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    48 references found for Achatina fulica:
    Management information
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 7 March 2008]

    2. Borrero, F.J., A.S.H. Breure, C.C. Christensen, M. Correoso & V.M. Avila. 2009. Into the Andes: Three new Introductions of Lissachatina fulica (Gastropoda, Achatinidae) and its Potential Distribution in South America, Tentacle 17.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 16 February 2010]

    4. Civeyrel, L. and Simberloff, D. 1996. A tale of two snails: is the cure worse than the disease? Biodiversity and Conservation 5: 1231-1252.
      Summary: A discussion of the introduction of predatory snails (notably Euglandina rosea), in putative attempts to control A. fulica. The devastating consequences on native land snail diversity, especially in the islands of the Pacific.

    5. Connor, R.A. 2007. The Case of Achatina fulica and its impact in Anguilla, In: Anguilla Invasive Species workshop report.

    6. Cooling, V. 2005. Risk Assessment of the Giant African Snail (Achatina fulica) Bowdich in New Zealand. LPSC 7700 Integrative Report. Unitec New Zealand (Unpublished Report)
      Summary: Discusses the conservation related impacts of the introduction of alien land and freshwater snails and slugs to the islands of the Pacific. Provides details of the main alien species of concern, identifies islands most at risk and islands on which to focus conservation efforts. Lists distribution details for all alien snails and slugs in the Pacific.

    8. Cowie, R. H. 2001. Can snails ever be effective and safe biocontrol agents?. International Journal of Pest Management 47: 23-40.
      Summary: Discusses the use of land and freshwater snails as biological control agents against other snails and against aquatic weeds. Recommends snails not be used for biocontrol.

    9. Craze, P.G. & J.R. Mauremootoo. 2002. A Test of Methods for Estimating Population Size of the Invasive Land Snail Achatina fulica in Dense Vegetation, Journal of Applied Ecology 39(4): 653-660.

    10. Desinfestação e Controle do Caramujo Africano. Undated.
      Summary: Text in Portuguese. Basic translation available.

    11. Hoddle, M.S. 2004. Restoring Balance: Using Exotic Species to Control Invasive Exotic Species, Conservation Biology 18(1): 38-49.
      Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.

    13. Mead, A. R. 1961. The giant African snail: a problem in economic malacology. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
      Summary: Major treatise on the worldwide spread of A. fulica, its impacts, and management.

    14. Mead, A. R. 1979. Pulmonates volume 2B. Economic malacology with particular reference to Achatina fulica. London, Academic Press.
      Summary: Update of Mead 1961.

    15. Meyer, W.M. & A.B. Shiels. 2009. Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Predation on Nonindigenous Snails in Hawai‘i: Complex Management Implications, Pacific Science 63(3): 339-347.

    16. Prasad, G.S., D.R. Singh, S. Senani & R.P. Medhi. 2004. Eco-friendly way to keep away pestiferous Giant African snail, Achatina fulica Bowdich from nursery beds, Current Science 87(12).

    17. Raut, S.K. & G.M. Barker. 2002. Achatina fulica Bowdich and Other Achatinidae as Pests in Tropical Agriculture. In: Barker (Ed.) Molluscs as Crop Pests. CABI.

    18. Simberloff, D.& L. Gibbons. 2004. Now you See them, Now you don't! – Population Crashes of Established Introduced Species, Journal Biological Invasions 6(2): 161-172.

    19. Thiengo, S.C., F.A. Faraco, N.C. Salgado, R.H. Cowie & M.A. Fernandez. 2007. Rapid spread of an invasive snail in South America: the giant African snail, Achatina fulica, in Brasil, Biol Invasions 9: 693-702.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 17 February 2010]
      Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from :, this page is available from: [Accessed 6 October 2006]

    General references

    22. Albuquerque, F.S., M.C. Peso-Aguiar, M.J.T. Assunção-Albuquerque. 2008. Distribution, feeding behavior and control strategies of the exotic land snail Achatina fulica (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in the northeast of Brazil, Braz. J. Biol. 68(4).

    23. Alicata, J.E. 1966. The presence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in islands of the Indian Ocean and probable role of the giant African snail, Achatina fulica in dispersal of the parasite to the Pacific Islands, Can. J. Zool. 44(6): 1041-1049.

    24. Callil, C. pers. comm. 2003. Re: [Aliens-L] economic effects of invasives (Email)

    25. Cowie, R.H. & A.C. Robinson. 2003. The decline of native Pacific island faunas: changes in status of the land snails of Samoa through the 20th century, Biological Conservation 110(1): 55-65.

    26. Cowie, R.H. & J.A. Grant-Mackie. 2004. Land Snail Fauna of Mé Auré Cave (WMD007), Moindou, New Caledonia: Human Introductions and Faunal Change, Pacific Science 58(3): 447.

    27. de Paiva Barcante, J.M., T.A. Barcante, S.R.C. Dias, W. dos Santos Lima. 2005. Occurrence of Achatina fulica Bowdich 1822 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Achatinoidea) in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, Bol. Mus. Biol. Mello Leitao (N. Ser.) 18: 65-70.

    28. de Vasconcellos, M.C. & E. Pile. 2001. Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, Rev. Saúde Pública 35(6).
      Summary: Synthèse sur la biodiversité des îles françaises d'outre-mer et les enjeux de conservation.
      Available from: [Accessed 26 March 2008]
      Summary: Consequences to the biodiversity of New Caledonia of the introduction of plant and animal species.

    31. Gerlach, J. 2001. Predator, prey and pathogen interactions in introduced snail populations, Animal Conservation 4: 203-209.

    32. Graeff-Teixeira, C. 2007. Expansion of Achatina fulica in Brazil and potential increased risk for Angiostrongyliasis, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101 (8): Pages 743-744.

    33. Griffiths, O. Florens, V. 2006. A field guide to the non-marine molluscs of the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Rodrigues and Réunion) and the Northern Dependencies of Mauritius. Bioculture Press, Mauritius
      Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
      Available from: [Accessed December 31 2004]

    35. Kekauoha, W. 1966. Life history and population studies of Achatina fulica. The Nautilus 80: 3-10, 39-46.
      Summary: Observations of fecundity, breeding season, growth rate, etc.

    36. Kliks, M.M., K. Kroenke & J.M. Hardman. 1982. Eosinophilic Radiculomyeloencephalitis: An Angiostrongyliasis Outbreak in American Samoa Related to Ingestion of Achatina fulica Snails, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 31 (6): 1114-1122.

    37. Louette, M. 1999. La faune terrestre de Mayotte. Annales du Musée Royal d'Afrique Centrales (Sciences Zoologiques), 284: 1-248
      Summary: Synthèse sur la faune terrestre de Mayotte

    38. Martinez-Escarbassiere, R., E.O. Martinez & O. Castillo. 2008. Geographic distribution of Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Bowdich, 1882) (Gastropoda- Stylommatophora-Achatinidae) in Venezuela, Memoria 68(169): 93-106.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 10 November 2009]

    41. Meyer, W.M., K.A. Hayes & A.L. Meyer. 2008. Giant African snail, Achatina fulica, as a snail predator, American Malacological Bulletin 24(1): 117-119.
      Summary: Base de données en ligne sur le patrimoine naturel français.
      Available from: [Accessed 26 March 2008]

    43. Neuhauss, E., M. Fitarelli, J. Romanzini & C. Graeff-Teixeira. 2007. Low susceptibility of Achatina fulica from Brazil to infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis and A. cantonensis, Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 102(1).

    44. Ohbayashi, T., I. Okochi, H. Sato, T. Ono & S. Chiba. 2007. Rapid decline of endemic snails in the Ogasawara Islands, Western Pacific Ocean, Appl. Entomol. Zool. 42(3): 479-485.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 9 March 2010]

    46. Simbiken, N. 2006. Personal Communication. Senior Entomologist, PNG Coffee Research Institute.
      Summary: Email communication from PestNet.

    47. Thiengo, S.C., M.A. Fernandeza, E.J.L. Torresb, P.M. Coelhoa & R.M. Lanfredib. 2008. First record of a nematode Metastrongyloidea (Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae) in Achatina (Lissachatina) fulica (Mollusca, Achatinidae) in Brazil, Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 98(1): 34-39.

    48. Vermeij, G.J. 2005. Invasion and evolution: Why do herbivorous and carnivorous land snails invade but not originate on islands?, American Malacological Bulletin 20(1-2).
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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland