Preventative measures: The majority of introductions of Hemidactylus frenatus are the result of it finding its way onto boats or shipping containers that are transported to new locations. It is recommended that incoming cargo be examined for H. frenatus and that any individuals or eggs found be exterminated to prevent its establishment. Its superior ability to cling to surfaces allows it access to high crevice spaces for refuge and egg deposition, which gives it high potential to stowaway undetected in cargo and shipping containers (Csurhes & Markula, 2009; Newberry & Jones, 2008).
The use of naturally or artificially occurring substrates with a crumbly/highly concentrated particulate surface may be used to exclude the pad-bearing H. frenatus from specific locations, allowing claw-bearing gecko species to forage unchallenged. This method of exclusion was tested in attempts to preserve populations of threatened Nactus spp in the Mascarene Islands. Simple habitat modifications through the addition of artificial refugia have been proposed as a means to enhance populations of endangered or displaced native reptiles (Cole et al 2005).
Chemical control: The use of Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) injected into the intracoelomic cavity of H. frenatus is a chemical euthanasia method consistent with conditions specified by The Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals which require that euthanasia of ectotherms be consistent with the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines on Euthanasia. Test subjects were administered a intracoelomic injection of 250 to 500 mg/kg of 0.7% to 1% sodium-bicarbonate–buffered MS222 solution followed by intracoelomic injection of 0.1 to 1.0 ml unbuffered 50% (v/v) MS222 solution. Test subjects were effectively made unconscious by the first injection and respiratory and cardiac functions were eliminated by the second (Conroy et al 2009).
Location Specific Management Information
Strict quarantine procedures are in place to prevent the gecko reaching islands with restricted access, such as Round Island.
1. Canyon, D. V; Hii, J. L. K., 1997. The gecko: An environmentally friendly biological agent for mosquito control. Medical & Veterinary Entomology. 11(4). Oct., 1997. 319-323.
2. Case T J; Bolger D T., 1991. The Role of Introduced Species in Shaping the Distribution and Abundance of Island Reptiles. Evolutionary Ecology. 5(3). 1991. 272-290.
4. Conroy, C. J. ; Papenfuss, T. ; Parker, J. ; Hahn, N. E., 2009. Use of Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS222) for Euthanasia of Reptiles. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. 48(1). JAN 2009. 28-30,32
5. Csurhes, Steve and Anna Markula., 2009. Pest animal risk assessment: Asian house gecko Hemidactylus frenatus. Biosecurity Queensland, Queensland Primary Industries and Fisheries, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation
7. Gill, B. J; Bejakovich, D; Whitaker, A. H., 2001. Records of foreign reptiles and amphibians accidentally imported to New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 28(3). September, 2001. 351-359.
8. IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
9. Petren, Kenneth; Case, Ted J., 1998. Habitat structure determines competition intensity and invasion success in gecko lizards. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95(20). Sept. 29, 1998. 11739-11744.
11. Takahashi, Hiroo., 2005. A case of artificial overseas dispersal of Hemidactylus frenatus. Bulletin of the Herpetological Society of Japan.(2). 2005. 116-119.
13. Vences, Miguel; Wanke, Stefan; Vieites, David R; Branch, William R; Glaw, Frank; Meyer, Axel., 2004. Natural colonization or introduction? Phylogeographical relationships and morphological differentiation of house geckos (Hemidactylus) from Madagascar. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 83(1). September 2004. 115-130.
Results Page: 1