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   Linaria vulgaris (herb)    
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    22 references found for Linaria vulgaris:
    Management information
      Summary: A general fact sheet on biology, reproduction, habitat, dispersal and management strategies.
      Available from: [Acessed on 2 March 2007].
      Summary: A cooperative extension factsheet for the state of Colorado with general information on biology and management. Information on management more detailed than on biology.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
      Summary: Very detailed article on the CDFA database describing biology, habitat, cycles, and similar species.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].

    4. Curran, W.S., & Lingenfelter, D.D., 2001, Weed Management in Pasture Systems, Agronomy Facts 62, College of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension, Univeristy of Pennsylvannia.
      Summary: A fact sheet underlying general principles of management of pasture systems and techniques for control in those systems. Not much specific biology information on L. vulgaris, but comprehensive on principles of management for weed species in general based on habit and growth characteristics.

    5. Holdorf, R.H., undated, Biological Control of Yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris (L.) (Scrophuliaraceae)): Oppurtunities and Constraints Affecting the Reclamation of Rangelands in the Western United States, Restoration and Reclamation Review, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, (USA).
      Summary: An excellent article on potential biological control options for L. vulgaris as well as some general biology, introduction, distribution, and habitat. It refutes the effectiveness of other management options like grazing, fire, and herbicide.
      Summary: General extension factsheet giving basic plant biology information and management strategies. An excellent source of information on a variety of management approaches for the contol of toadflax.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].

    7. Markin, G.P., undated, Weeds of National Forest Lands of the Northern Rockies, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, MSU, Bozeman, Montana, 59717
      Summary: A survey article detailing the abundance of noxious weeds in the Northern Rockies. A brief description on the status of common toadflax along with a detailed map showing its distribution and abundance in the region. A few generalized weed management strategies and troubleshooting are discussed near the end of the article.

    8. Mullin, B.H., Anderson, L.W.J, DiTomaso, J.M., Eplee, R.E., & Getsinger, K.D., Feb. 2000, Invasive Plant Species, Council for Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Issue Paper no. 13, pp. 1-18.
      Summary: This paper was used for general management strategies against invasive weed species. There was no focus on Linaria vulgaris for management options, but the paper addressed preventive, regulatory, legislative, and educational approaches to weed management.
      Summary: A fact sheet from New Mexico State University giving basic identification, reproduction and spread of yellow toadflax. Management options are discussed with emphasis on physical and chemical controls of the plant.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].

    10. Tyser, R.W., & Worley, C.A., Jun. 1992, Alien Flora in Grasslands Adjacent to Road and Trail Corridors in Glacier National Park, Montana (U.S.A.), Conservation Biology, Vol. 6, no. 2, pp.253-262.
      Summary: This journal article described various means of introduction of a variety of weed species in Glacier National Park. It also investigated how these weed species were being further propagated and dispersed into the park through traveled corridors and construction. Interesting management suggestions more in the form of prevention of further introductions and spread.

    General references

    11. Arnold, R.M., 1982, Pollination, Predation and Seed Set in Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae), American Midland Naturalist Vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 360-369.
      Summary: Ajournal article describing the reproductive abiliites of L. vulgaris and how insect pollination and predation effect seed viability and set. The article goes into more detail about possible reasons why the plant has low seed viability. Brief reproductive references were made concerning this article.
      Summary: English:
      The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (, under the section Novedades for information on updates.
      Invasive species - Plants is available from: [Accessed 30 July 2008]
      La lista de especies del Sistema de información sobre especies invasoras de méxico cuenta actualmente con información aceca de nombre científico, familia, grupo y nombre común, así como hábitat, estado de la invasión en México, rutas de introducción y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la página de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualización, por favor consulte la portada (, en la sección novedades, para conocer los cambios.
      Especies invasoras - Plantas is available from: [Accessed 30 July 2008]
      Summary: Available from: [Accessed 15 June 2010]
      Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
      Summary: This website was used for the various common names associated with this plant. This site offers names in German, Fench, Swedish, Dutch, and Finnish.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
      Summary: This site gives the European distribution of Linaria vulgaris as well as detailed plant characteristics.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March 2007].
      Summary: This website was referenced for common names used for yellow toadflax in other countries.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
      Summary: This site was only used for the additional common names associated with Linaria vulgaris.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
      Summary: A brief factsheet giving basic information on distribution, competition, biology, dispersal and a few management options.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
      Summary: This site was used to reference several subspecies and variations of Linaria vulgaris.
      Available from: [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
      Summary: This database gave detailed information on the native distribution of yellow toadflax, along with economic importance and other common names.
      Available from: [Accessed on 26 February, 2007].

    22. Veblen, T.T., Mar., 1975, Alien Weeds in the Tropical Highlands of Western Guatemala, Journal of Biogeography, Vol. 2, no. 1, pp.19-25.
      Summary: An article comparing the invasiveness of several different genera of weed species in California and the highlands of Guatemala. The article contained a lot of information on the disparities between the two locations and what possible factors could account for it. A few references were made to this article for distribution and general species introduction.
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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland