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   Felis catus (哺乳動物)  English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    貓在西元前 2000 年(Serpell 1988, 在 Colemanet al.1997, 在 Brickner 2003)左右第一個被在埃及養馴而且在西元 300 年之前帶給英國藉由了羅馬人。歐洲殖民者在全球各地引入他們。(Coleman et al.1997, 在 Brickner 2003) 由於貓在我們的社會中時常被當作寵物,當他們已經成為本土野生生物的威脅時,就產生如何處理他們的道德困境。 Brickner(2003)指出,動物權利組織譴責,單在英國,九百萬隻貓殺死二億七千五百萬隻動物。(Woods et al. in press) 此物種的管理顯然地有兩種相當不同的情形,依據貓的狀態而定:一是被馴養的家庭的寵物,另一個是已經變野生,沒有主人餵養保護。

    當一隻貓是寵物,有很多方法幫助避免帶給野生生物的危害。 Brickner(2003)建議晚上把貓關在室內、綁一個鈴、幫貓結紮以及給小貓玩具。 然而,一些調查結果顯示,並不確定這些行動是否有正面的結果。 Barrette(1998)發現幫貓綁一個鈴,對捕捉獵物數量,沒有顯著的影響, 然而 Ruxton et al.(2002)發現幫貓綁一個鈴,減少獵物遞送率大約 50% 。(在 Brickner 2003) 森林, 麥當勞與哈利斯(2003)發現,被貓帶回家的鳥類與爬蟲類數目,在吃鳥的家庭中顯著地比較低。 當貓被綁上鈴,或者晚上把貓關在室內時,每隻貓帶回的哺乳動物的數目比較低,然而,當晚上把貓關在室內時時,被貓帶回家的爬蟲類數目較多。 此結果產生一個主觀的選擇,究竟保護爬蟲類與保護哺乳動物哪一個比較重要。 顯然地,如果被捕捉的哺乳動物是被引入種,例如老鼠,這又產生另一個困境。

    在第二個情形,當一隻貓是野生的並且威脅野生生物,使用較嚴厲的方法控制貓似乎合乎情理。 在 1992 年,澳洲國會通過瀕臨絕種動物保護行動法案,使國家有義務提供一個威脅緩和計劃(TAP),針對每個表列的脅迫程序,包括野生的貓(Brickner 2003). 野生貓TAP的關鍵目的是:根除島上的野貓,避免威脅易受傷害的本土動物; 阻止野貓入侵新島嶼,避免可能對本土社群的威脅; 促使受到野貓威脅的物種恢復生機:改善貓控制方法的效力與人性化,與增加野生貓對本土動物衝擊的理解。 為了吸引較多的野貓被陷捕與餌誘,視覺餌(例如羽毛與生棉)的使用與吸引物(例如鮪魚油)現在正在被測試。 野貓對本土野生生物的衝擊正在澳洲的各種不同地區被研究為了它量化的資料(Brickner 2003).

    外僑-L 的 的在陷擾上的附註(吉兒調音(太平洋的侵入學問網路)pers.comm。, 2008 年九月 20 日; Reese 商標腓力 pers.comm。, 2008 年九月 19 日). English  français   



         管理資源 /鏈接

    2. Alterio, N., Moller, H. and Ratz, H. 1998. Movements and habitat use of feral house cats Felis catus, Stoats Mustela erminea and ferrets Mustela furo, in grassland surrounding yellow-eyed penguin Megadyptes antipodes breeding areas in spring, Biological Conservation 83(2): 187-194.
    4. Baker-Gabb D. 2004. National Recovery Plan for the Norfolk Island Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor multicolor and the Norfolk Island Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis xanthroprocta. Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra.
    5. Barratt, D.G. 1997. Home range size, habitat utilisation and movement patterns of suburban and farm cats Felis catus. Ecography. 20: 271-280.
    6. Barratt, D.G. 1997. Predation by House Cats, Felis catus (L.), in Canberra, Australia. I. Prey composition and preference. Wildlife Research. 24 (3): 263-277.
            摘要: This paper presents the results of a study into the prey composition for house cats in Canberra, Australia.
    11. Burbidge, A.A., 2004. Montebello Renewal: Western Shield review—February 2003. Conservation Science Western Australia 5(2), 194-201.
    13. Castillo, D. and Clarke, A.L. 2003. Trap/neuter/release methods ineffective in controlling domestic cat "colonies" on public lands. Natural Areas Journal. 23 (3): 247-253.
            摘要: This paper looks at the effectiveness of the trap/neuter/release methods used to control domestic cat colonies in the USA.
    14. Clarke, A.L. and Pacin, T. 2002. Domestic cat "colonies" in natural areas: A growing exotic species threat. Natural Areas Journal. 22 (2): 154-159.
            摘要: This paper considers the problem of domestic cat populations in natural areas in the USA.
    15. Clout, M.N. and J.C. Russell, 2006. The eradication of mammals from New Zealand islands Pages 127-141. In Koike, F., Clout, M.N., Kawamichi, M., De Poorter, M. and Iwatsuki, K. (eds.), Assessment and Control of Biological Invasion Risks. Shoukadoh Book Sellers, Kyoto, Japan and the World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland, 2006.
    16. Cooper, J., Marais, A. V. N., Bloomer, J. P. and Bester, M. N. 1995. A success story: Breeding of Burrowing petrels (Procellaridae) before and after the eradication of feral cats Felis catus at subantartic Marion Island. Marine Ornithology 23: 33-37.
    19. Daniels, M.J., Beaumont, M.A., Johnson, P.J., Balharry, D., Macdonald, D.W. and Barratt, E. 2001. Ecology and genetics of wild-living cats in the north-east of Scotland and the implications for the conservation of the wildcat. Journal of Applied Ecology. 38 (1): 146-161.
            摘要: This paper discusses the interaction between wildcats and domestic cats in Scotland, and suggests management measures.
    21. Dickman, C. R. 1996. Overview of the impacts of feral cats on Australian native fauna. Canberra: Australian Nature Conservation Agency.
    23. Duffy, D. C., and Capece, P., 2012. Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 7. The Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Pacific Science 66(2):173-212. 2012
    24. Edwards, G.P., De Preu, N., Shakeshaft, B.J., Crealy, I.V. and Paltridge, R.M. 2001. Home range and movements of male feral cats (Felis catus) in a semiarid woodland environment in central Australia. Austral Ecology. 26 (1): 93.
    26. Genovesi, P. 2005. Eradications of invasive alien species in Europe: a review. Biological Invasions. 7 (1): 127-133.
            摘要: This paper gives details of the eradications of introduced species in Europe, including the eradication of M. vison from Hiimaa Island in Estonia.
    27. Girardet, S. A. B., Veitch, C. R., Craig, J. L. 2001. Bird and rat numbers on Little Barrier Island, New Zealand, over the period of cat eradication 1976-80. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 13-29.
    29. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
            摘要: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
    Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
    30. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    31. Konecny, M.J. 1987. Home range and activity patterns of feral house cats in the Galapagos Islands. Oikos. 50 (1): 17-23.
    35. Nogales, M.; A. Martin, B. Tershy, C.J Donlan, D. Veitch, N. Puerta, B. Wood and J. Alonso., 2004. A Review of Feral Cat Eradication on Islands.
            摘要: A review of feral cat eradication programmes on islands.
    39. Phillips, R. B., Cooke, B. D., Campbell, K., Carrion, V., Marquez, C., and Snell, H. L.. 2005. Eradicating feral cats to protect Galapagos Land Iguanas: methods and strategies. Pacific Conservation Biology 11:257-267.
    40. Rauzon, M. J. 1982. Feral cat eradication on Jarvis Island. Bulletin of the Pacific Seabird Group 9: 75.
    41. Rauzon, M. J. 1985. Feral cats on Jarvis Island; their effects and their eradication. Atoll Research Bulletin 282–292 (282). 32pp.
    43. Tasman District Council (TDC) 2001. Tasman-Nelson Regional Pest Management Strategy
    46. Twyford, K. L., Humphrey, P. G., Nunn, R. P. and Willoughby, L. 2000. Eradication of feral cats (Felis catus) from Gabo Island, southeast Victoria. Ecological Management 1: 42-49.
    48. Veitch, C. R. 1985. Methods of eradicating feral cats from offshore islands in New Zealand. In Moors, P. J. (ed.) Conservation of island birds. International Council for Bird Preservation Technical Publication No. 3, Cambridge.
    49. Veitch, C. R. 2001. The eradication of feral cats (Felis catus) from Little Barrier Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 1-12.
    53. Woods, M., McDonald, R.A. and Harris, S. 2003. Predation of wildlife by domestic cats Felis catus in Great Britain. Mammal Review. 33 (2): 174-188.
            摘要: This paper examines the impact of predation by domestic cats on wildlife in Great Britain.

         結果頁: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland