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   Rattus exulans (哺乳動物)  English  français 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    預防措施:研究顯示,在入侵早期階段,就難以從島嶼移除老鼠,因此首先必須防止鼠類進入島嶼。消滅單一隻入侵老鼠,可極是其困難的,因為在缺乏同種族群的環境下,老鼠會產生非典型的行為,也因為缺乏食物競爭,使得誘餌減少效果(Russell 等人, 2005 )。Weihong 等人(1999)提供有用的資料,使用不同的誘捕方法和誘餌來監測囓齒類動物Dilks and Towns(2002)紐西蘭保護部出版,敘述如何在島嶼上發現入侵老鼠和應對方法。
    物理方法:陸地上主要使用撳鈕陷阱控制。
    化學方法:在過去的15年中,紐西蘭近海較大的島嶼,已經消滅了太平洋鼠(Rattus exulans)。到目前為止,最大的移除行動是從拉烏爾島(2938公頃),今年較大的Little Barrier島(3083公頃)移除行動將到期。移除島嶼上的太平洋鼠(Rattus exulans)族群是經由使用化學毒物。在紐西蘭,1080化合物不能有效對抗太平洋鼠(Rattus exulans),但他們對抗凝血劑很敏感,如brodifacoum和bromadialone。最近成功的移除行動是用直升機在空中撒Talon 20 P誘餌。Talon 20 P是以穀物為基礎約0.8克的沉澱物,含有抗凝血劑20 ppm。目前使用濃度為15kg/ha,成本約$75US/ha(Atkinson and Towns 2001)。
    >Fisher 等人(2004)認為,敵鼠(diphacinone),殺鼠迷(coumatetralyl )和華法令(warfarin),也應用田野研究評估,作為紐西蘭的替代滅鼠劑。目前紐西蘭最廣泛使用的滅鼠劑是brodifacoum,會對非目標的野生動物產生持久的殘留。 Mineau 等人(2004)在第二屆全國入侵鼠類高峰會,提出了第二代殺鼠劑的風險評估。O'Connor and Eason (2000)討論各種可用於紐西蘭近海島嶼的誘餌。
    生物方法:巨蜥和貓鼬早期被引入太平洋島嶼,試圖控制太平洋鼠(Rattus exulans)。
    避孕控制方法目前處於試驗階段,但很有潛力。美國野生動植物研究中心的科學家正在研究幾種可能的配方,可能可以有效的用口服接種(Nash and Miller, 2004)。
    福克蘭群島移除老鼠準則,根據福克蘭群島消滅老鼠的經驗,提供從島嶼消滅老鼠的指引。 English  français 


         管理資源 /鏈接

    3. Brooke, M. de L. 1995. The breeding biology of the gadfly petrels Pterodroma spp. of the Pitcairn Islands: characteristics, population sizes and controls. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 56: 213-231.
            摘要: This reference by Mike Brooke describes the total loss of all chicks of Kermedaec petrels on Henderson Island to Pacific rat predation.
    5. Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.
            摘要: A Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents, information on trapping methods.
    7. Doty, R. E. 1945. Rat control on Hawaiian sugar cane plantations. Hawaiian Planters Record 49(2): 71–241.
    8. Gerber, G. 1997. Nesting Behavior of the Little Cayman rock iguana, Cyclura nubila caymanensis. Joint Annual Meeting, American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists/Herpetologists League/Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. University of Washington, Seattle, U.S.A.
    10. IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
            摘要: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
    Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
    11. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    14. Moors, P. J., Atkinson, I. A. E. and Sherley, G. H. 1992. Reducing the rat threat to island birds. Bird Conservation International 2: 93–114.
    15. Morrell et. al. 1991. Eradication of Polnsin Rat (Rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll Nation Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa. DMWR Biological Report Series No. 20
    23. Tobin, M. E. 1994. Polynesia rats. In Hygnstrom, S. E., Timm, R. M. and Larson, G. E. (eds.) Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. USA.
    25. Towns, D. R. 1991. Response of lizard assemblages in the Mercury Islands, New Zealand, to removal of an introduced rodent: the kiore (Rattus exulans). Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 21: 119–136.

         結果頁: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland