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    49 references found for Dendroctonus valens:
    Management information
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]
      Summary: Abstract: The red turpentine bark beetle, Dendroctontus valens LeConte, is a native of North America and is distributed from Central America, Mexico, western US, Canada and northeastern US. Mostly dead or dying Pinus, Picea and Abies are hosts but unhealthy live trees are sometimes killed. Recently epidemic populations of this species have been discovered in Shaxi, Shaaxi, Hebei and Henan Provinces, China. So far over half million hectares of drought stressed, Pinus tabuliformis have been infested. Biology and ecology of the red turpentine bark beetle varies within its native range thus biological control (e.g. parasitoids and pheromones) must tailored to each population. Unknown origin(s) of the Chinese beetles hampers the implementation of biological control. This study uses a portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene as a molecular marker to identify potential origin(s), size and occurrence of introduction(s) to China. Thirty-four DNA haplotypes were observed among 65 D. valens individuals from eight western US populations and four haplotypes were found in China. Ten parsimony informative characters were observed among the haplotypes. Parsimony analysis resulted in 8800 trees and the strict consensus of these trees was mostly unresolved. These data and analysis do not pinpoint the exact origin of the infestation. However the results suggest that the likely origin is the Pacific Northwest of North America. Also the occurrence of multiple haplotypes in China suggests that the population did not derive from one ancestor. Either multiple families arrived with one introduction of infested wood or several introductions of infested wood occurred.
      Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    3. Erbilgin, N., S. R. Mori., J. H. Sun., J. D. Stein., D. R. Owen., L. D. Merrill., R. Campos Bolaños., K. F. Raffa., T. Méndez Montiel., D. L. Wood and N. E. Gillette., 2007. Response to Host Volatiles by Native and Introduced Populations of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America and China. Journal of Chemical Ecology. Volume 33, Number 1 / January, 2007

    4. Fettig, Christopher J.; Borys, Robert R.; McKelvey, Stephen R.; Dabney, Christopher P., 2008. Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest: bark beetle responses to differences in forest structure and the application of prescribed fire in interior ponderosa pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 38(5). MAY 2008. 924-935.
      Summary: Abstract: Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used tools in the restoration of fire-adapted forest ecosystems. However, few studies have explored their effects on subsequent amounts of bark beetle caused tree mortality in interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. & C. Laws. var. ponderosa. In this study, we examined bark beetle responses to creation of midseral (low diversity) and late-seral stages (high diversity) and the application of prescribed fire on 12 experimental units ranging in size from 76 to 136 ha. A total of 9500 (5.0% of all trees) Pinus and Abies trees died 2 years after treatment of which 28.8% (2733 trees) was attributed to bark beetle colonization. No significant difference in the mean percentage of trees colonized by bark beetles was found between low diversity and high diversity. The application of prescribed fire resulted in significant increases in bark beetle caused tree mortality (all species) and for western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Ips spp., and fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, individually. Approximately 85.6% (2339 trees) of all bark beetle caused tree mortality occurred on burned split plots. The implications of these and other results to sustainable forest management are discussed.

    5. Fettig, Christopher J.; Borys, Robert R; Dabney, Christopher P.; McKelvey, Stephen R.; Cluck, Daniel R.; Smith, Sheri L., 2005. Disruption of red turpentine beetle attraction to baited traps by the addition of California fivespined ips pheromone components. Canadian Entomologist. 137(6). NOV-DEC 2005. 748-752.
      Summary: Abstract: The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonits valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), is a common bark beetle species found throughout much of North America. In California, D. valens and the California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus Lanier (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), are sympatric and often colonize the same tree. In an unrelated study, we observed that I. paraconfusus attack densities in logging debris were inversely related to D. valens attacks on freshly cut stumps. In this study, we test the hypothesis that allomonal inhibition occurs between these two species. Components of the aggregation pheromone of I. paraconfusus (racemic ipsenol, (+)-ipsdienol, and (-)-cis-verbenol) inhibited the response of D. valens to attractant-baited traps. Substitution of racemic ipsdienol for (+)-ipsdienol did not alter this effect. Doubling the release rate did not enhance inhibition. Racemic ipsdienol was not attractive to I. paraconfusus. Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, 1843) (Coleoptera: Trogositidae), a common bark beetle predator, was attracted to the I. paraconfusus aggregation pheromone. These results could have important implications for the development of an effective semiochemical-based management tool for D. valens.

    6. Fettig, Christopher J.; Dabney, Christopher P.; McKelvey, Stephen R.; Huber, Dezene P. W., 2008. Nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone protect individual ponderosa pines from attack by western pine beetle and red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera : Curculioniclae, Scolytinae). Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 23(1). JAN 2008. 40-45.
      Summary: Abstract: Nonhost angiosperm volatiles (NAV) and verbenone were tested for their ability to protect individual ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderoso Dougl. ex. Laws., from attack by western pine beetle (M), Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, and red turpentine beetle (M), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculioniclae, Scolytinae). A combination of (-)-verbenone and eight NAVs [benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, guaiacol, nonanal, salicylaldehyde, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol] (NAVV) significantly reduced the density of WPB attacks and WPB successful attacks on attractant-baited trees. A significantly higher percentage of pitchouts (unsuccessful WPB attacks) occurred on NAVV-treated trees during two of three sample dates. In addition, significantly fewer RTB attacks were observed on NAVV-treated trees during all sampling dates. The application of NAVV to individual ponderosa pines significantly reduced tree mortality, with only 4 of 30 attractant-baited trees dying from hark beetle attack while 50% mortality (15/30) was observed in the untreated, baited control. To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing the effectiveness of NAVs and verbenone for protecting individual ponderosa pines from WPB attack.

    7. Gillette, Nancy E., John D . Stein., Donald R . Owen., Jeffrey N . Webster., Gary O . Fiddler., Sylvia R . Mori and David L . Wood., 2006. Verbenone-releasing flakes protect individual Pinus contorta trees from attack by Dendroctonus ponderosae and Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) Agricultural and Forest Entomology (2006) 8, 243–251

    8. Joseph, Gladwin., Rick G. Kelsey., Robert W. Peck and Chris G. Niwa., 2001. Responses of some scolytids and ther predators to Ethanol and 4-Allylanisole in Pine forests of Central Oregon. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2001

    9. Liu HaiJun, Luo YouQing, Wen JunBao, Zhang ZhiMing, Feng JiHua, Tao WanQiang., 2005. Pest risk assessment of Dendroctonus valens, Hyphantria cunea and Apriona swainsoni in Beijing area. Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 2005 (Vol. 27) (No. 2) 81-87
      Summary: Abstract: According to the international methods of pest risk analysis and characteristics of urban forestry in Beijing, a quantitative risk assessment system in Beijing for the main non-indigenous pests was proposed. This system was used to analyze three non-indigenous species, Dendroctonus valens, Hyphantria cunea and Apriona swainsoni. The results show that the risk of these three species in the Beijing area is 2.46, 2.30 and 2.02, all highly risky. Based on the result and extensive risk communications combined with the management experience of the Beijing Forest Protection Station, the authors proposed that effective control measures are adopted to prevent these three pests from entering Beijing area.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    11. Liu, Zhudong; Zhang, Longwa; Sun, Jianghua., 2006. Attacking behavior and behavioral responses to dust volatiles from holes bored by the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera : Scolytidae). Environmental Entomology. 35(4). AUG 2006. 1030-1036.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    13. Miao ZhenWang, Zhang ZhongNing, Wang PeiXin, Guo YuYong, Sun JiangHua., 2004. Response of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to host semiochemicals and its implication in management. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 2004 (Vol. 47) (No. 3) 360-364
      Summary: Abstract: The red turpentine beetle (RTB), D. valens, an invasive pest from the United States became a major forest pest in its invading areas since its first outbreak in Shanxi Province, China in 1999. As an exotic pest, effective detection and monitoring is top priority in containing its further damage. The response of RTB to its host semiochemicals was explored in Shanxi Province using Lindgren funnel trap. The results indicated that 3-carene was found to be the most attractive host monoterpene tested, and it attracted significantly more beetles than did any other single or ternary blend, which was distinctly different from the previous reports conducted in its native range, west coast of the United States. The mechanism for this regional variation of RTB response to host volatiles was discussed. Increase of (-)-ß-pinene did not result in any increase of beetles trapped while adding limonene which is another main component in volatile profile of Pinus tabulaeformis, to the standard lure used in North America (a 1:1:1 blend of (+)-a-pinene, (-)-ß-pinene, and 3-carene) significantly decreased RTB response. The effect of release rate on RTB response was tested by using the standard blend at 110 mg/day, 150 mg/day, 180 mg/day and 210 mg/day, and 150 mg/day was found to be the most optimum release rate for RTB in terms of both attractiveness and economic efficiency. Thus, this effective RTB lure can be used in RTB monitoring and control.

    14. Raffa, K. F & Smalley E. B., 1988. Host resistance to invasion by lower stem and root infesting insects of pine: response to controlled inoculations with the fungal associate Leptographium terebrantis. Canadian journal of forest research. 1988, vol. 18, no6, pp. 675-681 (3 p.)
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    16. Rappaport, Nancy Gillette, Donald R. Owen and John D. Stein. 2001. Interruption of Semiochemical-Mediated Attraction of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Selected Nontarget Insects by Verbenone. Environmental Entomology Article: pp. 837–841

    17. Schweigkofler, Wolfgang; Otrosina, William J.; Smith, Sheri L.; Cluck, Daniel R.; Maeda, Kevin; Peay, Kabir G.; Garbelotto, Matteo., 2005. Detection and quantification of Leptographium wageneri, the cause of black-stain root disease, from bark beetles (Coleoptera : Scolytidae) in Northern California using regular and real-time PCR. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 35(8). AUG 2005. 1798-1808.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    20. Sun, Jianghua., Zhengwan Miao., Zhen Zhang., Zhongning Zhang and Nancy Gillette., 2004. Red Turpentine Beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Response to Host Semiochemicals in China. Environmental Entomology Volume 33, Issue 2 (April 2004) pp. 206–212
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    22. Wallin, Kimberly F.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Skov, Kjerstin R.; Wagner, Michael., 2008. Forest management treatments, tree resistance, and bark beetle resource utilization in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona. Forest Ecology & Management. 255(8-9). MAY 15 2008. 3263-3269

    23. Zhang, Longwa., Jianghua Sun., and Stephen R. Clarke., 2006. Effects of Verbenone Dose and Enantiomer on the Interruption of Response of the Red Turpentine Beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to Its Kariomones. Environmental Entomology Volume 35, Issue 3 (June 2006)

    24. Zhang, Long-wa; Gillette, Nancy E.; Sun, Jiang-hua., 2007. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Dendroctonus valens to non-host volatiles. Annals of Forest Science. 64(3). APR-MAY 2007. 267-273.
      Summary: Abstract: Non-host volatiles (NHVs) that are often reported as being disruptive to coniferophagous bark beetles were tested for both electrophysiological and behavioral effects on the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), which was accidentally introduced into China in the mid-1980' s. All NHVs tested elicited dose-dependent antennal responses by D. valens. In Y-tube olfactometer trials, D. valens were repelled by NHVs tested. When NHVs were added to a kairomone blend, responses of D. valens were significantly inhibited. Further field trapping experiments showed that attraction of D. valens to kairomone baited traps was reduced by all individual NHVs, with reductions ranging from 26.3 to 70%. 1-Octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were the three most effective NHVs, significantly reducing D. valens to kairomone-baited traps by 69.5, 68.3 and 66.0%, respectively. In the development and implementation of a semiochemical-based management programme for D. valens, NHVs may have considerable potential for disrupting the beetle's ability to locate suitable hosts.

    General references

    25. Byers, J.A. 1995. Host tree chemistry affecting colonization in bark beetles, in R.T. Cardé and W.J. Bell (eds.). Chemical Ecology of Insects 2. Chapman and Hall, New York, pp. 154-213.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    27. Cai, Yan-Wen., Xin-Yue Cheng., Ru-Mei Xu., Dong-Hong Duan., Lawrence R. Kirkendall., 2008. Genetic diversity and biogeography of red turpentine beetle Dendroctonus valens in its native and invasive regions. Insect Science Volume 15 Issue 4 , Pages 291 - 380 (August 2008) (p 291-301).
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    29. Cognato, Anthony, I., Jiang-Hua Sun, Miguel A. Anducho-Reyes and Donald R. Owen., 2005 Genetic variation and origin of red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens LeConte) introduced to the People's Republic of China. Agricultural and Forest Entomology Volume 7 Issue 1, Pages 87 - 94

    30. Erbilgin, Nadir & Kenneth F. Raffa., 2002. Association of declining red pine stands with reduced populations of bark beetle predators, seasonal increases in root colonizing insects, and incidence of root pathogens. Volume 164, Issues 1-3, Pages 1-311 (1 July 2002) Pages 221-236

    31. Gao, B.; Wen, X; Guan, H.; Knizek, M.; Zdarek, J., 2005. Distribution and attack behaviour of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, recently introduced to China. Journal of Forest Science (Prague). 51(4). APR 05. 155-160.
      Summary: Abstract: The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was found for the first time in China in Yangcheng and Xinshui counties, Shanxi province in 1998, and in Hebei province in 1999. The beetle mostly attacks the oil pine Pinus tabulaeformis Carriere. By 2003 the beetle was found in 85 counties of three provinces in north China and the area of infested pine forests covered more than 700,000 ha. The elevation above sea level of forests infested is more than 800 m. The beetles most frequently attack trees on hilltops and at the forest edge, fewer attacks occur in the centre of the stand. This correlates with the damage done to the trees by wind or man. Weak and dying trees are more vulnerable to attack than healthy ones. The most attractive breeding sites are fresh stumps. The population density of the beetles is higher in the forests on northern slopes than on southern slopes. Most of the bores in the trunk are less than 0.5 m above ground; the galleries are found also on roots.
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    33. Hoebeke, E. Richard., 1994. New records of immigrant bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in New York: Attraction of conifer-feeding species to ethanol-baited trap logs. Entomological News. 105(5). 1994. 267-276
      Summary: Abstract: A 1993 survey for the recently detected pine shoot beetle, Tomicus piniperda, in New York, conducted by Division of Plant Industry field personnel, New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets, has yielded specimens of two other non-indigenous bark beetles (Scolytidae). Trap logs of Pinus sylvestris and P. resinosa, baited with 95% ethanol, were placed at 100 sites across New York state, particularly in high risk areas. Pine shoot beetle was collected at 12 sites in 5 counties of western New York. Pityogenes bidentatus, a Palearctic species first detected in North America in New York in 1989, was trapped at two new localities in western New York. The European Hylastes opacus, known previously in North America from a single locality on Long Island, New York, was trapped at 32 sites in 22 counties throughout the state. Localities for all new records are listed and plotted on distribution maps. North American interception records, native distribution, economic importance, and diagnostic features for H. opacus are provided, and an existing key to North American Hylastes is modified to include this new adventive member of the fauna, Data on relative abundance are provided for other species of conifer-feeding bark beetles that were trapped, which included: Dendroctonus erebrans, Dendroctonus valens, Dryocoetes autographus, Gnathotrichus materiarius, Hylastes porculus, Hylurgops rugipennis pinifex, Ips grandicollis, Ips pini, Orthotomicus caelatus, Pityophthorus sp. prob. puberulus, and Polygraphus rufipennis.
      Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
      Available from: [Accessed 14 November 2008]

    35. Klepzig, Kier D.; Smalley, Eugene B.; Raffa, Kenneth F., 1995. Dendroctonus valens and Hylastes porculus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae): Vectors of pathogenic fungi (Ophiostomatales) associated with red pine decline disease. Great Lakes Entomologist. 28(1). 1995. 81-87.
      Summary: Abstract: A study was conducted to determine whether Dendroctonus valens and Hylastes porculus could vector their commonly associated fungi to red pine. Field collected adult D. valens transmitted Leptographium terebrantis, Leptographium procerum and Ophiostoma ips into 45%, 30%, and 5%, respectively of the wounded red pine roots onto which they were caged. Field collected H. porculus transmitted L. terebrantis, L. procerum and O. ips into 55%, 40%, and 5%, respectively, of the wounded red pine roots onto which beetles were caged. None of the control roots, which were mechanically wounded only, were found to contain O. ips, whereas only one control root contained L. terebrantis and only one control root contained L. procerum. This work demonstrates that D. valens and H. porculus can vector their associated Leptographium fungi to red pine trees ana that these organisms are likely involved in red pine decline disease.

    36. Liu, Zhudong; Zhang, Longwa; Shi, Zhanghong; Wang, Bo; Tao, Wan Qiang; Sun, Jiang-hua., 2008. Colonization patterns of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the Luliang Mountains, China. Insect Science, Volume 15, Number 4, August 2008 , pp. 349-354(6)

    37. Morehouse, K.; Johns, T.; Kaye, J.; Kaye, A., 2008. Carbon and nitrogen cycling immediately following bark beetle outbreaks in southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Forest Ecology & Management. 255(7). APR 20 2008. 2698-2708.

    38. Nowak, David J. and Joe R. McBride., 1992. Differences in Monterey pine pest populations in urban and natural forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 50 (1992) 133-144.

    39. Owen, D.R.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R., Jr. 2005. Association between Dendroctonus valens and black stain root disease on ponderosa pine in the Sierra Nevada of California. Canadian Entomologist. 137: 367-375.
      Summary: Abstract: The host-colonization behavior of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was investigated in stands of ponderosa pine,Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson (Pinaceae), with black stain root disease in the central Sierra Nevada of California. By felling live trees, we found that trees with pitch tubes produced during the initiation of tunneling by D. valens had a significantly higher incidence of black stain root disease, caused by Leptographium wageneri var. ponderosum (Harrington et Cobb), than trees without pitch tubes. Trees with the most D. valens pitch tubes had the greatest likelihood of being diseased. Additionally, observations over a 3-year period revealed that trees with D. valens pitch tubes had a significantly higher mortality rate than trees without pitch tubes. Infection by L. wageneri was confirmed for most of the trees that died, and death typically did not occur without mass attacks by the western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, and (or) the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae Hopkins. Trees with the most D. valens pitch tubes had the highest mortality rate. An experiment was conducted to compare the attraction of D. valens and other insects to wounded-diseased, wounded-symptomless, and unwounded trees. More D. valens, Spondylis upiformis Mannerheim (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), and Hylastes spp. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were attracted to wounded trees than to unwounded trees. Catches of these beetles on wounded-diseased trees were not significantly different from catches on wounded-symptomless trees.

    40. Perusquia, O J., 1978. Pine Bark Beetle Dendroctonus spp.Taxonomy and Distribution. Boletin Tecnico Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Mexico.(55). 1978. 1-31.
      Summary: Abstract: Pine bark beetles, Dendroctonus spp., constitute one of the most important forest pests in Mexico. The 1st description of the genus was made by Latreille (1802) under the name of Tomicus, with Dermestes piniperda L. as the type species. Because of an error in identification the genus Tomicus was associated with the genus Ips; it was not until 100 yr later that the error was discovered, when the name Dendroctonus (Erichson, 1864) was widely used. Because of the insect's great economic and biological importance Wood (1961) petitioned the International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature, asking the name Dendroctonus be retained, with Bostrichus micans Kugelmann as the type species. Among the species known in Mexico are D. mexicanus Hopk., D. frontalis Zim., D. adjunctus Blandf., D. brevicomis Lec., D. rhizophagus T. et B., D. valens Lec. and D. paralellocollis Chap. The host species recorded, in order of importance, are Pinus leiophylla, P. oocarpa, P. hartwegii, P. pringlei, P. douglasiana, P. teocote, P. michoacana, P. montezumae, P. herrerai, P. patula, P. pinceana, P. pseudostrobus, P. rudis, P. durangensis, P. engelmanni and P. onderosa var. contorta.

    41. Rabaglia, Robert. J., 2003. Annotated list of the bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) of Maryland, with new distributional records. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. 105(2). April 2003. 373-379.
      Summary: Abstract: A total of 110 species of Scolytidae are reported from Maryland. Thirty species reported new to Maryland are: Hylastes opacus Erichson, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, Tomicus piniperda (L.), Phloeotribus dentifrons (Blackman), Carphoborus bicornis Wood, Polygraphus rufipennis (Kirby), Hylocurus flaglerensis Blackman, Micracisella opacicollis (LeConte), Ips avulsus (Eichhoff), Dryocoetes affaber (Mannerheim), D. autographus (Ratzburg), D. granicollis (LeConte), Lymantor decipiens (LeConte), Trypodendron betulae Swaine, T. lineatum (Olivier), T. retusum (LeConte), T. scabricollis (LeConte), Ambrosiodmus obliquus (LeConte), Xyleborus planicollis Zimmermann, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), Cryphalus rubentis Hopkins, Pityoborus commatus (Zimmermann), Pityophthorus balsameus Blackman, P. cariniceps LeConte, P. confusus Blandford, P. liquidambarus Blackman, P. opaculus LeConte, P. puberulus (LeConte), Pseudopityophthorus asperulus (LeConte), and Corthylus punctatissimus (Zimmermann). Of the 110 species reported in the state, 19 are not native to North America.

    42. Roques, Alain., Jiang-Hua Sun., Marie-Anne Auger-Rozenberg and Ouyang Hua., Potential invasion of China by exotic insect pests associated with tree seeds. Biodiversity and Conservation Volume 12, Number 11 / November, 2003

    43. Stephen, F. M. and J.C. Grégoire. Undated. Introduction and Establishment of Exotic Bark Beetles. Exotic Forest Pests Online Symposium

    44. Stephen, F. M. and J.C. Grégoire., Introduction and Establishment of Exotic Bark Beetles. In An International Online Workshop to reduce movement of forest pests with a minimal impact on trade held April 16-29, 2001.

    45. Walker, R. F; Fecko, R. M.; Frederick, W. B.; Johnson, D. W.; Miller, W. W., 2007. Forest health impacts of bark beetles, dwarf mistletoe, and blister rust in a Lake Tahoe Basin mixed conifer stand. Western North American Naturalist. 67(4). DEC 2007. 562-571.
      Summary: Abstract: Interactions between forest health variables and mensurational characteristics in an uneven-aged eastern Sierra Nevada mixed conifer stand were examined. The stand was located in the Lake Tahoe Basin on a site featuring a coarsely textured granitic soil and numerous rock outcrops. Its composition was dominated by California white fir (Abies concolor var. iowiana [Gord.] Lemm.), with Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf) and sugar Pine (Pinus lambertiana Dougl.) less prominent and incense-cedar (Libocedrus decurrens Turn) and mountain alder (Alnus tenuifolia Nutt.) the most minor constituents. The majority of saplings and seedlings were white fir. The stand exhibited no evidence that its development had been influenced 1)), fire and, overall, it consisted of numerous small trees accruing little radial growth. Nearly one-quarter of all standing stems pole size or larger were dead, with mortality concentrated in white fir. Forest-floor fuel accumulations were excessive, and coarse debris was especially prominent. A fir engraver beetle (Scolytus ventralis LeConte) epidemic in white fir contrasted against apparent endemic population levels of the jeffrey pine (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins) and red turpentine (Dendroctonus valens LeConte) beetles in Jeffrey pine and of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in sugar pine. The severity of fir engraver attack on white fir was weakly related to overall tree size and to the proportion of composition consisting of this host species, while in Jeffrey pine and sugar pine, bark beetle attacks were strongly correlated with the individual proportions of these 2 hosts. Across all species, basal area explained a substantial proportion of the variation in overall attack severity We found light infestations of true fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz f. sp. concoloris) in white fir and western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum Engelm.) in Jeffrey pine, plus an early stage of infection by the white Pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fischer) in sugar pine. Collectively, this case study characterized and quantified many of the conditions, symptoms, and causative agents inherent in a decadent mixed conifer stand in the eastern Sierra Nevada.

    46. WIilliams, Kelly., Joel D. McMillin, Tom E. DeGomez, Karen M. Clancy, And Andy Miller., 2008. Influence of Elevation on Bark Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae,cScolytinae) Community Structure and Flight Periodicity in Ponderosa Pine Forests of Arizona, Environ. Entomol. 37(1): 94-109

    47. Xu, Haigen., Sheng Qiang, Zhengmin Han, Jianying Guo, Zongguo Huang, Hongying Sun, Shunping He, Hui Ding, Hairong Wu and Fanghao Wan., 2006. The status and causes of alien species invasion in China. Biodiversity and Conservation Volume 15, Number 9 / August, 2006

    48. Yan, Zhengliang., Jianghua Sun., Owen Don and Zhongning Zhang., 2005. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Scolytidae): an exotic invasive pest of pine in China. Biodiversity and Conservation Volume 14, Number 7 / June, 2005

    49. Zhang Long-Wa; Lu Ming; Liu Zhu-Dong; Sung Jiang-Hua., 2007. Progress on invasion biology and chemical ecology of red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology. 44(2). Mar 2007. 171-178.
      Summary: Abstract: The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, native in North America, is a destructive exotic pest of pines in China. Since its first large outbreak in 1999 in Shanxi Province, D. valens has spread rapidly to the adjacent provinces Hebei, Henan and Shaanxi, and has infested over 500 000 bra of Chinese pine stands, killing more than 6 million trees to date. Here, we report the recent progress, principally results of our researches on the D. valens, including the origin of introduction, the response to host monoterpenes, the pheromone identification, the potential repellents, the relationship of the invasion with the fungal symbionts. Historic records and molecular data support the hypothesis that the introduction of D. valens to China was recent and originated from the Pacific North west of the U. S. A. The studies on the response to host volatiles by native and introduced populations showed that (+)- 3 - Carene was the most attractive monoterpene for the native and Chinese populations of D. valens, and (+)- 3 - Carene is thus broadly applicable for monitoring D. valens in both China and North America. Relatively little is known of its pheromone biology. Our recent work, using gas chromatographic and mass spectral (GC-MS) analysis of hindgut volatiles, revealed the presence of Trans-verbenol, Cis-verbenol, Myrtenol, Myrtenal, and Verbenone, and the bioactivity of these oxygenated monoterpenes to D. valens were confirmed. Although the appropriateness of classifying these compounds as pheromones is still uncertain, these compounds clearly have potential for use in management of this important invasive beetle. Verbenone, an antiaggregant for many bark beetles, has been shown to be effective in interrupting the response of D. valens to host volatiles and has a dose-dependent effect in its interruption. All of these results indicate that Verbenone functions as a multipurpose pheromone for D. valens. In the studies of responses of D. valens to non-host volatiles (NHVs) 1-Octen-3-ol, (Z)-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol were the three most effective NHVs, significantly reducing D. valens to kairomone-baited traps. In the development and implementation of a semiochemical-based management programme for D. valens, NHVs and Verbenone may have considerable potential for disrupting the beetle's ability to locate suitable hosts. A novel lure release device, Sun vial, devised and patented in China, was broadly applied in the management on the D. valens. At present, studies on the fungal symbionts of D. valens in both China and North America and the chemical communication relationships of D. valens with native bark beetles are well underway. The aims of these studies are to determine the importance of behavioral chemistry and fungal associates in the invasiveness and aggressiveness of D. valens and to test our hypothesis "What goes around and what comes around."
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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland