Preventitive measures: Prevention may be the easiest, cheapest, and most effective means of control. Stricter regulation of what agents, materials, or development can be brought or done into wilderness areas and public lands needs consideration (ANHP, 2006). An example is the restriction of livestock in nature reserves should be considered (Tyser & Worley, 1992). Monitoring is critical in knowing where invading populations occur and how abundant. It is easier to control small infestations before a population build-up (Curran & Lingenfelter, 2001). Education, awareness programs, advertising and community outreach are all excellent ways to stay informed at a local or regional level and allows earlier detection (Mullin,et al, 2000). Research is neccessary in order to develop new methods and techniques of control and better understand the biology of the species (Mullin,et al, 2000).
Physical: Most physical methods of control for Linaria vulgaris alone are not satisfactory, and not recommended for medium to large stands (Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). Mowing can prevent the plant from going to seed, but mowing also stimulates vegetative reproduction from the lateral roots and rhizomes which can exasberate the problem further (Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). Fire is also not effective because the underground rhizome system is not damaged and will just resprout shoots(Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). Tilling on arable lands can be effective in eradicating L. vulgaris, but tilling needs to be done every 7-10 days over the course of the season and repeated yearly for several years in order to eradicate resprouting root fragments (Ogden & Renz, 2005). Grazing by livestock is also not recommended as it stimulates vegetative growth with viable seeds passing through the digestive tract (Ogden & Renz, 2005). Overgrazing can reduce competition and increase the disturbance to the site creating an ideal environment for toadflax establishment (Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). The plant is not preferred by grazing livestock and contains poisonous glucosides that are moderately toxic to livestock (ANHP, 2006).
Cultural: Some cultural options for control of L. vulgaris is proper timing of seeding agricultural crops, overseeding, fertilizing, using high quality seed, planting at high densities, and using species that are adapted to your region (Curran & Lingenfelter, 2001). Revegetating with native species in particular perennial grasses which are more competitive to perennial forbs is another option (Curran & Lingenfelter, 2001).
Chemical: Chemicals that have shown to be effective in controlling L. vulgaris are glyphosates, a nonselective herbicide, and Telar and Tordon, two selective herbicides, among many others. Repeated applications may be required periodically every few years for up to twelve years. Applications should be timed around flowering when the plants are most vulnerable or after a hard frost (Ogden & Renz, 2005). Integrated management by seeding competitive species shortly after a chemical application has shown to be effective in preventing reemergence (Beck, 2006). Always follow labled instructions for any chemical and make sure that any chemical being applied is not going to kill or reduce the competitive ability of any native species(Kadrmas & Johnson, undated).
3. California Department of Food and Agriculture, undated, Noxious Weed Index, Linaria vulgaris, [online database], 1220 N Street Sacramento, CA, 95814.
Summary: Very detailed article on the CDFA database describing biology, habitat, cycles, and similar species.
Available from: http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/ipc/weedinfo/linaria.htm [Accessed on 2 March, 2007].
4. Curran, W.S., & Lingenfelter, D.D., 2001, Weed Management in Pasture Systems, Agronomy Facts 62, College of Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Research and Cooperative Extension, Univeristy of Pennsylvannia.
Summary: A fact sheet underlying general principles of management of pasture systems and techniques for control in those systems. Not much specific biology information on L. vulgaris, but comprehensive on principles of management for weed species in general based on habit and growth characteristics.
5. Holdorf, R.H., undated, Biological Control of Yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris (L.) (Scrophuliaraceae)): Oppurtunities and Constraints Affecting the Reclamation of Rangelands in the Western United States, Restoration and Reclamation Review, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, (USA).
Summary: An excellent article on potential biological control options for L. vulgaris as well as some general biology, introduction, distribution, and habitat. It refutes the effectiveness of other management options like grazing, fire, and herbicide.
7. Markin, G.P., undated, Weeds of National Forest Lands of the Northern Rockies, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, MSU, Bozeman, Montana, 59717
Summary: A survey article detailing the abundance of noxious weeds in the Northern Rockies. A brief description on the status of common toadflax along with a detailed map showing its distribution and abundance in the region. A few generalized weed management strategies and troubleshooting are discussed near the end of the article.
8. Mullin, B.H., Anderson, L.W.J, DiTomaso, J.M., Eplee, R.E., & Getsinger, K.D., Feb. 2000, Invasive Plant Species, Council for Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Issue Paper no. 13, pp. 1-18.
Summary: This paper was used for general management strategies against invasive weed species. There was no focus on Linaria vulgaris for management options, but the paper addressed preventive, regulatory, legislative, and educational approaches to weed management.
10. Tyser, R.W., & Worley, C.A., Jun. 1992, Alien Flora in Grasslands Adjacent to Road and Trail Corridors in Glacier National Park, Montana (U.S.A.), Conservation Biology, Vol. 6, no. 2, pp.253-262.
Summary: This journal article described various means of introduction of a variety of weed species in Glacier National Park. It also investigated how these weed species were being further propagated and dispersed into the park through traveled corridors and construction. Interesting management suggestions more in the form of prevention of further introductions and spread.
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