Control measures include trade restrictions, and biocontrol security measures on farms and at live markets (APHIS , 2004), quarantine (Butcher, G. et al. 2004), surveillance and vaccines. Swift action following an outbreak of HPAI involves depopulation.
Location Specific Management Information
China's quarantine authority imposed an export ban on poultry products from eastern Anhui province in July due to an outbreak of bird flu, this was lifted by the end of August. More than 6000 birds were culled after discovering the disease had resurfaced in poultry in Anhui (ISID, 2004).
Eastern Cape Province
Control measures taken included the establishment of a control area around Middleton, in the Eastern Cape Province, which consists of an inner Infected Area with a 5-km radius, a middle Quarantine Area at 15 km, and an outer Surveillance Area at a 30-km radius from the epicenter of infection. To prevent further spread of the disease, all poultry, including ostriches, in the Infected Area are being slaughtered. So far, 13 603 ostriches have been slaughtered and destroyed. This includes the destruction of birds in the 5 infected farms (13 055) and susceptible animals on 17 farms (548) in the Infected and Quarantine Areas. Strict movement restrictions are still enforced by a roadblock cordon, and the public is prohibited from taking any poultry (including ostriches, birds, and other fowl) or their products, including eggs, out of, or into, the affected area. Exports of poultry and poultry products from South Africa have been voluntarily stopped until the outbreak has been successfully dealt with. Other measures include control of wildlife reservoirs, surveillance, screening and vaccination (ISID, 2004). ISID (2004) further reports that no other foci of infection have been identified.
To keep the virus from spreading authorities destroyed 1.5 million chickens.
Evidence suggested that the source of infection was poultry and that the virus had been directly transmitted from bird to human. However, person to person transmission remains questionable.
The situation is being monitored by health officials in the Netherlands who are in communications with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
29 areas in 14 provinces have been monitored for the reappeared bird flu, which first hit Thailand in the
beginning of 2004, according to the website. Thailand, which culled an estimated 50-60 million birds in the 1st round of
the epidemic, has come up with a series of measures to deal with the newly reported outbreak. A national committee has been set up to deal with the epidemic with plans to overhaul the poultry industry by the end of September 2004 (ISID, 2004) .
2. Butcher, J., Mather, F., Miles, R. Avian influenza in poultry. University of Forida IFAS Extension.
Summary: The website provides useful information about avian influenza which includes the history, clinical signs, posstmortem lesions, serotypes, transmission, treatment and prevention.
5. Horimoto, T. and Kawaoka, Y. 2001. Pandemic Threat Posed by Avian Influenza A Viruses. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 14: 129-149.
Summary: The article reviews the classification, history, biological properties, pathogenesis, transmission, host range, and influenza pandemics and outbreaks.
7. Tracey, P.J.,Woods, R., Roshier, D., West, P., Saunders, G. The role of wild birds in the transmission of avian influenza for Australia: an ecological perspective. Emu, 2004, 104, 109-124
Summary: A review of the movements of birds in Australasia, the occurrence of AI in wild birds and the implications for managing AI outbreaks in Oceania
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