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   Syngonium podophyllum (vine, climber)
Ecology Distribution Management
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         Management Information

    Preventative measures: A Risk assessment of Syngoinum podophyllum by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) yielded a high risk score of 15 'reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific)'. (PIER, 2005). It is considered a potential invasive and sleeper weed by the World Wildlife Federation (WWF, 2006).

    Physical: S. podophyllum may be removed by hand pulling or mechanical removal. It is difficult to eradicate and may reproduce from small root and plant fragments. All vegetation must be removed to achieve eradication and multiple treatments are usually required (Space & Flynn, 2002; Space & Flynn 2001). Hand pulling is typically only effective on isolated plants and small infestations. Discarded plant materials should be bagged and properly disposed (DEEDI, 2010). Gloves should be worn when removing S. podophyllum, as sap can be irritating to sensitive individuals (Morgan et al., 2004).

    Chemical: Several herbicides are known to control Syngonium podophyllum including glyphosate, 2,4-D, fluroxypr, and Metsulfuron-methyl. Glyphosate should be mixed at 360 g/L and diluted 1 L/100 L of water. 2,4-D should be 500 g/L and 4 mL/ 1L of water. Fluroxypyr should be 200 g/L and 0.5-1 L/ 100 L of water. Metsulfuron-methyl should be 600 g/kg and 10 g / 100 L of water plus a wetting agent. All may be applied by a spot spray (DEEDI, 2010).

    Integrated management: PIER recommends hand pulling combined with spraying resprouts with 3% Roundup (glyphosate) or applying 10% Garlon 4 (triclopyr) to stems. Foliar application of 3% Garlon 4 in water with a surfactant is also effective. Multiple treaments are required (PIER, 2009).

         Location Specific Management Information
    Florida (USA)
    Syngonium podophyllum is a category I invasive species in Florida (FLEPPC, 2009).
    The use of glyphosate, 2,4-D, Fluroxypyr, and Metsulfuron-methyl are recommended for the control of Syngonium podophyllum. The hand pulling of isolated and small infestations maybe be sufficient. All roots and stem fragments must be removed and they should be bagged to prevent to prevent restablishement (DEEDI, 2010).
    It is strongly recommended that the use of Syngonium podophyllum by private and national landscape projects in Singapore be halted and that it be removed based on its viable seed production and potential to invade native forests (Chong et al., 2010).

         Management Resources/Links

    1. Brunel, Sarah, 2009. OEPP/EPPO, Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 39, 201–213
    9. Foxcroft, Llewellyn C.; David M. Richardson & John R. U. Wilson, 2008. Ornamental Plants as Invasive Aliens: Problems and Solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management (2008) 41:32–51

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland