientalis Jahn
26. Cotinus coggygria (tree, shrub) English     
Native to Asia and southeastern Europe, Cotinus coggygria is a shrub that occurs naturally in areas with rocky soil and poor soils.
Common Names: European smoketree, festete, fustet, Hungarian fustic, smoke bush, smoke tree, Venetian-sumac, wig tree, young fustic
Synonyms: Rhus cotinus
27. Crocidura suaveolens (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Crocidure Des Jardins , lesser shrew , Lesser White-toothed Shrew , Musaraña De Campo
Synonyms: Crocidura gueldenstaedtii (Pallas, 1811)
28. Cygnus olor (bird) English   
Cygnus olor (mute swans) are a large swan species that can utilise a variety of aquatic habitats. They consume submerged aquatic vegetation to the point of overgrazing, which in turn reduces the carrying capacity of natural habitats for native waterfowl. They will occasionally overgraze to such an extent that certain vegetation is eliminated from the ecosystem. Cygnus olor is also very territorial and will drive off native waterfowl species and has been known to attack and kill native species while defending territory. Mute swans have also been known to attack and injure humans and can be especially dangerous to small children.
Common Names: cygne tuburculé, fysyldayan gu gushu, lebed-shipun, mute swan
Synonyms: Anas olor Gmelin
29. Cynara cardunculus (herb)
Artichoke thistle (Cynara cardunculus) is a large perennial herb native to the Mediterranean region of Europe. It grows rapidly and produces very deep roots, and forms large rosettes up to 1 m or more in diameter. It has invaded Australia, California and parts of South America where it is an aggressive weed, capable of forming dense, massive monospecific stands to the exclusion of all other plant species.
Common Names: alcachofa, alcachofra, alcaucil, artichaut commun, artichoke thistle, Artischocke, cardo, cardo, cardo de comer, cardon d'Espagne, cardoon, cynara, Gemüseartischocke, globe artichoke, Kardone, Scotch thistle, Scottish thistle, Spanish thistle artichoke, wild artichoke, wild cardoon
Synonyms: Cynara cardunculus L. typica Willkomm ex. Mariz, Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis, Cynara cardunculus L. var. eu-cardunculus Hayek, Cynara cardunculus L. var. ferocissima Lowe, Cynara cardunculus L. var. hortensis Brotero, Cynara cardunculus L. var. inermis, Cynara cardunculus L. var. sativa Moris, Cynara cardunculus L. var. sativaBrotero, Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus, Cynara corsica Viviani, Cynara esculenta, Cynara ferox Tenore fide Steudel, Cynara horrida Aiton, Cynara hortesis, Cynara scolymus L. var. pungens de Visiani, Cynara scolymus L. var. hortensis, Cynara scolymus L. var. minor Brotero, Cynara scolymus L. var. mutica de Visiani, Cynara scolymus LinnaeusCynara scolymus L. var. major, Cynara spinosissima J. & C. Presl, Cynara sylvestris de Lamarck, Cynara sylvestris Lam. var. spinosus de Lamarck, Cynara sylvestris Lam. var. spinosus de Lamarck,
30. Cynoglossum officinale (herb) English     
Cynoglossum officinale otherwise known as hound's tongue in common vernacular is a biennial herbaceous plant that invades disturbed areas and waste places. It occurs widespread throughout North America, in the U.S. and Canada. The leaves of the plant, in particular the rosette leaves, are high in toxic alkaloids that can poison livestock. Hound's tongue also has a thick, deep taproot that makes it successful at competing with native vegetation for soil resources. The seeds of hound's tongue are burred so they easily attach to the fur of animals or on the clothing and shoes of humans allowing them to spread to new uninfested areas.
Common Names: beggar's lice, common bur, common houndstongue, Cynoglosse officinal, dog bur, dog's tongue, ebnyelvufu, Echte Hundezunge, Echte Hundszunge, Gebräuchliche Hundszunge, Gemeine Hundszunge, Gewone hondstong, glovewort, gypsy flower, Harilik rass, hondstong, hound's tongue, houndstongue, Hundetunge, Hundetunge, Hundtunga, Közönséges ebnyelvufu, Læge-Hundetunge, Langue-de-chien, Lengua de perro, Lingua-di-cane vellutina, Orvosi ebnyelvufu, Ostrzen pospolity, rats and mice, Rohtokoirankielet, sheep lice, Užanka lékarská, woolmat
Synonyms: Cynoglossum officinale f. bicolor
31. Cytisus scoparius (shrub) English     
The densely growing Cytisus scoparius is a shrub indigenous to Europe and northern Asia that favours temperate climates and is found in abundance on sandy pastures and heaths. It is sparingly naturalized in sandy soil in North America. It grows best in dry, sandy soils in full sunlight and can also do well on soils high in boron. Where introduced, it colonizes pastures and cultivated fields, dry scrubland and "wasteland", and native grasslands. Most rapid spread of the plant has occurred along waterways where the seed is distributed by water. It is also spread rapidly along roads, where the seed is distributed by passing vehicles. Wind, birds, and other animals may also transport seeds. Seed re-introduction may occur from the sheep droppings during grazing.
Common Names: Besenginster, broomtops, common broom, European broom, genêt à balais, giesta, Irish broom, Scotch broom
Synonyms: Genista scoparius (Lam.)., Sarothamnus scoparius (L.) Wimmer ex Koch, Spartium scoparium (Linn.).
32. Dendrobaena octaedra (annelid)
Dendrobaena octaedra is a small, litter dwelling earthworm native to Europe that has invaded areas of Canada, United States, South America and Asia. The combined impacts of this species and other exotic earthworms are having profound effects on forest ecosystems in North America, particularly in regions which lack native earthworms. Exotic earthworms rapidly consume leaf litter, thereby altering nutrient cycling and availability and other soil properties. This has cascading effects on microbial communities, invertebrates, vertebrates and seedling establishment, and may alter entire plant communities and threaten rare plant species.
33. Dendrodrilus rubidus (annelid)
Dendrodrilus rubidus is a small, litter dwelling earthworm native to Europe that has invaded areas of Australia, South America, Canada, Russian Federation United States and a large number of sub-Antarctic islands. The combined impacts of this species and other exotic earthworms are having profound effects on forest ecosystems in North America, particularly in regions which lack native earthworms. Exotic earthworms rapidly consume leaf litter, thereby altering nutrient cycling and availability and other soil properties. This has cascading effects on microbial communities, invertebrates, vertebrates and seedling establishment, and may alter entire plant communities and threaten rare plant species.
Common Names: jumbo red worms, jumpers, jumping red wigglers, pink worms, red trout worms, red wiggler worm, red wigglers, trout worms, wigglers
Synonyms: Allolobophora constrictus (Rosa, 1884), Allolobophora norvegicus (Eisen, 1874), Allolobophora tenuis (Eisen, 1874) , Dendrobaena rubida
34. Didymosphenia geminata (alga) English     
Didymosphenia geminata is a freshwater diatom which has historically been found in cool, oligotrophic waters of northern Europe and northern North America. Since the mid-1980s, it has begun to take on the characteristics of an invasive species in both its native range and introduced regions (New Zealand). It can form massive blooms which have a range of adverse effects on freshwater ecosystems, as well as human and economic effects.
Common Names: didymo, rock snot
Synonyms: Echinella geminata (Lyngbye, 1819), Gomphonema geminatum (Lyngbye) Agardh 1824
35. Erodium cicutarium (herb) English     
Erodium cicutarium is an annual, winter annual or biennial that is a pioneer on disturbed and arid sites. It can cause yield reductions of crops and the seed is very difficult to clean out of small seeded crops. Erodium cicutarium is considered a noxious weed as it crowds out or outcompetes crops and native plant species. Erodium cicutarium provides forage for rodents, desert tortoise, big game animals, livestock and also upland game birds and songbirds. Prevention may be the best method for controlling Erodium cicutarium, however, it may be impossible to actually prevent this species from colonising, or to eradicate it, once present. There are few known chemical control methods for Erodium cicutarium besides, general herbicide controls.
Common Names: alfilaree, alfilaria, alfilerillo, California filaree, cutleaf filaree, filaree, heronsbill, loiquilahuen, pin-grass, pin-weed, redstem, redstem filaree, redstem stork's bill, relojito, stork's bill, tachuela
36. Esox lucius (fish)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The northern pike, Esox lucius, is a predatory freshwater fish that is an opportunistic feeder. It is common in lakes, basins and rivers in the United States, Canada, central Asia, Siberia and many places in Europe. It is also present in the Aral, Arctic, Baltic, Barents, Black, Caspian, North and White seas and Atlantic basins. E. lucius exhibits genetic differentiation among its worldwide populations.
Common Names: American pike, bec de canard, brochet, brochet du nord, brouché, brouchet, brouchetta, bunthecht, common pike, Europäischer hecht, grand brochet, grashecht, Great Lakes pike, great northern pike, great nothern pickerel, hauki, hecht, hecht, hechten, heekt, heichit, hengste, höcht, jack, jackfish, lanceron, luccio, lucio, lúcio, northern pike, pickerel, pike, poignard, scheckhecht, schnock, schnöck, schnuck, sifflet, snake, snook, wolf
Synonyms: Esox boreus Agassiz 1850, Esox estor Lesueur 1818, Esox lucioides Agassiz & Girard 1850, Esox lucius atrox Anikin 1902, Esox lucius bergi Kaganowsky 1933, Esox reichertii baicalensis Dybowski 1874, Luccius vorax Rafinesque 1810, Lucius lucius L., Trematina foveolata Trautschold 1884
37. Euphorbia esula (herb) English     
Native to Europe and temperate Asia, Euphorbia esula (leafy spurge) is found throughout the world, with the exception of Australia. This aggressive invader is one of the first plants to emerge in the spring and displaces native vegetation by shading and out-competing them for available water and nutrients. Leafy spurge contains a highly irritating substance called ingenol that, when consumed by livestock, is an irritant, emetic and purgative.
Common Names: Esels-Wolfsmilch, euphorbe feuillue, euphorbia, euphorbia esule, faitours-grass , Heksenmelk, Hungarian spurge, leafy spurge, Scharfe Wolfsmilch, spurge, vargtoerel, wolf's milk
Synonyms: Euphorbia gmelinii (Steudel), Euphorbia intercedens, Euphorbia pseudovirgata, Euphorbia virgata (Waldst. & Kit.), Euphorbia zhiguliensis (Schur), Galarhoeus esula, Tithymalus esula
38. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) (micro-organism)
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals both domestic and wild. The disease does not typically kill adults but will cause pregnant females to abort and mortality among some young animals. Recovery is slow and can cause permanent reduction in milk yield. Temporary reductions in meat output and other livestock products are common. Vaccination can help prevent outbreaks, but when actual outbreaks occur quick action and mass slaughter is most widely accepted course of management action to prevent the spread of the virus.
Common Names: foot-and-mouth disease, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)
39. Frangula alnus (shrub) English     
Frangula alnus, commonly known as glossy buckthorn, is a shrub that can grow to seven metres and is sometimes considered a tree. Frangula alnus typically inhabits wet, shaded and acidic soils. It can grow in soils of any texture. In North America, wetlands are invaded by Frangula alnus. Frangula alnus is also a typical woody pioneer during the succession of drained mires and conveyed wet meadows, being overgrown and substituted by forest vegetation. The invasion of Frangula alnus into forests and riparian areas in the North American region has alarmed foresters and conservationists. Frangula alnus attains high cover in the understorey and tree seedling density and diversity is known to be inversely related to buckthorn basal area. Frangula alnus can also out-compete and exclude native woody species.
Common Names: alder buckthorn, aulne noir, black buckthorn, European alder buckthorn, frangula, glossy buckthorn, nerprun bourdaine
Synonyms: Rhamnus frangula L., Rhamnus frangula subsp. columnaris hort. , Rhamnus frangula var. angustifolia Loud.
40. Genista monspessulana (shrub)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
The evergreen shrub Genista monspessulana, commonly known as French broom or Cape broom is capable of forming dense thickets in native vegetation, on grazing land, roadsides etc. These dense infestations can exclude native species. They are toxic to cattle if grazed excessively. French broom also increase fire fuel-loads in agricultural areas and in native vegetation. Fire stimulates seed germination by breaking the dormancy of soil-stored seed resulting in dense recruitment of seedlings. A small percentage of seeds are also capable of germinating on exposure to suitable temperature and soil moisture conditions. This variation in seed dormancy and germination increases the difficulty of control.
Common Names: Canary broom, Cape broom, French broom, Montpellier broom, Montpellierbrem, soft broom
Synonyms: Cytisus monspessulanus L., Cytisus monspessulanus var. umbellulatus (Webb) Briq., Teline candicans var. umbellulatus Webb & Berthel., Teline monspessulana (L.) K. Koch
41. Hedera helix (vine, climber) English     
Hedera helix is an evergreen climbing vine of the ginseng family (Araliaceae). It is an aggressive invader that threatens all vegetation levels of forested and open areas, growing along the ground as well as into the forest canopy. It is widely used as a fast-growing, low maintenance, evergreen groundcover and once established at a site, Hedera helix can be expected to move beyond its intended borders by vegetative means or by seed. Seeds are dispersed to new areas primarily by birds.
Common Names: English ivy
Synonyms: Hedera helix f. arborescens, Hedera helix f. minima, Hedera helix var. conglomerata, Hedera helix var. crenata, Hedera helix var. minima, Hedera helix var. taurica, Hedera poetarum var. taurica, Hedera taurica
42. Helix aspersa (mollusc)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Helix aspersa the brown garden snail, is a herbivorous land snail that is native to the United Kingdom and western Europe. It is also native to the countries along the borders of the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. It has been introduced to many places worldwide as food, by snail enthusiasts and accidentally attached to plant matter or freight. H. aspersa is a pest of gardens, orchards and nurseries, and is considered a serious pest in California. It is thought that H. aspersa may be a vector for Phytophthora citrophthora, which causes cankers on the branches of clementine cultivars (Citrus clementina).
Common Names: brown garden snail, European brown snail
Synonyms: Cantareus aspersus Müller, Cornu aspersum Müller, Cryptomphalus aspersus Müller
43. Hieracium aurantiacum (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Orange hawkweed, Hieracium aurantiacum is a perennial herb native to Europe. It has distinctive orange flowers which appear over summer until early autumn and produce tiny black seeds. H. aurantiacum can also spread vegetatively via stolons. The ability ofH. aurantiacum to grow in a range of conditions - it is both snow and frost tolerant, and can grow in gravelly and acidic soils, full sun through to part shade and semi-arid through to humid environments - increases its invasiveness. H. aurantiacum has been known to invade disturbed ecosystems, roadsides, grasslands, pastures, open forests, alpine meadows and other mountain habitats. H. aurantiacum has been described as a 'sleeper weed' in Australia, i.e., a weed that spreads significantly and grows significantly in population many years (usually 50+ years) after naturalisation.
Common Names: devil's weed, devil's-paintbrush, épervière orangée, fox-and-cubs, grim-the-collier, king-devil, orange hawkweed, orange paintbrush, red daisy flameweed
Synonyms: Pilosella aurantiaca (L.) F. W. Schultz & Sch. Bip.
44. Hieracium pilosella (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Several of the European hawkweeds Hieracium spp. have been introduced to New Zealand and North America. The mouseear hawkweed Hieracium pilosella invades pastures, road sides and natural areas. It is a rapid colonizer and forms dense mono-specific patches due to its vegetative (stolons) and sexual reproduction; seeds also form asexually by apomixis. Mouseear hawkweed has the ability to alter soil nutrient status, replace native flora and decrease palatable forage in pastures. Sheep and livestock avoid the mouseear hawkweed becuse of its prostrate growth habit and highly pubescent leaves.
Common Names: épervière piloselle, mouseear hawkweed, mouse-ear hawkweed
Synonyms: Pilosella officinarum F. W. Schultz & Sch. Bip.
45. Hylastes ater (insect)
Hylastes ater is considered a pest in many regions due to the damage that it causes to trees, specifically pine species. Although this species is native to Europe, it has recently been declared a pest there. In addition, the introduction of the species into other countries, usually by accidental means, has become an issue primarily due to the damage it causes to the species, Pinus radiata, which affects aspects of the economy as well as ecosystems. H. ater is a widespread species that could continue to cause problems if not properly inspected and managed.
Common Names: bark beetle, black pine bark beetle, exotic bark beetle
Synonyms: Hylastes angusticollis Eggers, Hylastes pinicola Bedel, Hylesinus chloropus Duftschmidt, Ipsocossonus anomalus Oke 1934
46. Hypericum perforatum (herb) English     
Hypericum perforatum, more commonly known as St. John's wort, is a native flowering perennial plant of Eurasia. It has been widely introduced, mainly by human vectors, to North and South America, parts of Africa, Australia and New Zealand. St. John's wort can survive in a wide range of environments and has the ability to store reserves in its root crown and compensate during harsh times, which makes this plant difficult for management control. In recent years Hypericum perforatum has gained media attention for its use in alternative medicine, mainly for treating depression.
Common Names: äkta johannesört, äkta mannablod, amber, bassant, binbirdelikotu, Blutkraut, casse-diable, castellas, common St Johnswort, common St. John's wort, corazoncillo, eala bhuidhe, Echtes Johanniskraut, gammock, Gemeines Johanniskraut, goatsbeard, goatweed, Hartheu, herb john, herbe De Saint-Jean, herbe de St. Jean, hierba de San Juan, hipérico, iperico, johannesblöda, Johanneskruid, johannesört, Johanniskraut, klamathweed, läpikuisma, lule gjaku, lulebasan, lulemaji, mäkikuisma, mansblod, millepertuis, millepertuis perfore, penny john, perforate St. John's wort, racecourse weed, randpirk, rosin rose, St. John's grass, St. John's wort, tipton weed, todabuena, touch and heal, Tüpfel-Hartheu, Tüpfel-Johanniskraut, Unserer Frauen Bettstroh, Y fendigedig
Synonyms: Hypericum officinale (Gater), Hypericum perforatum var. perforatum, Hypericum perforatum var. angustifolium, Hypericum perforatum var. microphyllum, Hypericum perforatum var. veronense, Hypericum veronense, Hypericum vulgare (Bauhin)
47. Ips typographus (insect)
Ips typographus the European spruce bark beetle has caused many problems in Europe and Asia. It is a pest that mostly infects damaged spruce trees, but can also damage healthy trees as well. The effects of this pest have caused a great deal of economic loss as well as ecosystem change. Populations have increased throughout Asia and Europe, and a possibility of further expansion can exist as a cause of increasing temperature change. The importance of managing this pest has been realized, and speculation exists for possible methods of controlling and preventing damage caused by this species.
Common Names: Buchdrucker, eight-toothed spruce bark beetle, European spruce bark beetle, Gran scolyte de l'epicea, Grandbarkbillen, Großer 8 - zähniger Fichtenborkenkäfer, Le typographe de l'epicea
Synonyms: Bostrichus octodentalis Paykull , Dermestes typographus Linneaus, Ips japonicus Niijima
48. Iris pseudacorus (herb) English     
Iris pseudacorus is a perennial monocot forb that forms dense stands of robust plants. It thrives in temperate climates and can grow in water up to 25cm deep. It is a fast-growing and fast-spreading invasive plant that can out-compete other wetland plants, forming almost impenetrable thickets. Iris pseudacorus is poisonous to grazing animals and caution should be used if pulling out this plant as it causes skin irritations. It has typically been introduced as an ornamental, but has also been used in erosion control and for making dyes and fibre.
Common Names: fleur-de-lis, iris jaune, pale-yellow iris, water flag, yellow flag, yellow iris, yellow water iris, yellow-flag iris
Synonyms: Iris acoriformis Boreau , Iris acoroides Spach , Iris bastardii Boreau , Iris curtopetala F. Delaroche , Iris flava Tornab. , Iris lutea Lam. , Iris paludosa Pers. , Iris pseudacorus L. var. parviflora Bastard , Iris sativa Mill.
49. Lachnellula willkommii (fungus)
Lachnellula willkommii is a tree disease identified first in Europe and has since made its way to North America. It spreads easily from branch to branch infecting each tree (Larix decidua). Lachnellula willkommii is found in areas that have a high moisture content, in which it thrives.
Common Names: European larch canker
Synonyms: Dasyscypha willkommii, Trichoscyphella willkommii
50. Lepidium latifolium (herb) English     
Lepidium latifolium is an herbaceous perennial that invades wetlands, riparian areas and other water courses. It can tolerate a wide range of soil water potential and survive up to 50 days in submerged soil. Lepidium latifolium is extremely competitive and forms monospecific stands that crowd out desirable native species.
Common Names: Breitblättrige Kresse, broad-leaf peppergrass, broadleaf pepperweed, erva-pimenteira, giant whiteweed, grande passerage, ironweed, lepidio, mastuerzo montesino, peppergrass, peppergrass mustard, perennial peppercress, perennial peppergrass, perennial pepperweed, piperisa, slender perennial peppercress, tall whitetop, Virginia pepperweed
Synonyms: Cardaria latifolia (L.) Spach
51. Lepus europaeus (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Lepus europaeus is a herbivorous mammal belonging to the family Leporidae, and is commonly known as the European hare or brown hare. It has been introduced from its native range of Europe to many other countries and islands. L. europaeus is highly adaptable and is able to survive in a varied range of habitats, though it primarily invades agricultural areas, grasslands, scrub and shrublands and disturbed areas. It has been known to hybridise with native hare species in some areas, threatening genetic integrity and native species survival.
Common Names: brown hare, European brown hare, European hare, liebre Europea, lièvre d'Europe
52. Linaria vulgaris (herb) English     
Linaria vulgaris (commonly known as yellow toadflax) is a creeping perennial forb, with bright yellow and orange snap-dragon-like flowers. It is widespread in North America, establishing in rangelands and disturbed areas in western states and provinces. Linaria vulgaris can form dense populations, mainly through vegetative reproduction from root buds along underground rhizomes.
Common Names: butter-and-eggs, Flachskraut, flaxweed, flugblomster, Gemeines Leinkraut, Gewöhnliches Leinkraut, greater butter-and-eggs, gulsporre, hosoba-unran, inice obecná, Jacob's ladder, kannusruoho, keltakannusruoho, közönséges gyújtoványfu, Leinkraut, linaire commune, linaire vulgaire, linajola, linnete, lnica pospolita, Löwenmaul, nevruzotu, pyštek obycajný, ramsted, sporrebloma, torskemund, vlasbekje, wild snapdragon, yellow toadflax
Synonyms: Linaria linaria (L.) Karst.
53. Lotus corniculatus (herb) English     
Lotus corniculatus (bird's foot trefoil) is a low growing perennial legume that has long been valued as an agricultural crop. Lotus corniculatus is native to much of Europe, Asia and parts of Africa, but now has a near global distribution. Over most of its range, Lotus corniculatus is not considered invasive, although in a few areas it has out-competed native vegetation.
Common Names: birdfoot deervetch, birdsfoot trefoil, bird's-foot trefoil, bloomfell, buinuzlu Gurdotu, cat's clover, common lotus, cornette, cornichão, crowtoes, cube, cuernecillo, cuernecillo del campo, devil's fingers, devil's-claw, Dutchman's clogs, ebert khoshoontzor, ekhdzherarvuit, gafgaz gurdotu, garden birdsfoot trefoil, garden bird's-foot-trefoil, Gemeiner Hornklee, ghizdei marunt, ginestrina, granny's toenails, ground honeysuckle, harilik noiahammas, hen-and-chickens, hop 'o my thumb, Hornklee, karingtand, keltamaite, komonica zwycrajna, kurdglisprchkhila, kurdlis prukhila, lady's fingers, lady's slippers, lotier corniculé, loto corniculado, lyadvenetz baltiiski, lyadvenetz kavkazski, lyadvenetz komarova, lyadvenetz krymski, lyadvenetz olgi, lyadvenetz polevoi, lyadvenetz rogatyi, lyadvenetz ruprekhta, lyadvenetz somnitelnyi, lyadvenetz zhigulevski, palyavaya akatzyya, paprastasis garzdenis, pied-de-poule, ragaine vanagnadzini, rutvitza ragataya, sheep-foot, tryzaouka, upright trefoil, yellow treefoil, zayachchy bratki
Synonyms: Lotus ambiguus Besser ex Spreng., Lotus ambiguus Spreng, Lotus arvensis Pers., Lotus balticus Miniaev, Lotus carpetanus Lacaita, Lotus caucasicus Kuprian, Lotus caucasicus Kuprian., Lotus ciliatus sensu Schur, Lotus corniculatus L. var. crassifolia Fr., Lotus corniculatus L. var. kochii Chrtkova, Lotus corniculatus L. var. maritimus Rupr., Lotus corniculatus subsp. major (Scop.) Gams, Lotus corniculatus var. arvensis (Pers.) Ser., Lotus corniculatus var. glaber Opiz, Lotus corniculatus var. major (Scop.) Brand, Lotus corniculatus var.arvensis (Schkuhr) Ser. ex DC., Lotus filicaulis Durieu, Lotus frondosus (Freyn) Kuprian, Lotus japonicus (Regel) K.larson, Lotus komarovii Miniaev, Lotus major Scop., Lotus olgae Klokov, Lotus peczoricus Miniaev and Ulle, Lotus ruprechtii Miniaev , Lotus tauricus Juz., Lotus ucrainicus Klokov, Lotus zhegulensis Klokov
54. Lumbricus rubellus (annelid)
Lumbricus rubellus is a medium sized epi-endogeic earthworm that is native to Europe. It is one of the most widespread earthworm invaders in the world and has invaded parts of Canada, United States, South America, Russian Federation and several sub-Antarctic islands. The combined impacts of this species and other exotic earthworms are having profound effects on forest ecosystems in North America, particularly in regions which lack native earthworms. Exotic earthworms rapidly consume leaf litter, thereby altering nutrient cycling and availability and other soil properties. This has cascading effects on microbial communities, invertebrates, vertebrates and seedling establishment, and may alter entire plant communities and threaten rare plant species.
Common Names: angle worm, leaf worm, red wiggler, red worm
Synonyms: Allolobophora relictus (Southern, 1909)
55. Luzula campestris (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: field woodrush, junco-do-campo
56. Lythrum salicaria (aquatic plant, herb) English  français     
Lythrum salicaria is an erect perennial herb with a woody stem and whirled leaves. It has the ability to reproduce prolifically by both seed dispersal and vegetative propagation. Any sunny or partly shaded wetland is vulnerable to L. salicaria invasion, but disturbed areas with exposed soil accelerate the process by providing ideal conditions for seed germination.
Common Names: Blutweiderich, purple loosestrife, rainbow weed, salicaire pourpre, spiked loosestrife
Synonyms: Lythrum salicaria var. gracilior Turcz., Lythrum salicaria var. tomentosum (P. Mill.) DC., Lythrum salicaria var. vulgare DC.
57. Melilotus alba (herb) English     
Native to Asia, Europe, and northern Africa, Melilotus alba (commonly known as white sweet clover) was introduced to the United States and first recorded in 1739.
Common Names: almengó blanc, bai hua cao mu xi, bokhara-clover , Bokharaklee, donnik belyi, fehér somkóró, heuin jeon dong ssa ri, hierba orejera, honey clover, honey-lotus, hubam, hubam clover, hvid stenkløver, hvit steinkløver, melilot, melilot blanc , mélilot blanc, meliloto bianco, meliloto blanco, meliloto-branco, Melilotos, mielcón, mielga, nostrzyk bialy, Shirobana shinagawa hagi, trébol de olor blanco, trébol oloroso, tree clover, valkomesikkä, Vit sötväppling, Weisser honigklee, Weißer steinklee, white melilot, white millet, white sweetclover
Synonyms: Melilotus alba Desr., Melilotus alba L., Melilotus albus Medik, Melilotus albus var. annuus H.S. Coe, Melilotus leucanthus W.D.J. Koch ex DC., Melilotus officinalis subsp. albus (Medik.) H. Ohashi and Tateishi
58. Montia fontana (aquatic plant)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Montia fontana a plant of damp places and shallow water has been introduced to the Falkland Islands where it is widespread and common.
Common Names: annual water minerslettuce, blinks, Fountain miner'slettucer , water chickweed, water montia, water-blinks
Synonyms: Claytonia fontana (L.) R.J. Davis, Montia dipetala Suksd., Montia dipetala Suksdorf, Montia fontana L. ssp. amporitana auct. non Sennen, Montia fontana L. ssp. chondrosperma (Fenzl) Walter, Montia fontana L. ssp. fontana, Montia fontana L. var. lamprosperma (Cham.) Fenzl, Montia fontana L. var. tenerrima (A. Gray) Fernald & Wiegand, Montia fontana L. var. variabilis (Walters) Kozhevn., Montia fontana ssp. amporitana auct. non Sennen, Montia fontana ssp. chondrosperma (Fenzl) Walt., Montia fontana var. lamprosperma (Cham.) Fenzl, Montia fontana var. tenerrima (Gray) Fern. & Wieg., Montia hallii (A. Gray) Greene, Montia hallii (Gray) Greene, Montia lamprosperma Cham., Montia minor C.C. Gmel., Montia minor K.C. Gmel., Montia verna Neck.
59. Mustela erminea (mammal) English     
Mustela erminea (the stoat) is an intelligent, versatile predator specialising in small mammals and birds. It is fearless in attacking animals larger than itself and adapted to surviving periodic shortages by storage of surplus kills. In New Zealand it is responsible for a significant amount of damage to populations of native species.
Common Names: ermine, ermine, Grosswiesel, Hermelin, hermine, short-tailed weasel, short-tailed weasel, stoat
60. Mytilus galloprovincialis (mollusc) English     
Mytilus galloprovincialis (blue mussel or the Mediterranean mussel) is native to the Mediterranean coast and the Black and Adriatic Seas. It has succeeded in establishing itself at widely distributed points around the globe, with nearly all introductions occurring in temperate regions and at localities where there are large shipping ports (Branch and Stephanni 2004). Ship hull fouling and transport of ballast water have been implicated in its spread and its impact on native communities and native mussels has been suggested by a number of studies and observations (Carlton 1992; Robinson and Griffiths 2002; Geller 1999).
Common Names: bay mussel, blue mussel, Mediterranean mussel, Mittelmeer-Miesmuschel
61. Najas minor (aquatic plant)
Najas minor is a submerged aquatic herb native to Europe and Asia that has established in eastern United States and Ontario. Initially recorded in the 1930s, it has established populations in 26 states in the US. It creates dense, monospecific stands that may displace native aquatic plants and reduce the recreational and aesthetic value of lakes, ponds, and rivers.
Common Names: brittle naiad, brittle waternymph, European naiad, minor naiad , slender naiad , slender-leaved naiad, spiny-leaf naiad
Synonyms: Caulinia minor (All) Coss. & Germ.
62. Natrix maura (reptile)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Couleuvre vipérine, Culebra viperina, viperine snake
63. Nymphoides peltata (aquatic plant) English     
Nymphoides peltata is usually introduced as an aquatic ornament though it is not the case in its native area. However, the sale and distribution of Nymphoides peltata is slowing becoming more controlled. It can become extremely invasive in shallow, slow-moving swamps, rivers, lakes and ponds. Currently there is little information available on the control of Nymphoides peltata but hand removal for small infestations and herbicides for larger infestations seem to be the most effective.
Common Names: asaza, entire marshwort, floating heart, fringed water lily, xing cai, yellow floatingheart
Synonyms: Limnanthemum peltatum Gmel., Nymphoides nymphaeoides (L.) Britt.
64. Onopordum acanthium (herb) English     
Onopordum acanthium is a herb of the sunflower family (Asteraceae) that is native to Europe and Asia. It has been introduced to temperate climates elsewhere, including much of North America and Australia. In North America, Onopordum acanthium is a weed problem on western rangeland and produces significant economic losses for ranchers. Seeds are dispersed locally by wind, humans, water, livestock, and wildlife are involved in long distance dispersal.
Common Names: cotton thistle, heraldic thistle, Scotch cotton thistle, Scotch thistle, woolly thistle
65. Orthotomicus erosus (insect)
Orthotomicus erosus is an engraver beetle of the family Scolytidae. It is being introduced around the world, often due to the wood packaging material used in the shipment of textiles and other products. Orthotomicus erosus is a carrier for pathogenic fungi and is known to carry Sphaeropsis sapinea, which causes extensive mortality of many Pinus spp.
Common Names: European bark beetle, Mediterranean pine engraver beetle
66. Ostrea edulis (mollusc) English   
Ostrea edulis (the European flat oyster) is native to Europe and the Mediterranean. It has been introduced to the northwestern Atlantic Ocean for aquaculture. Usually found in muddy areas, O. edulis has long been harvested for food. Over-harvesting in its native range, however, has caused it to be reintroduced to Europe. While in Atlantic waters, O. edulis became infected with the disease bonamiasis (Bonamia ostrae). This disease has caused widespread mortality in the vast majority of O. edulis.
Common Names: common oyster, edible oyster, eetbare oester, Essbare euster, European flat oyster, European oyster, huître comestible, huître plate Européenne, istiride, native oyster, oester, ostra Europa, platte oester, stridia, stridie, ustritsa
Synonyms: Ostrea adriatica Lam-Middendorff 1848, Ostrea taurica Krynicki 1837
67. Panicum repens (grass) English     
Panicum repens is a perennial grass that frequently forms dense colonies and has long, creeping rhizomes. It grows in moist, often sandy soils and its rhizomes often extend several feet out into the water. Panicum repens frequently forms dense floating mats that impede water flow in ditches and canals and restrict recreational use of shoreline areas of lakes and ponds. Management of Panicum repens involves the repeated application of herbicides. There is very little physical management that can be used to control Panicum repens, as disturbance encourages its growth.
Common Names: canota, couch panicum , creeping panic , kriechende Hirse, millet rampant , panic rampant , torpedo grass , torpedograss , Victoria grass , wainaku grass
Synonyms: Panicum airoides R. Br. , Panicum aquaticum A. Rich. , Panicum arenarium Brotero , Panicum chromatostigma Pilg. , Panicum convolutum P.Beauv. ex Spreng. , Panicum gouinii (Fourn.), Panicum hycrocharis Steud. , Panicum ischaemoides Retz. , Panicum kinshassense Vanderyst , Panicum leiogonum Delile , Panicum littorale C.Mohr ex Vasey , Panicum nyanzense K.Schum. , Panicum roxburghianum Schult. , Panicum sieberi Link , Panicum tuberosum Llanos , Panicum uliginosum Roxb. ex Roem. & Schult.
68. Perca fluviatilis (fish) English   
Perca fluviatilis (perch) are a widespread species of predatory freshwater fish that are prized for angling. Their natural range is throughout much of Europe, but they have been introduced to a number of countries around the world as a sport fish. The effect of Perca fluviatilis on native aquatic fauna has lead to it being designated as invasive in many locations.
Common Names: abbor, abborre, abor, aborre, aborri, ahven, almindelig Aborre, an phéirse mhara, baars, bacheh Suf, Bahrs, Barsch, berse, Bersich, biban, boyat, brell, cochonnet, Egli, Eurasian perch, Europæisk aborre, European perch, Flußbarsch, Flussbarsch, hurlin, hürling, jôlerie, kostur, Kretzer, mahi suf rudkhaneh-y astrakhan, mahi-ye khardar, obyknovennyi okun', okon, okoun rícní, okun, ostriez, ostriež, peirse, perca, pérca chaní, perca europea, perca-europeia, perch, perchat, Perchaude, perchaude, perche, perche commune, perche européenne, perche fluviatile, percho, perchot, perco, percot, perki, persico, persico reale, pesce, pesce persico, rechen kostur, rechnoi okun, redfin perch, river perch, sharmak, soof-e-hajitarkhan, suf Haji Tarkhan, suf rudkhaneh-ye, sügér, tatlisu levregi, tatlisulevregi baligi
Synonyms: Perca fluviatilis aurea Smitt, 1892, Perca fluviatilis gibba Smitt, 1892 , Perca fluviatilis gracilis Pokrovsky, 1951, Perca fluviatilis intermedius Svetovidov & Dorofeyeva, 1963, Perca fluviatilis macedonica Karaman, 1924, Perca fluviatilis maculata Smitt, 1892, Perca fluviatilis nigrescens Heckel, 1837, Perca fluviatilis phragmiteti Berg, 1933, Perca fluviatilis zaissanica Dianov, 1955, Perca helvetica Gronow, 1854, Perca italica Cuvier, 1828, Perca vulgaris aurata Fitzinger, 1832, Perca vulgaris Fitzinger, 1832, Perca vulgaris Schaeffer, 1761, Perca vulgaris Schrank, 1792
69. Phalaris arundinacea (grass) English     
Phalaris arundinacea is a cool-season perennial grass that grows successfully in northern latitudes and can be invasive in wet habitats. Since it is tolerant of freezing temperatures and begins to grow very early in the spring, it can outcompete many other species. Any moist, fertile habitat provides good conditions for P. arundinacea. It is considered a serious threat in wet meadows, wetlands, marshes, fens, old fields, floodplains, wet prairies, roadsides and ditchbanks. The invasion is promoted by disturbances, such as ditching of wetlands, stream channels, deforestation of swamp forests, sedimentation, overgrazing and intentional planting. P. arundinacea tolerates frequent and prolonged flooding as well as submergence. It is moderately tolerant of drought and saline or alkaline soils. P. arundinacea spreads within sites by creeping rhizomes and forms dense and impenetrable mats of vegetation. New sites are colonised by seeds. P. arundinacea tolerates a small amount of shade, such as forest edges but not closed forest interiors.
Common Names: alpiste roseau, caniço-malhado, gardener's-garters, hierba cinta, kusa-yoshi, pasto cinto, reed Canary grass, ribbon grass, Rohrglanzgras, variegated grass
Synonyms: Phalaris arundinacea f. variegata (Parn.) Druce, Phalaris arundinacea L. var. picta L., Phalaris japonica Steud., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Raeusch., Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Raeusch. var. picta (L.) Tzvelev
70. Phoxinus phoxinus (fish)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Phoxinus phoxinus is a gregarious, freshwater fish that is found in cold, well oxygenated lakes and rivers. It is often associated with salmonids and is most commonly found in shallow waters. P. phoxinus is found across Europe and Asia, and is native to basins of the Arctic, Atlantic, Baltic Sea, North Sea and northern Pacific Ocean, from the United Kingdom to Korea, up to the northern reaches of Russia and Scandinavia.
Common Names: amarante, arlequin, balte, bambel, bammeli, bitterziimpelchen, blitterfischl, blutelritze, boisca, brunnenpfrill, budd, burli, buthe, charbonnier, cippa, craesc, craet, cuzeau, ellering, elritsa, elritze, erleress, Eurasian minnow, European minnow, fürge cselle, galesco, gefrille, gendarme, gievchen, grisette, grümperl, haberfischl, hunderttausendfischl, kvidd, maipiere, mazelung, mollinger, mutu, orekyte, pescardo, petit blanc, pfelle, piek, pilcodyn, piscardo, riedlingehen, rümpchen, sanguinerola, scrofita, spierling, sprille, strzebla potokowa, sunnfischl, vairon, verdete, weiling, Zaisan minnow, zaukerl
Synonyms: Cyprinus aphya L., Cyprinus chrysoprasius Pallas 1814, Cyprinus galian Gmelin 1789, Cyprinus isetensis Georgi 1775, Cyprinus morella Leske 1774, Cyprinus phoxinus L., Cyprinus rivularis 1773, Leuciscus phoxinus L., Phoxinus csikii Hankó 1922, Phoxinus laevis Fitzinger 1832, Phoxinus laevis balchaschana Kessler 1879, Phoxinus marsilii Heckel 1836, Phoxinus phoxinus carpathicus Popescu-Gorj & Dumitriu 1950, Phoxinus phoxinus phoxinus L., Phoxinus rivularis Pallas 1773, Phoxinus varius Perty 1832, Phoxynus montanus Ogérien 1863, Salmo rivularis Pallas 1773
71. Pinus pinaster (tree) English  français     
Pinus pinaster, originally from the Mediterranean Basin, has been planted in temperate regions within and outside its natural range for a wide range of reasons. It regenerates readily almost everywhere it is planted and in many places it invades natural shrubland, forest and grassland. Pinus pinaster forms dense thickets which supress native plants, changes fire regimes and hydrological properties and alters habitats for many animals.
Common Names: cluster pine, maritime pine
Synonyms: Pinus maritima, Pinus mesogeneensid
72. Poa pratensis (grass) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a rhizomatous grass that is regarded as a crop in some systems, but as a weed in others. It is highly valued as a pasture and turf grass, particularly in golf courses. However, it is considered an invasive weed in natural grassland ecosystems where it outcompetes native species and reduces biodiversity and alters nitrogen cycling and ecosystem function.
Common Names: bird grass, blue grass, capim-do-campo, common meadow grass, English grass, grama de prados, green grass, June grass, Kentucky bluegrass, narrow-leaf meadow grass, northern meadow grass, pâturin des prés, poa común, schmalblättriges Rispengras, smooth meadow grass, smooth-stalked meadow grass , spear grass, spreading bluegrass, Wiesenrispengras, zacate poa 
Synonyms: Poa alpigena, Poa angustifolia L.
73. Podarcis siculus (reptile)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Italian wall lizard, Lagartija Italiana
Synonyms: Podarcis sicula (Rafinesque, 1810)
74. Polysiphonia brodiei (alga) English     
Polysiphonia brodiei (red macroalga) is a common red alga with filamentous branches. It is abundant in northern Europe and has been introduced via ships to North America, Australia, New Zealand and Japan.
Common Names: red macroalga
Synonyms: Ceramium brodiaei , Conferva brodiaei, Grammita brodiaei Bonnemaison, Hutchinsia brodiaei, Hutchinsia penicillata, Polysiphonia brodiei, Polysiphonia penicillata
75. Populus alba (tree) English     
Populus alba is a member of the willow family (Salicaceae) that is native to Eurasia. It is a dioecious species and female mature trees can produce large seed crops. Populus alba spreads to new locations when mature trees release thousands of wind-dispersed seeds that may be carried long distances. It is an especially strong competitor as it can grow in a variety of soils and resprout easily in response to damage. Local spread of male and female trees occurs vegetatively via root suckers.
Common Names: alamo blanco, gattice, gin-doro, hakuyo, peuplier blanc, pioppo bianco, silber-pappel, silver-leaf poplar, urajiro-hako-yanagi, white poplar, xin bai yang
Synonyms: Populus alba L. var. bolleana (Lauche), Populus alba L. var. pyramidalis (Bunge)
76. Porphyrio porphyrio (bird)
The ecological similarity of the purple swamphen (Porphyrio porphyrio) to the Florida native common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) and purple gallinule (Porphyrula martinica) have prompted efforts to eliminate this member of the rail family from Florida. It is not clear what negative consequences could result from these non-native birds but in other parts of the world they are noted for their aggressive behaviour and their habit of eating other bird's eggs.
Common Names: bláhæna, caimão, calamón común, Modrzyk, pollo sultano, pukeko, purperkoet, purpurhöna, Purpurhuhn, seikei, slípka modrá, sultanhøne, sultanhøne, sultánka modrá, sulttaanikana, talève sultane
77. Potamogeton perfoliatus (aquatic plant) English     
Potamogeton perfoliatus is a submerged aquatic plant that occurs in still and flowing freshwaters in temperate climates. It is known as clasped pondweed as the leaf bases perfoliate (are wrapped around the stem). This is one of the commonest pondweeds. All the leaves are under water; there are no floating leaves as in some other common Potamogeton species. It is common in lakes, ditches and slow rivers and streams, and is tolerant of quite a wide range of nutrient status.
Common Names: claspingleaf pondweed , perfoliate pondweed, redhead grass
Synonyms: Potamogeton amplexicaulis Kar., Potamogeton bupleuroides Fern., Potamogeton perfoliatus ssp. bupleuroides (Fern.) Hultén, Potamogeton perfoliatus var. bupleuroides (Fern.) Farw.
78. Ranunculus ficaria (herb) English     
Ranunculus ficaria is a perennial plant and spring ephemeral (lasting for a very short time) that spends much of the year underground as thickened tubers. In the North American region, native ephemeral wildflowers grow and flower early in the spring before leaf-out of the forest canopy. Ranunculus ficaria uses this same strategy, but starts growing earlier in the season and is far more aggressive in its use of space. It out-competes native plants through its extremely early seasonal growth and forms extensive carpets in natural areas, crowding out native plants. Management primarily consists of delicate chemical treatments that must occur before native species emerge. Care must also be taken not to cause harm to flora that is emergent during chemical treatments.
Common Names: ficaire, fig buttercup , lesser celandine, pilewort , renoncule ficaire
79. Rhamnus alaternus (tree) English     
Rhamnus alaternus is an evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean. It was introduced to many areas of the Australasian-Pacific region as an ornamental plant in the 1900s where it became an invasive tree along coastlines and forests because of its ability to form dense stands that eventually exclude all other types of vegetation.
Common Names: alaterne, evergreen buckthorn, Italian buckthorn
80. Rhamnus cathartica (tree) English     
Rhamnus cathartica commonly known as common or European buckthorn is a deciduous small tree that prefers lightly shaded conditions. It is tolerant of many soil types and can be found in open oak woods, deadfall openings in woodlands and edges of woodlands. It may also be found in prairies and open fields. It tends to form dense, often even-aged thickets, crowding and shading out native shrubs and herbs. In fire-adapted ecosystems the lack of vegetation under buckthorn prohibits fires. R. cathartica is also an alternate host of the crown rust of oats. Fire is very effective in controlling R. cathartica and is a preferred method when the population is young. In wetlands water tables have been artificially lowered in order to attempt to control this species.
Common Names: buckthorn, Carolina buckthorn, cervispina, common buckthorn , épine noire, espinheiro-cerval, European buckthorn , European waythorn , Hart's thorn , Kreuzdorn, nerprun cathartique, nerprun purgatif, tamuje
81. Rubus discolor (vine, climber) English     
Rubus discolor is a perennial species of blackberry that forms large impenetrable thickets of prickly canes. Thickets can become so dense that native species diversity is reduced through shading out and inaccessibility. Thorny stems block access of humans, livestock, equipment and vehicles to pastures and waterways, and leaf litter accumulations within thickets, creating potential fire hazards.
Common Names: Armenian blackberry, Himalayan blackberry
Synonyms: Rubus armeniacus, Rubus fruticosus L., Rubus grabowskii Weihe ex Gunther et al., Rubus macrostemon (Focke) Sampaio, Rubus praecox Bertol., Rubus procerus auct. non P.J. Muell. ex Genev, Rubus thyrsanthus (Focke) Foerster.
82. Rumex acetosella (herb) English  français     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Rumex acetosella is an herbaceous perennial plant which occurs in disturbed areas, such as roadsides and pastures, but also in degraded forests. A fairly common weed, it invades natural habitats more rarely as is the case in a Réunion. Rumex acetosella contains oxalic acid which can be toxic to livestock in large quantities.
Common Names: acedera, acedera menor, acederilla, common sheep sorrel, dock, field sorrel, hierba de cristo, hierba roja, himesuiba, kuzu kulagi, lengua de vaca, oseille, oseille de brebis, oseille sauvage, pactilla, patience petite-oseille, petite oseille, red sorrel, romacilla, romacilla aceitosa, sangre de toro, sheep sorrel, small sorrel, sorrel, sûrette, vinagrerita, vinagrillo, vinette sauvage
Synonyms: Acetosa acetosella (Linnaeus) Miller, Acetosa hastata Moench, Acetosella acetosella (L.) Small, Acetosella tenuifolia (Wallr.) A. Löve, Acetosella vulgaris (Koch) Fourr., Acetosella vulgaris Fourreau, Rumex acetosella ssp. angiocarpus (Murb.) Murb., Rumex acetosella var. pyrenaeus (Pourret) Timbal-Lagrave, Rumex acetosella var. tenuifolius Wallr., Rumex acetosella var. vulgaris W. D. J. Koch, Rumex angiocarpus Murb., Rumex tenuifolius (Wallr.) A. Löv
83. Rumex obtusifolius (herb) English     
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Broad-leaved dock (Rumex obtusifolius) is a problematic weed throughout its native and introduced range. It invades a wide variety of habitats in the Sub-Antarctic region including areas dominated by native plant species. It is also a major problem in pastures. Current management strategies include chemical and mechanical control, although studies investigating biological control agents are ongoing.
Common Names: acedera de hojas obtusas, acedera obtusifolia, bijuaca, bitter dock, bluntleaf dock, broadleaf dock, broad-leaved dock, celery seed, dock , dun ye suan mo, engorda puercos, ezo-no-gishi-gishi, labaca, labaça-de-vaca-amarga, lengua de vaca, língua-de-vaca-amarga, oseille, parelle, patience à feuilles , patience sauvage, romaza de hojas grandes, romaza vulgar, rumex à feuilles obtuses, stumpfblättriger Ampfer , vinagrillo, yerba mulata
Synonyms: Rumex obtusifolius var. subalpinus Schur [= Rumex obtusifolius subsp. subalpinus], Rumex sylvestris var. transiens Simonk. [= Rumex obtusifolius subsp. transiens], Rumex sylvestris Wallr. [= Rumex obtusifolius subsp. silvestris]
84. Rupicapra rupicapra (mammal)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: Alpine Chamois, Balkan Chamois, Chamois, Gamuza, Gamuza Septentrional, Northern Chamois
85. Rutilus rutilus (fish)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Rutilus rutilus, commonly known as the roack, is a freshwater fish that is native to many parts of Europe and Asia. It is able to cope with brackish conditions and is an omnivorous species that is able to adapt its diet to what is available. R. rutilus is now widespread throughout Europe and is noted to be invasive in Ireland and Italy. In Ireland, it has been observed to not only alter species composition of fish communities, but to altering lake conditions.
Common Names: almindelig skalle, babuscä, babushka, belice, blanchet, blankvoorn, brunhövd, echatout, furn, gardon, gardon blanc, gråskalle, kolme, mort, pardelha-dos-alpes, plätze, plitka, ploc, plotice obecná, plotva, plotze, plötze, radounek, rhufell, ridde, roach, roche, rotaltel, rotaschel, rotauge, rotte, rutilo, rutilo, rutilo, schmahl, Siberian roach, skalle, taran, tarran, tsironi, zicke
Synonyms: Cyprinus fulvus Vallot 1837, Cyprinus jaculus Jurine 1825, Cyprinus lacustris Pallas 1814, Cyprinus pigus Gronow 1854, Cyprinus rubellio Leske 1774, Cyprinus rutilus L., Cyprinus simus Hermann 1804, Cyprinus xanthopterus Vallot 1737, Gardonus pigulus Bonaparte 1841, Gardonus ruboculus Walecki 1863, Leuciscus decipiens Agassiz 1835, Leuciscus jurinii Dybowski 1862, Leuciscus lividus Heckel 1843, Leuciscus pallens Blanchard 1866, Leuciscus pausingeri Heckel 1843, Leuciscus pigus dojranensis Karaman 1928, Leuciscus prasinus Agassiz 1835, Leuciscus rutiloides Selys-Longchamps 1842, Leuciscus rutilus aurata Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus auratus Yakovlev 1873, Leuciscus rutilus bolmensis Malm 1877, Leuciscus rutilus communis Rossikov 1895, Leuciscus rutilus communis Yakovlev 1873, Leuciscus rutilus crassa Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus elata Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus elongata Fatio 1882, Leuciscus rutilus erytraea Antipa 1909, Leuciscus rutilus fluviatilis Yakovlev 1873, Leuciscus rutilus terekensis Rossikov 1895, Leuciscus rutilus vobla Dikson 1909, Leuciscus rutilus wobla Grimm 1896, Leuciscus rutilus L., Leuciscus selysii Selys-Longchamps 1842, Leucos cenisophius 1841, Leucos cenisophius Bonaparte 1845, Leucos pigulus Bonaparte 1844, Rutilus rutilus aralensis phragmiteti 1932, Rutilus rutilus aralensis Berg 1916, Rutilus rutilus bucharensis Nikolsky 1933, Rutilus rutilus carpathorossicus Vladykov 1930, Rutilus rutilus caspicus geoktshaicus Barach 1941, Rutilus rutilus caspicus knipowitschi Pravdin 1927, Rutilus rutilus caspicus kurensis Berg 1932, Rutilus rutilus caspicus tscharchalensis Berg 1932, Rutilus rutilus frici Misik 1957, Rutilus rutilus goplensis Stangenberg 1938, Rutilus rutilus lacustris menschikowi Kirillov 1962, Rutilus rutilus lacustris Pallas 1814, Rutilus rutilus mariza Drensky 1926, Rutilus rutilus rutilus L., Rutilus rutilus schelkovnikovi Derjavin 1926, Rutilus rutilus sucharensis Stangenberg 1938, Rutilus rutilus uzboicus Berg 1932, Rutilus rutilus vegariticus Stephanidis 1950, Rutilus vegariticus Stephanidis 1950, Leuciscus rutilus daugawensis Dybowski 1862
86. Sabella spallanzanii (annelid)
Sabella spallanzanii (the European fan worm) is a filter-feeding tube worm which has the potential to alter native marine ecosystems and compete with native organisms for food and space. It may also inflict economic damage by competing with mussels and oysters in aquaculture farms.
Common Names: European fan worm, giant fan worm, Mediterranean fan worm, sabellid fan worm
Synonyms: Spirographis penicillus , Spirographis spallanzanii
87. Sagina procumbens (herb) English     
Sagina procumbens is a herb native to Eurasia and North Africa. It has become naturalised in temperate regions and is invasive in some sub-Antarctic islands. It forms dense mats, threatening the integrity of terrestrial ecosystems. Once it becomes established it can be difficult to eradicate due to its persistence in the seed bank.
Common Names: beads, birdeye pearlwort, birdseye, birdseye pearlwort, mossy pearlwort, pearlwort, procumbent pearlwort, spreading pearlwort
88. Sagittaria sagittifolia (aquatic plant) English     
Sagittaria sagittifolia is a very hardy aquatic plant that has become a general nuisance in the crops' irrigation systems, drains and waterways around the globe.
Common Names: arrowhead, chieh ku, chien tao ts'ao, espadana , flecha de agua , flèche d'eau, giant arrowhead, Hawaii arrowhead, old world arrowhead , pai ti li, Pfeilkraut , pijlkruid, saeta de agua , sagitária , shui p'Ing, suokiu, t'zu ku , wapatoo, yen wei ts'ao
Synonyms: Sagittaria sagittifolia var. edulis Siebold ex Miq. , Sagittaria sagittifolia var. leucopetala Miq. , Sagittaria sinensis Sims , Sagittaria trifolia L., Sagittaria trifolia var. edulis (Siebold ex Miq.) , Sagittaria trifolia var. sinensis (Sims) Makino , Sagittaria japonica (Hort.)
89. Salix cinerea (tree, shrub) English     
Salix cinerea can be classified as a shrub or small tree. It has become particularly invasive in the Australasian-Pacific region where it is extremely hardy and tolerant of a wide range of soils and habitats, including areas that were previously uninhabited. Salix cinerea will obstruct and divert streams, invading shallow water by the layering of branches and toppling of over-mature, live stems. Displacement of native vegetation occurs with a loss of biodiversity, and reduction in the quantity and quality. The root system can modify banks and streams, eliminating niches for a variety of organisms.
Common Names: asch Weide , graa pil , Grau Weide , gray sallow, gray willow, pussy willow, salice cerognolo , saule cendré , wierzba szara
Synonyms: Salix acuminata Mill., Salix aquatica Sm., Salix cinerea f. tricolor Dippel
90. Salmo salar (fish) English  français   
Salmo salar ranks among the most popularly cultivated fish in the world. Commercial stocks have inflicted significant impacts of wild populations of wild salmon and other fish by way of competition, hybridization, and spread of disease. Great care should be taken to protect these wild fish populations while cultivating S. salar.
Common Names: alabalik atlantik, Amerikanskiy atlanticheskiy losos', Atlanterhavslaks, Atlantic salmon , Atlantic salmon, Atlantischer salmon, Atlantisk laks, black salmon, bradan, braddan, breeder, caplin-scull salmon, common atlantic salmon, echter lachs, fiddler, grayling, grilse, grilt, gullspångslax, hengst, hoplax, Ijle zalm, Jacobzalm, kapisalirksoak, kapisilik, kavisilik, kebleriksorsoak, kelt, kumaliq, kutenut lohi, k'wit'thet, k'wolexw, lachs, laks, laks, laks atlantisk, landlocked salmon, las, lax, lax, lax, lohi, losos, losos, losos, losos atlantsky, losos obecný, losos szlachetny a. atlantycki, N. Atlantic salmon, nedfaldslaks, ouananiche, ouinanish, outside salmon, parr, saama, saamakutaak, saamarug, sake masu-rui, salmao, salmão, salmâo-do-atlântico, sãlmao-do-atlântico, salmling, salmo, salmó, salmon, salmón, salmón del atlántico, salmon peel, salmone, salmone atlantico, salmone del reno, sâma, saumon atlantique , saumon d'eau douce, schaanexw, sea salmon, sebago salmon, semga, shamet skelex, shmexwalsh, silver salmon, sináech, skællaks, sk'wel'eng's schaanexw, slhop' schaanexw, slink, smolt, solomos, solomós, somon de atlantic, spak'ws schaanexw, spring fish, spring salmon, st'thkway', tacon atlantique, unaniche, vraklax, winnish, zalm
Synonyms: Salmo brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo caerulescens Schmidt, 1795, Salmo goedenii Bloch, 1784, Salmo gracilis Couch, 1865, Salmo hamatus Cuvier, 1829, Salmo hardinii Günther, 1866, Salmo nobilis Olafsen, 1772, Salmo nobilis Pallas, 1814, Salmo ocla Nilsson, 1832, Salmo renatus Lacepède, 1803, Salmo rilla Lacepède, 1803, Salmo salar biennis Berg, 1912, Salmo salar brevipes relictus Berg, 1932, Salmo salar brevipes Smitt, 1882, Salmo salar europaeus Payne, Child & Forrest, 1971, Salmo salar saimensis Seppovaara, 1962, Salmo salar lacustris Hardin, 1862, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo salmo Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo salmulus Walbaum, 1792, Trutta relicta Malmgren, 1863, Trutta salar (Linnaeus, 1758)
91. Salmo trutta (fish) English  français     
Salmo trutta has been introduced around the world for aquaculture and stocked for sport fisheries. It is blamed for reducing native fish populations, especially other salmonids, through predation, displacement and food competition. It is a popular angling fish.
Common Names: an breac geal, aure, bachforelle, blacktail, breac geal, brook trout, brown trout, denizalabaligi, denizalasi, Europäische Forelle, finnock, forelle, galway sea trout, gillaroo, gwyniedyn, havørred, havsöring, herling, hirling, kumzha, k'wsech, lachförch, lachsforelle, lassföhren, losos taimen, losos' taimen, mahiazad-e-daryaye khazar, meerforelle, meritaimen, morska postrv, morskaya forel', orange fin, öring, orkney sea trout, ørred, ørret, pastrav de mare, peal, pstruh morsky, pstruh obecný, pstruh obecný severomorský, pstruh obycajný, salmo trota, salmon trout, sea trout, sewin, siwin, sjøaure, sjøørret, sjourrioi, taimen, thalasopestrofa, troc, troc wedrowna, trota fario, trout, trucha, trucha común, trucha marina, truita, truite brune, truite brune de mer, truite de mer, truite d'europe, truta marisca, truta-de-lago, truta-fário, truta-marisca, urriði, whiting, whitling, zeeforel
Synonyms: Fario argenteus Valenciennes, 1848, Salar ausonii parcepunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii semipunctata Heckel & Kner, 1858, Salar ausonii Valenciennes, 1848, Salar bailloni Valenciennes, 1848, Salar gaimardi Valenciennes, 1848, Salar spectabilis Valenciennes, 1848, Salmo albus Bonnaterre, 1788, Salmo albus Walbaum, 1792, Salmo brachypoma Günther, 1866, Salmo caecifer Parnell, 1838, Salmo cambricus Donovan, 1806, Salmo caspius Kessler, 1877, Salmo cornubiensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo cumberland Lacepède, 1803, Salmo eriox Linnaeus, 1758, Salmo fario loensis Walbaum, 1792, Salmo fario major Walecki, 1863, Salmo gadoides Lacepède, 1803, Salmo gallivensis Günther, 1866, Salmo islayensis Thomson, 1873, Salmo lacustris septentrionalis Fatio, 1890, Salmo levenensis Yarrell, 1839, Salmo mistops Günther, 1866 , Salmo montana Walker, 1812, Salmo orcadensis Günther, 1866, Salmo orientalis McClelland, 1842, Salmo phinoc Shaw, 1804, Salmo polyosteus Günther, 1866, Salmo saxatilis Paula Schrank, 1798, Salmo spurius Pallas, 1814, Salmo stroemii Gmelin, 1788, Salmo sylvaticus Gmelin, 1788, Salmo taurinus Walker, 1812, Salmo trutta abanticus Tortonese, 1954, Salmo trutta ciscaucasicus Dorofeyeva, 1967, Salmo trutta ezenami (non Berg, 1948), Salmo trutta trutta Linnaeus, 1761, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1759, Trutta fluviatilis Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Duhamel, 1771, Trutta marina Moreau, 1881, Trutta salmanata Ström, 1784, Trutta salmonata Rutty, 1772
92. Salsola tragus (shrub) English     
Salsola tragus is an annual weed that begins life as a typical multiple branched bush but then takes on a spherical form. Once the spherical form is achieved the plant breaks at the soil line and becomes a tumbleweed which is blown by the wind, spreading thousands of seeds. It is abundant in semi-desert regions and is a typical plant of salty soils, where rainfall is not abundant. It infests range and semi-arid pasture lands as well as cropland, railroad, and highway rights of way, as well as vacant agricultural, residential and industrial areas. Salsola tragus is a road hazard, as tumbling plants can surprise drivers and cause traffic accidents. It is also responsible for allergic sensitisation in Europe and North America. It should be noted that nitrates and soluble oxalates accumulate in the plants photosynthetic parts at levels poisonous to sheep.
Common Names: ci sha peng, hari-hijikii, Russian tumbleweed, Russian-cactus, Russian-thistle, soude épineuse, soude roulante, spineless saltwort, tumbleweed, Ukraine Salzkraut
Synonyms: Salsola australis R. Br., Salsola iberica auct., Salsola kali auct. w. N. Amer., Salsola kali subsp. iberica (Sennen & Pau) Rilke, Salsola kali subsp. ruthenica (Iljin) Soó, Salsola kali subsp. tragus (L.) Nyman, Salsola kali var. tenuifolia Tausch, Salsola pestifer A. Nelson, Salsola ruthenica Iljin, Salsola tragus subsp. iberica Sennen & Pau
93. Scardinius erythrophthalmus (fish) English   
Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) are mainly herbivorous freshwater fish that are found throughout Eurasia. They have been introduced to a number of countries as a sport fish. Concerns have been raised about the effects of Scardinius erythrophthalmus on aquatic communities.
Common Names: about, almindelig Rudskalle, cervenica, cervenica obycajná, chervenoperka, deargan, gardí, gardon carpe, gardon de roche, gardon rouge, kizilkanat baligi, kokkinoftera, krasnoperka, lloska-ë, louzou, Meefischli, pearl roach, perlín ostrobrichý, perlin rudoploutvy, plate, platelle, platitsa, rdeceperka, redeye, rietvoorn, rosioara, rossard, rotengle, Rotfeder, rothfeden, rottle, rudd, rudskalle, Sarv, scardola, sergent, sorkh Baleh, sorkh Pareh, sorv, sørv, sorva, søv, suce-roseaux, Weißfisch, wzdrega, wzdrega a. krasnopiórka
Synonyms: Cyprinus caeruleus Yarrell, 1833, Cyprinus compressus Hollberg, 1822, Cyprinus erythrophthalmus Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinus erythrops Pallas, 1814, Cyprinus fuscus Vallot, 1837, Cyprinus scardula Nardo, 1827, Leuciscus apollonitis Richardson, 1857, Leuciscus erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758), Rutilus erythrophthalmus scardata (Bonaparte, 1837), Scardinius crocophthalmus Walecki, 1863, Scardinius dergle Heckel & Kner, 1858, Scardinius erithrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758), Scardinius eruthrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758), Scardinius erythrophthalmus achrus Stephanidis, 1950, Scardinius erythrophthalmus dojranensis Karan, 1924, Scardinius erythrophthalmus racovitzai Müller, 1958, Scardinius erythrophthalmus rutiloides Vladykov, 1931, Scardinius hesperidicus Bonaparte, 1845, Scardinius macrophthalmus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Scardinius platizza Heckel, 1845, Scardinius plotizza Heckel & Kner, 1858, Scardinius racovitzai Müller, 1958, Scardinius scardafa ohridana Vladyko & Petit, 1930, Scardinius scardafa (non Bonaparte, 1837)
94. Senecio viscosus (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Sticky groundsel, Senecio viscosus is considered a weed of wasteland, disturbed sites, especially open sandy or gravelly places. It is called sticky groundsel because of its numerous sticky hairs on stems, leaves, and flower heads.
Common Names: sticky groundsel, sticky ragwort
95. Senecio vulgaris (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common groundsel, Senecio vulgaris adapts readily to new environments, it has spread throughout temperate regions. Common groundsel is a weed of disturbed grounds, such as cultivated fields; it is a weed of forages, cereals, ornamentals, and vegetables. Where widespread it can suppress native grasses and forbs.
Common Names: cardo-morto, common groundsel, groundsel, old-man-in-the-spring
96. Setaria verticillata (grass) English     
Setaria verticillata is a native European grass, invading agricultural, urban, and other disturbed areas throughout North America, Central America, South America Africa, Asia, and the North and South Pacific. A problematic crop weed S. verticillata, has inflicted considerable environmental and economic costs, is known to adapt to local conditions rapidly, and has developed resistance to atrazine and other C 1/5 herbicides.
Common Names: almorejo, almorejo verticilado, alorejo, amor de hortelano, bristly foxtail, bur bristle grass, bur grass, capim-grama, carreig, cola de zorro, dukhain, fieno stellino, foxtail, hooked bristlegrass, kamala, khishin, kirpi dari, Kletten Borstenhirse, kolvhirs, Kransnaaldaar, lagartera, lossaig, mau‘ pilipili , milha-verticilada, oehoe, panico maggiore, panissola, pata de gallina, pega-pega, pega-saias, quam el-far, Quirl Bortenhirse, rabo de zorro, rough bristle grass, setaire verticillée, setaria spondyloti, whorled pigeon grass, Wirtel Borstenhirse, yah hang chnig-chok, zacate pegarropa, zaratsukienokorogusa
Synonyms: Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) (Scribn.), Ixophorus verticillatus (L.) (Nash, 1859), Panicum adhaerens (Forssk., 1775), Panicum aparine (Steud., 1854) , Panicum asperum (Lamk., 1778), Panicum respiciens (A. Rich., 1854), Panicum rottleri (Nees, 1841) , Panicum verticillatum (L., 1762), Panicum verticillatum L., Pennisetum respiciens (A. Rich., 1851) , Pennisetum verticillatum (L.) (Nash, 1817), Pennisetum verticillatum R. Br., Setaria adhaerens (Forssk., 1919), Setaria ambigua (Guss.), Setaria aparine (Stued. 1912), Setaria carnei (A.S. Hitchc.), Setaria nubica (Link), Setaria respiciens (A. Rich, 1852), Setaria verticillformis (Dumort.), Setaria virdis (Terracc., 1894)
97. Sirex noctilio (insect)
Sirex noctilio (or Sirex woodwasp) is a high risk invasive species native to Europe and parts of Asia that has proven devastating to many commercial pine plantations, with mortality rates as high as 80%. It is capable of inflicting billions of dollars in damages. International, national and state agencies have conducted much research on Sirex noctilio and remain focused on its control and containment.
Common Names: avispa barrenadora de los pinos, avispa taladradora de la madera, Blaue Fichten, European woodwasp, Holzwespe, horntail, sartfottreveps , sirex, Sirex wasp, Sirex woodwasp, sortfodet træhveps , steel blue, steel-blue, svartfotad vedstekel, vespa-da-madeira, wood wasp, woodwasp
98. Sparus aurata (fish)
Gilthead bream (Sparus aurata) is a fish of Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean origin. It is one of the most important fish in the aquaculture industry in the Mediterranean. However the rapid development of marine cage culture of this fish has raised concerns about the impact of escaped fish on the genetic diversity of natural populations.
Common Names: cipura, cipura, daurade, daurade royale, dinigla, dorada, dorada, dorade, Dorade, Dorade Royal, dorade royale, dourada, dourada, Gemeine Goldbrasse, gilt head, gilt head bream, gilthead, gilthead bream, gilt-head seabream, Goldbrasse, goldbrassen, Goldkopf, goud brasem, goudbrasem, guldbrasen, komarca, kultaotsa-ahven, lovrata, n'tad, orada, orada, ovrata, podlanica, silver seabream, snapper, tsipoura, væbnerfisk
Synonyms: Aurata aurata (Linnaeus, 1758), Chrysophrys aurata (Linnaeus, 1758) , Chrysophrys aurathus (Linnaeus, 1758), Chrysophrys auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Chrysophrys crassirostris Valenciennes, 1830, Pagrus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758), Pagrus auratus (non Forster, 1801), Sparus auratus Linnaeus, 1758
99. Streptopelia decaocto (bird) English  français 
The Eurasian collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) is an extremely successful invader capable of phenomenal range expansion despite geographic barriers. In Europe, it spread from Turkey and the Balkans colonizing almost every country in Western Europe in a matter of 30 years, becoming viable breeders within two years of invasion. Believed introduced to the West Indies by accidental release of a pet trader in 1974, Eurasian collared-doves have spread throughout the Caribbean. In the early 1980's they invaded Florida and quickly established localities throughout the southeastern United States. Researchers cite factors such as genetic mutation, keen adaptation to human-dominated environments, and high reproductive potential as possible explanations for their abundant range expansion. Negative impacts include competition with endemic birds and potential disease transmission.
Common Names: Balkáni gerle, collared dove, Eurasian collared-dove, Indian ring-dove, Kolchataya Gorlitsa, Rola-turca, Sierpówka, Tórtola turca, Tortora dal collare, Tourterelle turque, Turkduva, Türkentaube, Turkinkyyhky, Turkse Tortel, Tyrkerdue
Synonyms: Columba risoria decaocto
100. Tinca tinca (fish) English   
Tench (Tinca tinca) are a widespread species of freshwater fish native to temperate Europe and Asia. Popular as an angling species, they have been introduced to a number of countries as a sport fish. Their omnivorous diet and tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions has lead to some countries labelling tench an invasive species, due to concerns over competition with native fish.
Common Names: aiguillon, aiguillons, alia, beurote, compó, curaman, doctor-fish, glini, glínia, green tench, grunnungur, kadife baligi, laaymahi, lai mahi, lien, lien obycajný, lin, lín obecný, lindare, linë, linj, naji, Schlei, Schleie, Schleie, Schleie, Schleie, Schlien, seelt, sgreten, Slia, suder, sudre, sutare, suter, suutari, tanch, Tanche, tanche, Tanche, Tanche, tanche de Mongolie, tancho, tenca, tench, tenco, tilkhos, tinca, tinche, yesil sazan, zeelt
Synonyms: Cyprinus tinca auratus Bloch, 1782, Cyprinus tinca Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinus tincaauratus Bloch, 1782, Cyprinus tincauratus Lacepède, 1803, Cyprinus tincaurea Shaw, 1804, Cyprinus zeelt Lacepède, 1803, Tinca aurea Gmelin, 1788, Tinca chrysitis Fitzinger, 1832, Tinca communis Swainson, 1839, Tinca italica Bonaparte, 1836, Tinca limosa Koch, 1840, Tinca linnei Malm, 1877, Tinca vulgaris cestellae Segre, 1904, Tinca vulgaris maculata Costa, 1838, Tinca vulgaris Fleming, 1828, Tinca vulgaris non Valenciennes, 1842
101. Tomicus piniperda (insect)
The international movement of non-native forest insects is a threat to forest sustainability worldwide. Tomicus species (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) are important pests of pine forest in Eurasia, Europe and the Mediterranean, with the common pine shoot beetle (Tomicus piniperda) reported to be the second most destructive shoot-feeding species in Europe. Unlike deciduous trees, which can easily replace their foliage soon after defoliation, conifers are not able to replace their foliage as readily. As such, Tomicus piniperda can permanently destroy the shoots and severely hinder the development of new foliage.
Common Names: common pine shoot beetle, larger pine shoot beetle, pine shoot beetle , PSB
102. Trapa natans (aquatic plant) English     
Trapa natans, commomly known as water chestnut, is an annual plant introduced from Asia and has become abundant in the northeastern United States where it creates a nuisance in lakes, ponds, canals and other slow-moving water. Trapa natans grows best in shallow, nutrient-rich lakes and rivers and is generally found in waters with a pH range of 6.7 to 8.2 and alkalinity of 12 to 128 mg/L of calcium carbonate. Trapa natans out-competes native plants for sunlight and spreads either by the rosettes detaching from their stems and floating to another area, or more often by the nuts being swept by currents or waves to other parts of the lake or river.
Common Names: bull nut, European water chestnut, water chestnut, water nut
103. Trifolium dubium (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Trifolium dubium is an annual legume that naturally occurs over most of Europe. T. dubium prefers higher altitude biomes, such as the areas it is found in both Australia and New Zealand. It has been introduced world-wide as a soil improver and forage crop.
Common Names: hop clover, lesser trefoil, low hop clover, shamrock, smallhop clover, suckling clover, yellow clover
Synonyms: Chrysaspis dubia (Sibth.) Desv., Trifolium filiforme var. dubium (Sibth.) Fiori, Trifolium minus Sm. , Trifolium parviflorum Bunge ex Nyman
104. Trifolium repens (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Trifolium repens is a perennial legume that originated in Europe/East Asia and has become one of the most widely distributed legumes in the world. It has naturalized in most of North America, Central and South America, Australia and New Zealand.
Common Names: dutch clover, ladino clover, ladino white clover, trébol blanco , trèfle blanc , trèfle rampant , trevo-branco , Weißklee, white clover, white dutch clover
Synonyms: Amoria repens (L.) C. Presl , Trifolium biasolettii Steud. & Hochst., Trifolium macrorrhizum Boiss. , Trifolium occidentale Coombe , Trifolium repens L. var. nigricans G. Don, Trifolium repens L. var. repens, Trifolium repens var. atropurpureum hort. , Trifolium repens var. biasolettii , Trifolium repens var. giganteum, Trifolium repens var. latum , Trifolium repens var. macrorrhizum, Trifolium repens var. pallescens, Trifolium repens var. rubescens hort.
105. Tussilago farfara (herb) English     
Tussilago farfara is a perennial herb which spreads mainly through underground rhizomes. During the summer, food is stored in the rhizomes for the following year's early spring growth. Tussilago farfara thrives on gravelly soil and along roadsides. There are management strategies available to combat Tussilago farfara, but if left unchecked it can take over an entire field. It is best to stop Tussilago farfara before it spreads as controlling it once it has become established is difficult. It is believed that Tussilago farfara has some medical benefits.
Common Names: assfoot, British tobacco, bull's-foot, clayweed, cleats, colt-herb, coltsfoot, coughwort, dove-dock, dummyweed, Foalfoot, ginger, gingerroot, gowan, hoofs, horsefoot, horsehoof, kuan dong, pas- d'âne, sowfoot, tussilage , tussilage pas-d'âne
106. Typha latifolia (aquatic plant) English     
Typha latifolia (cattails) are among the most common of all aquatic plants. They are often a nuisance but also perform an important function in keeping a lake healthy by filtering the runoffs. Typha latifolia form dense monocultures when there is a wetland disturbance. They can reach up to 2 or 3 metres and grow prolifically from thick underground rhizomes, forming dense rhizome mats and litter which has an impact on species diversity by alteration of habitat. Dense Typha latifolia growth and litter may reduce the opportunity for other plants to establish or survive.
Common Names: broadleaf cattail , broad-leaf cattail , cattail , cattail (common) , common cattail , Cooper's reed, cumbungi, espadaña común, giant reed-mace, great cattail , piriope, roseau des étangs , soft flag, tabua-larga, totora, tule espidilla
107. Ulex europaeus (tree, shrub) English  français     
Ulex europaeus is a spiny, perennial, evergreen shrub that grows in dense and impenetrable thickets which exclude grazing animals. It is common in disturbed areas, grasslands, shrublands, forest margins, coastal habitats and waste places. Ulex europaeus is a very successful and tenacious plant once it becomes established and is extremely competitive, displacing cultivated and native plants, and altering soil conditions by fixing nitrogen and acidifying the soil. It creates an extreme fire hazard due to abundant dead material and its oily, highly flammable foliage and seeds. Soil is often bare between individual plants, which increases erosion on steep slopes where Ulex europaeus has replaced grasses or forbs. Spiny and mostly unpalatable when mature, Ulex europaeus reduces pasture quality where it invades rangeland. Ulex europaeus understorey in cultivated forests interferes with operations; increasing pruning and thinning costs and can interfere with the growth of conifer seedlings.
Common Names: ajonc, ajonc d'Europe, bois jonc, chacay, furze, Gaspeldoorn, genêt, Ginestra spinosa, gorse, jonc marin, kolcolist zachodni, picapica, Stechginster, Tojo, vigneau, vIrish furze, whin, zépinard des hauts
108. Verbascum thapsus (herb) English     
Verbascum thapsus is an erect herb in the family Scrophulariaceae. It is found in neglected meadows and pasture lands, along fencerows and roadsides. It can produce 100,000-180,000 seeds per individual plant and seeds may remain viable for over 100 years. Verbascum thapsus threatens natural meadows and forest openings, where it adapts easily to a wide variety of site conditions and an established population can be extremely difficult to eradicate. Verbascum thapsus was once used as a herbal remedy for bronchitis, colds and congestion.
Common Names: Aaron's-rod , barbasco, big taper , bouillon blanc, common mullein , flannel mullein , flannel plant , flannelleaf , gordolobo comun, great mullein , guardalobo, hag taper , molène, mullein , torches , velvet dock , velvet plant , verbasco, woolly mullein
109. Veronica serpyllifolia ssp. serpyllifolia (herb)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Common Names: ko-tengu-kuwagata, thymeleaf speedwell
Synonyms: Veronica serpyllifolia L. var. nummularioides Lecoq & Lamotte, Veronica serpyllifolia var. nummularioides Lecoq. & Lamotte, Veronicastrum serpyllifolium (L.) Fourr.
110. Vulpia bromoides (grass)
         Interim profile, incomplete information
Vulpia bromoides Is an annual weed of native grasslands and pastures in temperate climates of both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. Weedy annual grasses can reduce biodiversity on native grasslands, impede their restoration, and alter ecosystem processes. As a pasture weed, V. bromoides reduces productivity of grasslands; it has low palatability, and its seeds can damage hides and fleece of grazing animals. It readily invade wherever disturbance occurs. Integrated management which combines pasture rest, herbicide treatment and fertilizer application is shown to reduce seed production and improve control.
Common Names: barren fescue, brome fescue, brome six-weeks grass , cevadinha-braba, desert fescue, festuca-cevadinha , pasto de sedilla , rat's tail fescue, silkygrass, silver grass, squirreltail fescue, vulpie faux brome
Synonyms: Bromus dertonensis All., Festuca bromoides L., Festuca dertonensis (All.) Asch. & Graebn., Vulpia dertonensis (All.) Gola

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland