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   Striga asiatica (草本植物)  English   
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         管理信息

    综合管理::CDFA(2006)报告说:轻微的侵扰通常可在其生产种子之前,用手拔除加以控制。严重的侵袭,必需用综合管理计划,方法包括:(1)种植陷阱作物(会刺激独脚金种子发芽,但不会被它寄生的植物),如棉花,或种植捕捉型作物(在独脚金生产种子之前收割的敏感作物) 3年或以上;(2)让土地休耕数年;把乙烯(一种发芽刺激剂)注入土壤,(3)提高土壤氮素肥沃度;(4)种植最有容忍力的谷种;(5)利用除草剂,以防止独脚金出现或生产种子(CDFA, 2006)。

    穆罕默德等人(1998)研究评估乙烯处理后的效果。他们的研究显示,如果种子埋在水分含量高于临界值的土壤中,使用乙烯不会导致自杀性的发芽。作者报告说:不需要观察种子发芽的条件,只需要测量水分含量即可。当种子含水量达到一定程度,他们将无法发芽,因此事先在土壤上浇水,或把播种时间延迟到长的雨季,增加土壤水分含量,可能是一个综合控制策略。这可能很容易实施,科学家或推广人员可测量种子的水分含量,当含水量达到某个程度,他们可以建议灾区的农民播种(穆罕默德等人, 1998)。

    生物方法:Elzein和克罗舍尔(2004)从加纳的S. hermonthica植株中,分离出一种真菌病原Fusarium oxysporum简称Foxy 2,已证明对独脚金所有的发展阶段,包括种子,都有高致病性。Foxy 2会破坏种子,预防繁殖,能非常有效地减少独脚金(Striga asiatica)的种子库,但是,并没有观察到独脚金的嫩芽出现严重的疾病症状或死亡,然而Foxy 2仍有可能可以作为一个独脚金早期发育阶段的生物控制剂(Elzein和克罗舍尔, 2004) 。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    North Carolina
    Integrated Management:: APHIS (2000) reports that S. asiatica potential for devastating important host crops led to a Congressional decision to eradicate this pest in 1957. The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) established a research station and farm where it developed control methods. Since its discovery in North and South Carolina, the spread has been halted, and the acreage supporting it has been reduced by 99 percent (from 450,000 acres to about 3,400).
    Eradication is accomplished in three phases: 1) Survey activities find and map all infestations: APHIS and State cooperators have taken steps to prevent this dangerous weed from spreading from infested areas in North and South Carolina. APHIS is offering a $25 reward to anyone who identifies and reports the weed. After receiving a report, officials remove the plant to stop reproduction. Then they destroy seeds already in the soil. Finding every specimen of the slender, foot-tall S. asiatica is not without obstacles. The cooperation of landowners is essential. Scouts are sent out on foot, in vehicles, and on horseback to find infested sites. People are asked to check their own land and to report the presence of S. asiatica to an agricultural extension agent or S. asiatica personnel (APHIS, 2000).
    2) Quarantine activities prevent human spread of S. asiatica beyond the infested region: Although the tiny S. asiatica seeds can be spread by wind or water, people are the chief means of dispersal. To prevent the spread of this pest, agricultural quarantines specify conditions for moving soil, plants, or machinery out of infested areas (APHIS, 2000).
    3) Control activities seek to prevent existing plants from producing seeds and to destroy seeds already in the soil. These activities involve the cooperative efforts of Federal and State governments as well as the general public: Eliminating S. asiatica requires finding and killing plants before they go to seed and eliminating seeds already in the soil. Herbicides are used on fields infested with S. asiatica. Extensive field research has provided information on the best chemical or combination of chemicals for the given crop, weed species, and field conditions. Eliminating the microscopic seeds is another important part of eradication. Some seeds die of natural attrition or sprout only to be killed by an herbicide. However, since S. asiatica seeds can persist in the soil for a decade, efficient eradication requires accelerating the natural rate of seed germination. S. asiatica seeds can be eliminated from the soil by creating conditions that cause them to germinate when no host is present. This phenomenon is known as suicidal germination. Ethylene gas, a natural ripening agent produced by fruits, vegetables, and flowers, is injected into the soil under proper environmental conditions. It stimulates seed germination, but lacking a host, seedlings die. Soil fumigation is another alternative, albeit an expensive one. Chemicals such as methyl bromide are used on occasion to assure seed destruction (APHIS, 2000).
    The large number of acres involved and the high seed production of this pest have made eradication a slow process. However, this parasite has been eradicated from 99 percent of the infested land. In 1995, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture assumed responsibility for eradication activities in that State. APHIS personnel continue eradication activities on the remaining 400 infested acres in South Carolina. APHIS will continue to provide support to these States for surveys to verify eradication and for post-eradication treatments (APHIS, 2000).
    South Carolina
    Integrated Management:: APHIS (2000) reports that S. asiatica potential for devastating important host crops led to a Congressional decision to eradicate this pest in 1957. The USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) established a research station and farm where it developed control methods. Since its discovery in North and South Carolina, the spread has been halted, and the acreage supporting it has been reduced by 99 percent (from 450,000 acres to about 3,400).
    Eradication is accomplished in three phases: 1) Survey activities find and map all infestations: APHIS and State cooperators have taken steps to prevent this dangerous weed from spreading from infested areas in North and South Carolina. APHIS is offering a $25 reward to anyone who identifies and reports the weed. After receiving a report, officials remove the plant to stop reproduction. Then they destroy seeds already in the soil. Finding every specimen of the slender, foot-tall S. asiatica is not without obstacles. The cooperation of landowners is essential. Scouts are sent out on foot, in vehicles, and on horseback to find infested sites. People are asked to check their own land and to report the presence of S. asiatica to an agricultural extension agent or S. asiatica personnel (APHIS, 2000).
    2) Quarantine activities prevent human spread of S. asiatica beyond the infested region: Although the tiny S. asiatica seeds can be spread by wind or water, people are the chief means of dispersal. To prevent the spread of this pest, agricultural quarantines specify conditions for moving soil, plants, or machinery out of infested areas (APHIS, 2000).
    3) Control activities seek to prevent existing plants from producing seeds and to destroy seeds already in the soil. These activities involve the cooperative efforts of Federal and State governments as well as the general public: Eliminating S. asiatica requires finding and killing plants before they go to seed and eliminating seeds already in the soil. Herbicides are used on fields infested with S. asiatica. Extensive field research has provided information on the best chemical or combination of chemicals for the given crop, weed species, and field conditions. Eliminating the microscopic seeds is another important part of eradication. Some seeds die of natural attrition or sprout only to be killed by an herbicide. However, since S. asiatica seeds can persist in the soil for a decade, efficient eradication requires accelerating the natural rate of seed germination. S. asiatica seeds can be eliminated from the soil by creating conditions that cause them to germinate when no host is present. This phenomenon is known as suicidal germination. Ethylene gas, a natural ripening agent produced by fruits, vegetables, and flowers, is injected into the soil under proper environmental conditions. It stimulates seed germination, but lacking a host, seedlings die. Soil fumigation is another alternative, albeit an expensive one. Chemicals such as methyl bromide are used on occasion to assure seed destruction (APHIS, 2000).
    The large number of acres involved and the high seed production of this pest have made eradication a slow process. However, this parasite has been eradicated from 99 percent of the infested land. In 1995, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture assumed responsibility for eradication activities in that State. APHIS personnel continue eradication activities on the remaining 400 infested acres in South Carolina. APHIS will continue to provide support to these States for surveys to verify eradication and for post-eradication treatments (APHIS, 2000).


         管理资源 /链接

    3. Elzein, A., and J. Kroschel. 2004. Fusarium oxysporum Foxy 2 shows potential to control both Striga hermonthica and S. asiatica . European Weed Research Society Weed Research 2004 44, 433-438.
    4. Mohamed, A. H., G Ejeta, Butler, and Housley. 1998. Moisture Content and Dormancy in Striga asiatica seeds. Weed Research 38(4):256.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland