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         Management Information

    Preventative measures: The primary management approach must be prevention. Strict quarantine must be enforced to prevent introduction and spread. Incipient invasions must be eradicated rapidly while it is still possible to do this. For rice and taro fields, it is preferable to use plants from areas that are known to be apple snail free. If that's not possible, examine the plants and make sure that there are no apple snails or other unwanted snails and also check for egg clutches. The use of a screen on water inlets helps to retard the spread of apple snails. Screens should be cleaned regularly to obstruction. Around rice and taro fields, a barrier of copper could be used to slow the snail spreading to some extent. Copper is toxic to snails and they do not cross this material. The copper wire or strip should be placed above the water level, on the border of the field.

    Control: Eradication of established populations is probably not possible. Numerous measures have been tried in attempts to control apple snails in agricultural settings. These include: widespread use of pesticides, with serious environmental and human health consequences; biological control, notably the use of fish and ducks; a range of cultural and mechanical control measures. None has proven entirely effective, safe, and economically viable. None is likely to be appropriate in natural ecosystems. In rice and taro fields, hand picking is a successful method to control apple snail populations without harming the environment. The disadvantage is that it only works when done on regular base. The best results are obtained if the hand picking is done as a community effort. All visible snails should be collected with a scoop net or by hand. After collection the snails can be used for human consumption (beware of parasites!), crushed to serve as a food source for fish or destroyed otherwise. Eggs should not be forgotten during collection! Baited traps filled with lettuce, cassava and taro leaves can be used to attract the snails and to facilitate the collection. All vegetation and obstacles around fields should be removed as much as possible as the snails need this to deposit their eggs. When there are no suitable eggs-laying sites available, the snails are forced to deposit the eggs on the bare ground where the eggs are very vulnerable and easily fall into the water, which drowns the eggs. Before draining a field, make shallow trenches so that the snails will congregate in the trenches and can be captured easily.    



         Location Specific Management Information
    Hawaii
    The Statewide Strategic Control Plan For Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Hawai‘i, a Hawaii-wide plan for control of apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) consolidates the most relevant information about the ecology and behavior of this serious pest of wetlands and agriculture (particularly taro farms). Environmental, agricultural, health, and cultural impacts of the apple snail in Hawaii are assessed, and its current known distribution in Hawaii is mapped. Historic control measures are itemized, and recommendations for current and future actions are detailed.


         Management Resources/Links

    1. Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
            Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
    The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
    The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
    3. Cowie, R.H. (2002). Apple snails as agricultural pests: their biology, impacts and management. In G.M. Barker (ed.) Molluscs as Crop Pests. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
            Summary: Major review of all ampullariid species, aspects of biology relevant to their pest status, distribution, agricultural impacts, management options. Key words: ampullariidae, rice, taro, wetland crops, freshwater snails
    5. Invasions in agriculture: assessing the cost of the golden apple snail in Asia. Ambio 25: 443-448
            Summary: Economic assessment of dmage to rice in south-east Asia, especially the Philippines.
    6. Joshi, Ravindra C. & Leocadio S. Sebastian (Eds) 2006. Global advances in the ecology and management of golden apple snails. Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice) Sponsers: DICTUC & FAO-UN
            Summary: This publication contains all information so far known about golden apple snails (GAS) and the rice systems and countries they have afflicted. Around 500 pages of information are devoted to this species that continue to expand their distribution. No less than US$ 1 billion have been reported as losses due to GAS. 24 chapters cover various aspects of snail taxonomy (traditional as well as molecular tools), impacts of GAS on aquatic ecosystems and farmers' health, and pesticide abuse/misuse. Even GAS-invaded countries have submitted their separate country reports. Further, some chapters are dedicated to the utilization of GAS as food and as natural paddy weeder, with some information available on the biorational approach in its management and control. The book has practical applications as well, offering various options for the ecological and sustainable ways to deal with GAS invasions. This book could serve as a manual for all researchers: field research as well as extension workers, and as reference textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students of biological sciences, as well as industry workers, museums, and even libraries where exhaustive information on this topic is needed.
    Details on this featured publication are available from: http://www.philrice.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=104&Itemid=139 [Accessed 28 November 2006]
    7. Levin, Penny., 2006. Statewide Strategic Control Plan For Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) in Hawai‘i
            Summary: This Hawaii-wide plan for control of apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) consolidates the most relevant information about the ecology and behavior of this serious pest of wetlands and agriculture (particularly taro farms). Environmental, agricultural, health, and cultural impacts of the apple snail in Hawaii are assessed, and its current known distribution in Hawaii is mapped. Historic control measures are itemized, and recommendations for current and future actions are detailed.
    Available from: http://www.hear.org/articles/pdfs/applesnailcontrolplanlevin2006.pdf [Accessed 31 January 2007]
    8. Management options for the Golden Apple Snail, 2001. Philippine Rice Research Institute.
            Summary: To control this pest in the Philippines, many farmers resort to the massive use of synthetic molluscicides that are expensive and broad spectrum, affecting non-target organisms including human beings. This primer was prepared to present additional alternatives and information on golden apple snail management. It contains many new information to reduce the misuse of molluscicides. Discussed here are details of the biology of golden apple snail, including several management options that farmers could use to manage this pest in their farms.
    Website available at http://www.applesnail.net/pestalert/management_guide/pest_management.php
    10. The golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculata in Asian rice farming systems: present impact and future threat. International Journal of Pest Management. 40: 199-206
            Summary: Discusses impacts on rice and potential control measures. Keywords: South-east Asia, rice, control.
    11. Walker, K. 2006. Golden Apple Snail (Pomacea canaliculata) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 25/09/2006 5:03:31 PM.
            Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria's Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=244 [Accessed 6 October 2006]

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ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland