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   Pomacea canaliculata (软体动物)  English   
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         管理信息

    预防措施:主要的管理办法一定是预防。严格的检疫必须得到执行,以防止引进和传播。早期入侵必须消除迅速,此时仍有可能做到消除。水稻和芋头田,最好是使用非疫区植物。如果那是不可能的,检查植物并确保不存在任何苹果蜗牛或其它有害蜗牛和卵团。在水入口使用纱屏有助于延缓苹果蜗牛的传播。纱屏应该经常地被清理,以达到阻挠效果。在水稻与芋田的周围,铜的障碍可以被用来减缓蜗牛扩散到一定程度。铜对蜗牛是有毒的,而且它们不越过这材料。铜线或铜丝应该被放置在田地周边的水面上。

    控制方法:消除已建立的族群大概是不可能的。许多措施曾经被尝试过,试图控制在农业背景中的苹果蜗牛。这些包括:普遍使用农药,造成严重的环境和人类健康的后果; 生物控制,特别是利用鱼和鸭子; 一系列的文化和机械控制措施。没有任何一个措施是完全有效,安全和经济上可行。没有一个任何一个措施可能是适合自然生态系统。在水稻和芋头田,手工摘取是一种成功的方法来控制苹果蜗牛人口,又不损害环境。缺点是,必须经常规律执行才有效。如果手工摘取经由小区的努力完成,将会得到最好的结果。所有看得见的蜗牛应该用铲子网或用手收集。收集后的蜗牛可用于人类消费(小心寄生虫! ) ,粉碎,作为鱼类食物来源其余的应销毁。卵不应该在收集期间被忘记! 诱饵陷阱充满生菜,木薯,芋头叶可用于吸引蜗牛和便利收集。所有周围植被和障碍物应尽可能清除,蜗牛需那些地方产卵。如果没有合适产卵地点,蜗牛被迫产卵在裸露地面上,卵会非常脆弱,很容易落入水中而淹死。注水之前,制造浅的沟渠让蜗牛聚集,这样能容轻松捕捉。 English   



         地点特有的管理信息
    Hawaii
    The Statewide Strategic Control Plan For Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Hawai‘i, a Hawaii-wide plan for control of apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) consolidates the most relevant information about the ecology and behavior of this serious pest of wetlands and agriculture (particularly taro farms). Environmental, agricultural, health, and cultural impacts of the apple snail in Hawaii are assessed, and its current known distribution in Hawaii is mapped. Historic control measures are itemized, and recommendations for current and future actions are detailed.


         管理资源 /链接

    1. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            摘要: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    3. Cowie, R.H. (2002). Apple snails as agricultural pests: their biology, impacts and management. In G.M. Barker (ed.) Molluscs as Crop Pests. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
            摘要: Major review of all ampullariid species, aspects of biology relevant to their pest status, distribution, agricultural impacts, management options. Key words: ampullariidae, rice, taro, wetland crops, freshwater snails
    5. Invasions in agriculture: assessing the cost of the golden apple snail in Asia. Ambio 25: 443-448
            摘要: Economic assessment of dmage to rice in south-east Asia, especially the Philippines.
    6. Joshi, Ravindra C. & Leocadio S. Sebastian (Eds) 2006. Global advances in the ecology and management of golden apple snails. Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) Sponsers: DICTUC & FAO-UN
            摘要: This publication contains all information so far known about golden apple snails (GAS) and the rice systems and countries they have afflicted. Around 500 pages of information are devoted to this species that continue to expand their distribution. No less than US$ 1 billion have been reported as losses due to GAS. 24 chapters cover various aspects of snail taxonomy (traditional as well as molecular tools), impacts of GAS on aquatic ecosystems and farmers' health, and pesticide abuse/misuse. Even GAS-invaded countries have submitted their separate country reports. Further, some chapters are dedicated to the utilization of GAS as food and as natural paddy weeder, with some information available on the biorational approach in its management and control. The book has practical applications as well, offering various options for the ecological and sustainable ways to deal with GAS invasions. This book could serve as a manual for all researchers: field research as well as extension workers, and as reference textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students of biological sciences, as well as industry workers, museums, and even libraries where exhaustive information on this topic is needed.
    Details on this featured publication are available from: http://www.philrice.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104&Itemid=139 [Accessed 28 November 2006]
    7. Levin, Penny., 2006. Statewide Strategic Control Plan For Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Hawai‘i
            摘要: This Hawaii-wide plan for control of apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) consolidates the most relevant information about the ecology and behavior of this serious pest of wetlands and agriculture (particularly taro farms). Environmental, agricultural, health, and cultural impacts of the apple snail in Hawaii are assessed, and its current known distribution in Hawaii is mapped. Historic control measures are itemized, and recommendations for current and future actions are detailed.
    Available from: http://www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/applesnailcontrolplanlevin2006.pdf [Accessed 31 January 2007]
    8. Management options for the Golden Apple Snail, 2001. Philippine Rice Research Institute.
            摘要: To control this pest in the Philippines, many farmers resort to the massive use of synthetic molluscicides that are expensive and broad spectrum, affecting non-target organisms including human beings. This primer was prepared to present additional alternatives and information on golden apple snail management. It contains many new information to reduce the misuse of molluscicides. Discussed here are details of the biology of golden apple snail, including several management options that farmers could use to manage this pest in their farms.
    Website available at http://www.applesnail.net/pestalert/management_guide/pest_management.php
    10. The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Asian rice farming systems: present impact and future threat. International Journal of Pest Management. 40: 199-206
            摘要: Discusses impacts on rice and potential control measures. Keywords: South-east Asia, rice, control.
    11. Walker, K. 2006. Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 25/09/2006 5:03:31 PM.
            摘要: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=244 [Accessed 6 October 2006]

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland