Location Specific Management Information
A study by Dennett et al (2003) compared the effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin on A. quadrimaculatus larvae in Arkansas rice plots. Results showed that at 24 hour post-treatment higher control was obtained for A. quadrimaculatus with fipronil, and was less harmful to non-target predators (Dennett et al. 2003).
Effectiveness of Bacillus larvicides were also compared in Arkansas rice plots during the 1998 growing season. Experimental Bacillus larvicides designed to float on or near the water surface were compared to labeled standard Bacillus corn-cob-based larvicides. “Experimental floating formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis applied at 5.58 and 11.18 kg/ha provided up to 100% control of 3rd- and 4th-stage Anopheles larvae within 24-48 h, whereas the water-dispersible granule formulations containing Bacillus sphaericus required 48-72 h to yield >75% mortality in 0.16-ha plots at 11.18 kg/ha.” (Dennett and Meisch 2000).
Cyclopoid copepods are currently in use for control against Aedes larvae, and thus may offer possibilities for Anopheles control. Rice fields in Louisiana are a major breeding habitat for Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Marten et al (2000) measured how natural and introduced copepod populations affect Anopheles larvae in the rice fields. Naturally occurring copepod predators present in almost all fields were Mesocyclops ruttneri, Acanthocyclops vernalis and Macrocyclops albidus. In fields where these copepods were present A. quadrimaculatus larvae production was suppressed due to predation. Macrocyclops albidus, M. ruttneri, Mesocyclops edax and Mesocyclops longisetus were introduced to experimental rice field plots. “It took two months for the introduced copepods to build up their numbers; Anopheles larvae then disappeared from all treated plots while larvae continued to be present in the adjacent control field.” The authors conclude that it seems likely that Anopheles production can be reduced by using cultivation practices that encourage predator populations and introducing select species of copepods (Marten et al. 2000).
Ham et al. (1999) compared mortality of Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes spp. complex were compared after exposure to the insecticides Dibrom, Trumpet and Scourge. “At all time intervals, Dibrom and Trumpet were significantly more effective against the Aedes spp. complex than against An. Quadrimaculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Scourge was significantly more effective against An. Quadrimaculatus and Cx. quinquefasciatus than Dibrom or Trumpet” (Ham et al. 1999).
1. Borovsky, D., and M. S. Meola. 2004. Biochemical and cytoimmunological evidence for the control of Aedes aegypti larval trypsin with Aea-TMOF. Archives of Insect Biochemistry & Physiology 55(3):124-139.
2. Chase, J. M., and T. M. Knight. 2003. Drought-induced mosquito outbreaks in wetlands. Ecology Letters 6: 1017-1024.
Summary: A scientific study in which the results sugest that large scale mosquito outbreaks can occur after droughts.
3. Dennet, J. A., J. L. Bernhardt, and M. V. Meisch. 2003. Effects of fipronil and lambda-cyhalothrin against larval Anopheles quadrimaculatus and nontarget aquatic mosquito predators in Arkansas small rice plots. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 19(2):172-174.
4. Dennett, J. A., and M. V. Mesich. 2000. Effectiveness of aerial- and ground-applied Bacillus formulations against Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in Arkansas rice plots. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 16(3):229-233.
5. Dennett, J. A., R. L. Lampman, R. J. Novak, and M. V. Meisch. 2000. Evaluation of methylated soy oil and water-based formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Golden Bear Oil (R) (GB-1111) against Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in small rice plots. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 16(4):342-345.
6. Groves, R. L., D. A. Dame, C. L. Meek, and M. V. Meisch. 1997. Efficacy of three synthetic pyrethroids against three mosquito species in Arkansas. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 13(2):184-188.
7. Ham, C. M., J. R. Brown, R. O. Musser, C. R. Rutledge, and M. V. Meisch. 1999. Comparison of electrostatic versus nonelectrostatic ULV sprays of Aqua Reslin(R) against Anopheles quadrimaculatus adults. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 15(3):312-314.
8. Ham, C. M., M. V. Meisch, and C. L. Meek. 1999. Efficacy of Dibrom(R), Trumpet(R), and Scourge(R) against four mosquito species in Louisiana. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 15(4):433-436.
9. Kline, D. L. 1999. Comparison of two American Biophysics mosquito traps: The professional and a new counterflow geometry trap. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 15(3): 276-282.
11. Marten, G. G., M. Nguyen, and G. Ngo. 2000. Copepod predation on Anopheles quadrimaculatus larvae in rice fields. Journal of Vector Ecology. 25(1):1-6.
12. Meisch, M. V., C. L. Meek, J. R. Brown, and R. D. Nunez. 1997. Field trial efficacy of two formulations of Permanone against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 13(4):311-314
13. Milam, C. D., J. L. Farris, and J. D. Wilhide. 2000. Evaluating Mosquito Control Pesticides for Effect on Target and Nontarget Organisms. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 39: 324-328.
14. Morris, C. D., R. H. Baker, and J. K. Nayar. 1990. A Florida Mosquito Control Fact Sheet: Human Malaria. Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, IFAS-University of Florida and Entomology Services, Mosquito Control Section, Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services.
Summary: Brief fact sheet providing pesticide management information along with preventative measures.
15. Pridgeon, J.W., Pereira, R.M., Becnel, J.J., Allan, S.A., Clark, G.G. & Linthicum, K.G. 2008. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say to 19 Pesticides with Different Modes of Action. Journal of Medical Entomology 45(1): 82-87.
17. Wallace, J. R., and R. W. Merritt. 1999. Influence of microclimate, food, and predation on Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae) growth and development rates, survivorship, and adult size in a Michigan pond. Environmental Entomology. 28(2):233-239.
18. Xue, R., A. Ali, and D. R. Barnard. 2003b. Laboratory evaluation of toxicity of 16 insect repellents in aerosol sprays to adult mosquitoes. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association. 19(3):271-274
19. Xue, R., Ali, A. & Barnard, D.R. 2007. Effects of in vivo exposure to DEET on blood feeding behavior and fecundity in Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Experimental Parasitology 116: 201-204.
20. Xue, R., and D. R. Barnard. 2003. Boric acid bait kills adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Economic Entomology. 96(5):1559-1562.
21. Xue, R., D. R. Barnard, and A. Ali. 2003a. Laboratory evaluation of 18 repellent compounds as oviposition deterrents of Aedes albopictus and as larvicides of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19(4):397-403.
22. Zhu, K., Heise, S., Zhang, J., Anderson, T. & Starkey, S.R. 2008. Comparative Studies on Effects of Three Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors on Common Malaria Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 44(6): 1047-1053.
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