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   Rattus norvegicus (哺乳動物)  English  français 
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         管理資訊

    預防措施:研究顯示,要在入侵島嶼的早期階段移除它往往是困難,因此最好的方案是防止鼠類進入島嶼。消滅單一入侵的老鼠,可能是極其困難的,因為老鼠在缺乏同類物種的環境下的非典型行為,也因為老鼠在沒有食物競爭的環境下,很難用誘餌誘捕(Russell 等人, 2005 )。Weihong 等人(1999)提供關於使用各種陷阱和誘餌誘捕囓齒類動物的資訊,Dilks and Towns(2002)紐西蘭保育部出版,討論如何在入侵島嶼上發現老鼠和應對方法。
    物理方法:陷捕是最常用的方法,但它通常無法移除所有個體,害怕陷阱的動物會生存下來並重新填滿島嶼(DoC, 2004)。
    化學方法:使用抗凝血劑毒藥是最常用的控制方法。已經有在島上使用毒藥成功移除的案例。然而,必須嚴格的檢疫,以防止此物種進一步蔓延到其他島嶼。一個世界上最大的成功移除行動之一,在加拿大卑詩省3,100 公頃的蘭加拉島。1995年7月,此移除行動開始(準備和試驗之後) ,1997年5月宣告島上已沒有老鼠(Kaiser 等人, 1997)。另一個消滅老鼠成功的例子在紐西蘭卡皮蒂島(1970公頃),使用「第二代」抗凝血劑毒藥(Empson and Miskelly, 1999)。到目前為止世界上最大的消滅老鼠計畫,在Campbell島(11,300 公頃),該島在2003年宣布移除成功。
    >Fisher 等人(2004)認為,diphacinone , coumatetralyl 和 warfarin,應該被研究評估,作為替代滅鼠劑用在紐西蘭。目前在紐西蘭廣泛使用的滅鼠劑是 Brodifacoum,會使非目標野生動物產生持久殘留。(Mineau 等人, 2004)第二屆全國入侵鼠類高峰會議,討論第二代殺鼠劑的風險評估。O'Connor and Eason (2000),會中討論了各種可使用於紐西蘭近海島嶼誘餌。
    Spurr 等人(2007)進行調查,評估船鼠對四種不同類型的餌站的行為反應。黃色塑膠管,木箱和木製管狀餌站,都適合用在船鼠,前兩個適合用在挪威鼠(都很容易進入,吃餌量大約相同)。
    生物方法:避孕藥控制方法目前處於試驗階段,但很有潛力。美國野生動植物研究中心的科學家正在研究幾種可能的配方,希望能用口服施用(Nash and Miller, 2004)。
    島嶼移除老鼠準則 提供從島嶼消滅老鼠的指引,是根據福克蘭群島的經驗。 English  français 


         管理資源 /鏈接

    8. Cunningham, D.M. and Moors, P.J., 1993. Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents. Department of Conservation, NZ.
            摘要: A Guide To The Identification And Collection Of New Zealand Rodents, information on trapping methods.
    10. Doty, R. E. 1945. Rat control on Hawaiian sugar cane plantations. Hawaiian Planters Record 49(2): 71–241.
    11. Empson, R. A. and Miskelly, C. M. 1999. The risks, costs and benefits of using brodifacoum to eradicate rats from Kapiti Island, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 23: 241-254.
    12. Hill, M. J.; T. Vel, N. J. Shah., 2003. The morphology, distribution and conservation implications of introduced rats, Rattus spp. in the granitic Seychelles. African Journal of Ecology 41 (2) , 179–186
    13. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    14. Kaiser, G. W., Taylor, R. H., Buck, P. D., Elliott, J. E., Howald, G. R. and Drever, M. C. (1997) The Langara Island Seabird Habitat Recovery Project: Eradication of Norway Rats – 1993–1997. Technical Report Series No. 304, Canadian Wildlife Service, Pacific and Yukon Region, British Columbia.
    20. Moors, P. J., Atkinson, I. A. E. and Sherley, G. H. 1992. Reducing the rat threat to island birds. Bird Conservation International 2: 93–114.
    33. Taylor R. H. & Thomas B. W. 1989. Eradication of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Hawea island, Fjordland, using brodifaceum. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 12: 23 - 32.
    34. Taylor R. H., Kaiser G. W. & Drever M. C. 2000. Eradication of Norway rats for recovery of seabird habitat on Langara Island, British Columbia. Restoration Ecology 8: 151 - 160.
    38. Thorsen, M.; R. Shorten, R. Lucking and V. Lucking., 2000. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) on Frégate Island, Seychelles: the invasion; subsequent eradication attempts and implications for the island's fauna. Biological Conservation Volume 96, Issue 2, December 2000, Pages 133-138
    39. Tompkins J. 2001. Eradication of Rattus norvegicus from Seabird habitat in Canada. CWS, British Columbia, Canada.

         結果頁: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland