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   Pomacea canaliculata (軟體動物)  English   
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         管理資訊

    預防措施:主要的管理辦法一定是預防。嚴格的檢疫必須得到執行,以防止引進和傳播。早期入侵必須消除迅速,此時仍有可能做到消除。水稻和芋頭田,最好是使用非疫區植物。如果那是不可能的,檢查植物並確保不存在任何蘋果蝸牛或其他有害蝸牛和卵團。在水入口使用紗屏有助於延緩蘋果蝸牛的傳播。紗屏應該經常地被清理,以達到阻撓效果。在水稻與芋田的周圍,銅的障礙可以被用來減緩蝸牛擴散到一定程度。銅對蝸牛是有毒的,而且它們不越過這材料。銅線或銅絲應該被放置在田地周邊的水面上。

    控制方法:消除已建立的族群大概是不可能的。許多措施曾經被嘗試過,試圖控制在農業背景中的蘋果蝸牛。這些包括:普遍使用農藥,造成嚴重的環境和人類健康的後果; 生物控制,特別是利用魚和鴨子; 一系列的文化和機械控制措施。沒有任何一個措施是完全有效,安全和經濟上可行。沒有一個任何一個措施可能是適合自然生態系統。在水稻和芋頭田,手工摘取是一種成功的方法來控制蘋果蝸牛人口,又不損害環境。缺點是,必須經常規律執行才有效。如果手工摘取經由社區的努力完成,將會得到最好的結果。所有看得見的蝸牛應該用鏟子網或用手收集。收集後的蝸牛可用於人類消費(小心寄生蟲!),粉碎,作為魚類食物來源其餘的應銷毀。卵不應該在收集期間被忘記! 誘餌陷阱充滿生菜,木薯,芋頭葉可用於吸引蝸牛和便利收集。所有周圍植被和障礙物應盡可能清除,蝸牛需那些地方產卵。如果沒有合適產卵地點,蝸牛被迫產卵在裸露地面上,卵會非常脆弱,很容易落入水中而淹死。注水之前,製造淺的溝渠讓蝸牛聚集,這樣能容輕鬆捕捉。 English   



         管理資源 /鏈接

    1. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    3. Cowie, R.H. (2002). Apple snails as agricultural pests: their biology, impacts and management. In G.M. Barker (ed.) Molluscs as Crop Pests. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
            摘要: Major review of all ampullariid species, aspects of biology relevant to their pest status, distribution, agricultural impacts, management options. Key words: ampullariidae, rice, taro, wetland crops, freshwater snails
    5. Invasions in agriculture: assessing the cost of the golden apple snail in Asia. Ambio 25: 443-448
            摘要: Economic assessment of dmage to rice in south-east Asia, especially the Philippines.
    6. Joshi, Ravindra C. & Leocadio S. Sebastian (Eds) 2006. Global advances in the ecology and management of golden apple snails. Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) Sponsers: DICTUC & FAO-UN
            摘要: This publication contains all information so far known about golden apple snails (GAS) and the rice systems and countries they have afflicted. Around 500 pages of information are devoted to this species that continue to expand their distribution. No less than US$ 1 billion have been reported as losses due to GAS. 24 chapters cover various aspects of snail taxonomy (traditional as well as molecular tools), impacts of GAS on aquatic ecosystems and farmers' health, and pesticide abuse/misuse. Even GAS-invaded countries have submitted their separate country reports. Further, some chapters are dedicated to the utilization of GAS as food and as natural paddy weeder, with some information available on the biorational approach in its management and control. The book has practical applications as well, offering various options for the ecological and sustainable ways to deal with GAS invasions. This book could serve as a manual for all researchers: field research as well as extension workers, and as reference textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students of biological sciences, as well as industry workers, museums, and even libraries where exhaustive information on this topic is needed.
    Details on this featured publication are available from: http://www.philrice.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104&Itemid=139 [Accessed 28 November 2006]
    7. Levin, Penny., 2006. Statewide Strategic Control Plan For Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Hawai‘i
            摘要: This Hawaii-wide plan for control of apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) consolidates the most relevant information about the ecology and behavior of this serious pest of wetlands and agriculture (particularly taro farms). Environmental, agricultural, health, and cultural impacts of the apple snail in Hawaii are assessed, and its current known distribution in Hawaii is mapped. Historic control measures are itemized, and recommendations for current and future actions are detailed.
    Available from: http://www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/applesnailcontrolplanlevin2006.pdf [Accessed 31 January 2007]
    8. Management options for the Golden Apple Snail, 2001. Philippine Rice Research Institute.
            摘要: To control this pest in the Philippines, many farmers resort to the massive use of synthetic molluscicides that are expensive and broad spectrum, affecting non-target organisms including human beings. This primer was prepared to present additional alternatives and information on golden apple snail management. It contains many new information to reduce the misuse of molluscicides. Discussed here are details of the biology of golden apple snail, including several management options that farmers could use to manage this pest in their farms.
    Website available at http://www.applesnail.net/pestalert/management_guide/pest_management.php
    10. The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Asian rice farming systems: present impact and future threat. International Journal of Pest Management. 40: 199-206
            摘要: Discusses impacts on rice and potential control measures. Keywords: South-east Asia, rice, control.
    11. Walker, K. 2006. Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 25/09/2006 5:03:31 PM.
            摘要: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=244 [Accessed 6 October 2006]

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland