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   Ageratum conyzoides (草本植物)  English   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         管理信息

    综合管理:专家建议,未来应对喜马拉雅山Shiwaliks地区的入侵植物采取综合防治方法。入侵物种相关的问题是严重的,因为缺乏认识,对于物种类别及扩散程度没有足够的数据(Dogra, Kohli & Sood 2009)。Batish(2008)建议全面收集入侵植物的数据,找出其可能的入侵方式,了解入侵植物的生物和生态属性,确定入侵植物对该地区社会经济和生态的影响,并将此信息传播给公众,制订预防措施,以免杂草入侵。

    化学方法:在杂草长出以前,使用西玛津,草脱净,敌草隆,恶草酮,乙氧氟草醚,methazole或 metribuzin可有效地控制这种杂草。在杂草长出以后,可使用 2.4-D控制侵袭的植群(Rao 2000)。
    在另一方面,建议使用对生态、环境友好的有效控制方法,来控制藿香蓟(A. conyzoides)。香茅和桉树的植物萃取物(挥发性精油)也许有希望能控制藿香蓟(A. conyzoides)(Batish等人, 1997,Singh 等人, 2002,Batish等人, 2004),使用这些天然植物萃取物,已取得一些成功的经验。例如,研究显示,两种挥发性单萜(桉叶油和香茅醇)对藿香蓟(A. conyzoides)具有植物相克作用,未来很有可能用于杂草控制。两种单萜都会严重影响藿香蓟(A. conyzoides)的发芽率,发芽速度,幼苗生长,叶绿素含量和呼吸活性,经过两个星期的接触,杂草会枯死。桉树脑是比两种单萜毒性更大的物质(Singh Batish and Ravinder 2002)。
    活性炭是一种惰性材料具有高亲和力有机分子,可部分改善藿香蓟(A. conyzoides)酚残留在水稻(Oryza sativa)根部的植物相克物质对水稻生长的负面影响(Batish等人, 2009)。

    野地和农地管理:增加老挝北部火耕稻田的休耕时间,减少杂草压力(罗德等人, 1998)。与水稻相比,连续使用休耕或牛豆,在过去一年有32% 的藿香蓟(A. conyzoides)杂草生物量减少 90%。
    杂草幼苗长出的时间与农作物有关,规划控制杂草的时间点是相当重要的。Ekeleme等人(2005)预测热带杂草特别容易在低发展和小规模的农场长出幼苗。为了充分控制杂草,特别是在除草剂被限制使用时,农民需要知道生长季节前后,杂草幼苗长出的时间点和时间长度。有关杂草长出的知识,对所有形式的杂草管理技术。同样适用(Ekeleme等人, 2005)。

    研究:为了有效对付外来入侵物种产生的问题,应定量观测入侵植物对生物多样性的的影响(Schooler 等人, 2006,Dogra 等人, 2009)。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Bangladesh
    To address this problem effectively, public awareness about invasive species have to be developed and participatory approach to control the invasive weeds adopted. Students, researchers and the public should understand the risk and impact associated with invasive species and should be motivated to work for eradication of these noxious plants controlling their reproduction and spread. The government, policy makers, the local and national/international NGOs, and the media should be aware of this grave risk and act accordingly.
    Dodoma
    Extensive search for yet undiscovered weed hosts of Tomato yellow leaf curl Tanzania virus is advocated, and the practice of farm sanitation is encouraged to eliminate reservoirs of the virus and vector.
    India
    The fast spread of devastating exotic weeds such as A. conyzoides is a matter of serious concern because they spread at the exclusion of native plants and local biodiversity. Because of this the Indian state and union governments have been trying hard to assess the damage and find a solution for the control of these prominent invasive weeds. To manage these noxious weeds, a number of strategies have been tried with little success. Considerable resources are being allocated to top research and development projects involving integrated management. Batish and colleagues (2004) discuss the obstacles towards control measures and propose that success in management could be achieved through community mobilization.

    Physical: Physical methods tried with little success include: mowing (at tender stage), manual uprooting, cutting with swords, use of shrub-masters for heavily infested areas followed by burning or burning live plants. These methods are useful only at the vegetative stage and are labor intensive and pose a risk to human health. Once the plant matures (starts producing seed) physical removal becomes only a short-term solution (Batish et al. 2004).
    Chemical: A number of synthetic herbicides have been tried for the management of these weeds such as atrazine, alachlor, paraquat, glyphosate, simazine, 2,4-D, and 2,4,5-T. The effective dosage required varies with the growth stage. Although herbicides are quite effective in providing immediate control the weeds soon reappear because of quick regenerative potential. Repeated use of herbicides comes with toxicological concerns (Batish et al. 2004).
    Integrated Land Management: Batish and colleagues (2004) advocate integrated land management as the best strategy forward. After clearing infested areas land should be put to some use, with community input as a priority. Motivation should stem from education, with people becoming aware of the hazards of these weeds. Identification methods should be taught to school children, farmers and the general public. The involvement of non-governmental organizations and eco-task forces is also important. Educational awareness should focus on weed identification and life-cycle, motivation for the effective removal of the weed at an early growth stage and management of waste through vermi-composting.
    Efforts to manage A. conyzoides through eco-friendly means tried are also discussed in Kohli and Batish (1996).

    Shivalik Ranges
    Research: Work by Dogra and colleagues (2009) was carried out to find the intensity of invasion (dominance, density, abundance, frequency and importance value index) of these three significantly invasive species (A. conyzoides, L. camara, P. hysterophorus) in the lower Shivalik hills and to understand the impact of invasive plants on the structure and composition of other species. Their results showed that more than 20% vegetational area in lower Shivalik hills is covered by these three invasive species. The authors also found that the number of plant species is highly reduced in the areas invaded by these weeds and that the decrease was 30% for A. conyzoides. Similarly, Margalef index of species richness was also decreased by 36%. The index of dominance increased by 53% in the Ageratum invaded areas. The higher value of this dominance index among the invaded plant communities predicts the homogenous nature of the vegetation. The a-diversity of vegetation was drastically reduced due to the invasion of these three plant species in Shivalik hills (40% for Ageratum) Likewise, the number of abundant species (N1) and very abundant species (N2) and index of evenness were also significantly decreased in the areas invaded by these three invasive plant species. The comparison of the fresh and dry biomass of vegetation between the invaded and un-invaded areas also shows the decrease in productivity of communities in the invasive invaded areas.

    Medicinal plants, including Acyranthes aspera, Dichanthium annulatum, Murraya koenigii, Adhatoda vasica, Carissa spp. and Colebrookea spp., declined in areas invaded by A. conyzoides (Singh Undated). There is an urgent need for the management of indigenous or medicinally valuable plants in the invaded areas under their natural habitats (Dogra et al. 2009).

    Factors considered to contribute to the invasiveness of A. conyzoides are (Singh Undated): Fast growth rate; Unpalatable or bitter tasting - rich chemistry; Long flowering and fruiting periods; Very high seed production; Adaptability and wide ecological amplitude; High regenerative potential; and Absence of natural enemies / competitors.



         管理资源 /链接

    1. Batish, Daizy R., Kaur, Shalinder, Singh, Harminder Pal, Kohli, Ravinder Kumar. 2009a. Role of root-mediated interactions in phytotoxic interference of Ageratum conyzoides with rice (Oryza sativa) Flora (Jena). 204 (5): Pages 388-395.
    2. Batish, Daizy R., Shalinder Kaur, Harminder Pal Singh & Ravinder Kumar Kohli. 2009b. Nature of interference potential of leaf debris of Ageratum conyzoides, Plant Growth Regul 57: Pages 137-144.
    3. Batish, Daizy R., Singh, Harminder Pal, Kohli, Ravinder K., Johar, Vandana, Yadav, Surender. 2004. Management of invasive exotic weeds requires community participation, Weed Technology 18 (Suppl. S): Pages 1445-1448.
    4. Bouda, H., L. A. Tapondjou, D. A. Fontem and M. Y. D. Gumedzoe. 2001. Effect of essential oils from leaves of Ageratum conyzoides, Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata on the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Journal of Stored Products Research 37 (2): Pages 103-109.
    5. Dogra, K. S., R. K. Kohli & S. K. Sood. 2009. An assessment and impact of three invasive species in the Shivalik hills of Himachal Pradesh, India, International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 1 (1): Pages 4-10.
    8. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
            摘要: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
    11. Singh, Harminder P., Daizy R. Batish and Ravinder K. Kohli. 2002. Allelopathic effect of two volatile monoterpenes against bill goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.), Crop Protection 21(4): Pages 347-350.
    14. Zhao, Jinli, Youxin Ma, Hua Zhu, Hongmei Li, Wenjun Liu, Zengjia Li. 2008. Invasion patterns of seven alien plant species along roadsides in Southern mountainous areas of Yunnan Province, Biodiversity Science 16 (4): Pages 369-380.

         结果页: 1  


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland