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   Euglandina rosea (軟體動物) English  français   
生態 分佈 管理 影響 參考資料 聯繫


         一般影響

    熱帶太平洋島嶼的陸蝸牛動物相,正在逐漸單一化。過去太平洋島嶼孕育著極大數量的物種,其中大多數是單一島嶼或群島的特有種。(Cowie 1996, 1997a, in Cowie and Cook 2001). 他們被種類不多的熱帶扁蝸牛和蛞蝓取而代之,而且這種情況變得越來越普遍。(Cowie 1998a, R.H. Cowie, unpub., in Cowie and Cook 2001).

    一個最顯著的引入種負面影響案例是在法屬玻里尼西亞的肉食性陸蝸 玫瑰蝸牛(Euglandina rosea)造成Partula屬的蝸牛滅絕(三種特有樹蝸牛),以及在夏威夷與模里西斯,造成該地特有的蝸牛族群明顯下降。文獻紀錄完整的案例,是哪些夏威夷群島特有的瑪瑙螺科樹蝸牛,以及先前提到的 partulid 屬樹蝸牛,此屬的樹蝸牛廣泛地分佈在大部分的熱帶太平洋的高島(不是環礁),除了夏威夷群島以外。這些物種似乎尤其容易受到非自然提高的獵捕壓力傷害,可能是因為他們的繁殖率非常緩慢。

    在太平洋, E. rosea最早引進的地方是巴布亞新幾內亞。引進後,夏威夷農業部門的官員認為 E. rosea將會控制非洲大蝸牛的數量(非洲大蝸牛(Achatina fulica))(另一個入侵種).(Nishida 與 Napompeth 1975, 在 Cowie 2000)然而, 沒有嚴格的科學證據能夠證明 E. rosea可以控制 A. fulica E. rosea是一個選擇失敗的生物控制劑。因此世界自然保護聯盟( IUCN)已正式譴責蓄意引進 E. rosea與其他肉食性蝸牛。大多數國家的政府和其他當局似乎意識到 E. rosea對本地動物的潛在威脅,但是,在壓力之下對A. fulica採取的行動,可能被錯誤引導到考慮引進 E. rosea。(與其他品種例如扁形蟲 扁蟲(Platydemus manokwari))。
    實驗中發現,E. rosea能當作Angiostrongylus cantonensis的中間宿主和寄生宿主。




         地點特有的影響:
    Tutuila Is. (American Samoa) English 
    威脅瀕危物種: On Tutuila Samoana abbreviata (previously considered probably extinct) is an extremely rare species (15 snails seen), Samoana conica is more common (288 snails) but still rare and Eua zebrina is the most common (1102 snails at one locality perhaps near its natural abundance) (Cowie and Cook 2001).
    Bermuda English 
    捕食: Euglandina rosea preys on native snail species (Varnham 2006).
    Society Islands (French Polynesia) English 
    捕食: The loss of most species of Partula in the wild (Lee et al. 2008) on the Society Islands other than Tahiti occurred due to the introduction of Euglandina rosea. On Tahiti the mixed species populations in the Te Pari area of Tahiti-Iti are still extant, but the predatory snail E. rosea has now spread to the last valley on the Peninsula that did not have previous evidence of predator activity. On Tahiti-Nui populations of partulid, without the predator, were found near the crest of Mount Tahiti above Orofero Valley.
    Huahine Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    經濟 /民生: On Huahine the disappearance of the critically endangered Partula varia and Partula rosea (due to predation by E. rosea), had an economic and social effect on the local community. The shells were used for making lei (shell jewellery) and many of the women of the villages lost their livelihoods.
    Moorea Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    捕食: Partula spp. of Moorea have for more than a century provided a natural laboratory for the study of variation, genetic polymorphism and speciation. As a result of the introduction of E. rosea, all the species of Partula from Moorea are now believed to be extinct in the wild. Since E. rosea is spreading rapidly on Tahiti, the demise of Partula on that island also is imminent (Murray et al 1988).
    Raiatea Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: The greatest single loss of Society Island tree snail diversity occurred on Raiatea, French Polynesia (Coote & Loeve 2003).
    Tahiti Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    捕食: Partula spp. of Moorea have for more than a century provided a natural laboratory for the study of variation, genetic polymorphism and speciation. As a result of the introduction of E. rosea, all the species of Partula from Moorea are now believed to be extinct in the wild. Since E. rosea is spreading rapidly on Tahiti, the demise of Partula on that island also is imminent (Murray et al 1988).
    Guam English 
    捕食: Not only was Euglandina rosea introduced, but an extremely voracious predatory flatworm, Platydemus manokwari, was also introduced and has contributed to the decline of partulids on that island (Hopper & Smith 1992, in Cowie & Cook 2001).
    Chichi-jima Is. (Japan) English 
    降低本地生物多樣性: In 1995, Mandarina mandarina was extinct in one of the northern areas of Chichijima Island. There were already Euglandina rosea (Kurozumi 1988, in Ohbayashi et al. 2007) and several predatory flatworms (but not P. manokwari) in this area (Kawakatsu et al. 1999), so these predators affected M. mandarina in the 1980s, and subsequently in the 1990s, the invasion of P. manokwari might have been the final blow for M. mandarina.
    Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto) (Japan) English 
    捕食: Mandarina snail species have suffered serious destruction of habitat due to cultivating land for crops since 100 years ago (Kurozumi 1988; Tomiyama 1994 in Satoshi 2003). However, the most serious problem is predation by introduced species. For example, the predatory flatworm, Platydemus manokwari, other predatory flatworms and the carnivorous land snail E. rosea (Kawakatsu et al. 1999, Ohkouchi et al. 1999, Tomiyama 2002, in Satoshi 2003). The effect of these introduced predators on native land snail fauna is so serious that they may rapidly cause the extinction of many of the native land snails in the Ogasawaras.
    Mauritius English 
    捕食: Most prey of Euglandina rosea are eaten whole. Achatina spp., which Euglandina was originally introduced to control, was not positively identified in the diet. Even if all unidentified prey fragments were from Achatina then this would form less than 5% of the total number of items in the stomachs. Habitat destruction, together with predation by Euglandina, appear to be major contributors to the extinctions of native Mauritian snails (Griffiths Cook & Wells 1993).
    Hawaii (United States (USA)) English 
    捕食: Achatinellaines are poorly adapted to predation pressure and are unable to cope with Euglandina rosea (Hadfield 1986, Hadfield and Miller 1989, in Howarth 1991). Disease or unknown mortality factors may also have been important (Hadfield 1986 in Howarth 1991).

    降低本地生物多樣性: Non-target impacts of Euglandina rosea included the consumption of native snails (Hoddle 2004). The best documented cases of native snail reduction in Hawaii due to E. rosea are those of the achatinelline tree snails, which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Hadfield 1986; Hadfield et al. 1993, in Cowie and Cook 2001). The complete extermination of a well-studied population of the endemic Oahu tree snail Achatinella mustelina corresponded with the arrival and increase of E. rosea in the study site (Hadfield and Mountain 1981, in Howarth 1991). Most of the 41 recognised species of Achatinella are extinct, and the remaining populations are officially listed as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. E. rosea even enters shallow water to prey on aquatic snails and has been implicated in the decimation of the native Hawaiian lymnaeid snails (Kinzie in prep, in Howarth 1991).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland