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   Euglandina rosea (软体动物) English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


         一般影响

    热带太平洋岛屿的陆蜗牛动物相,正在逐渐单一化。过去太平洋岛屿孕育着极大数量的物种,其中大多数是单一岛屿或群岛的特有种。(Cowie 1996, 1997a, in Cowie and Cook 2001). 他们被种类不多的热带扁蜗牛和蛞蝓取而代之,而且这种情况变得越来越普遍。(Cowie 1998a, R.H. Cowie, unpub., in Cowie and Cook 2001).

    一个最显著的引入种负面影响案例是在法属玻里尼西亚的肉食性陆蜗 玫瑰蜗牛(Euglandina rosea)造成Partula属的蜗牛灭绝(三种特有树蜗牛),以及在夏威夷与模里西斯,造成该地特有的蜗牛族群明显下降。文献纪录完整的案例,是哪些夏威夷群岛特有的玛瑙螺科树蜗牛,以及先前提到的 partulid 属树蜗牛,此属的树蜗牛广泛地分布在大部分的热带太平洋的高岛 (不是环礁),除了夏威夷群岛以外。这些物种似乎尤其容易受到非自然提高的猎捕压力伤害,可能是因为他们的繁殖率非常缓慢。

    在太平洋, E. rosea最早引进的地方是巴布亚新几内亚。引进后,夏威夷农业部门的官员认为 E. rosea将会控制非洲大蜗牛的数量 (非洲大蜗牛(Achatina fulica))(另一个入侵种).(Nishida 与 Napompeth 1975, 在 Cowie 2000) 然而, 没有严格的科学证据能够证明 E. rosea可以控制 A. fulica E. rosea是一个选择失败的生物控制剂。因此世界自然保护联盟( IUCN )已正式谴责蓄意引进 E. rosea与其它肉食性蜗牛。大多数国家的政府和其它当局似乎意识到 E. rosea对本地动物的潜在威胁,但是,在压力之下对A. fulica采取的行动,可能被错误引导到考虑引进 E. rosea。(与其它品种例如扁形虫 扁虫(Platydemus manokwari))。
    实验中发现,E. rosea能当作Angiostrongylus cantonensis的中间宿主和寄生宿主。




         地点特有的影响:
    Tutuila Is. (American Samoa) English 
    威胁濒危物种: On Tutuila Samoana abbreviata (previously considered probably extinct) is an extremely rare species (15 snails seen), Samoana conica is more common (288 snails) but still rare and Eua zebrina is the most common (1102 snails at one locality perhaps near its natural abundance) (Cowie and Cook 2001).
    Bermuda English 
    捕食: Euglandina rosea preys on native snail species (Varnham 2006).
    Society Islands (French Polynesia) English 
    捕食: The loss of most species of Partula in the wild (Lee et al. 2008) on the Society Islands other than Tahiti occurred due to the introduction of Euglandina rosea. On Tahiti the mixed species populations in the Te Pari area of Tahiti-Iti are still extant, but the predatory snail E. rosea has now spread to the last valley on the Peninsula that did not have previous evidence of predator activity. On Tahiti-Nui populations of partulid, without the predator, were found near the crest of Mount Tahiti above Orofero Valley.
    Huahine Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    经济 /民生: On Huahine the disappearance of the critically endangered Partula varia and Partula rosea (due to predation by E. rosea), had an economic and social effect on the local community. The shells were used for making lei (shell jewellery) and many of the women of the villages lost their livelihoods.
    Moorea Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    捕食: Partula spp. of Moorea have for more than a century provided a natural laboratory for the study of variation, genetic polymorphism and speciation. As a result of the introduction of E. rosea, all the species of Partula from Moorea are now believed to be extinct in the wild. Since E. rosea is spreading rapidly on Tahiti, the demise of Partula on that island also is imminent (Murray et al 1988).
    Raiatea Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    降低本地生物多样性: The greatest single loss of Society Island tree snail diversity occurred on Raiatea, French Polynesia (Coote & Loeve 2003).
    Tahiti Is. (French Polynesia) English 
    捕食: Partula spp. of Moorea have for more than a century provided a natural laboratory for the study of variation, genetic polymorphism and speciation. As a result of the introduction of E. rosea, all the species of Partula from Moorea are now believed to be extinct in the wild. Since E. rosea is spreading rapidly on Tahiti, the demise of Partula on that island also is imminent (Murray et al 1988).
    Guam English 
    捕食: Not only was Euglandina rosea introduced, but an extremely voracious predatory flatworm, Platydemus manokwari, was also introduced and has contributed to the decline of partulids on that island (Hopper & Smith 1992, in Cowie & Cook 2001).
    Chichi-jima Is. (Japan) English 
    降低本地生物多样性: In 1995, Mandarina mandarina was extinct in one of the northern areas of Chichijima Island. There were already Euglandina rosea (Kurozumi 1988, in Ohbayashi et al. 2007) and several predatory flatworms (but not P. manokwari) in this area (Kawakatsu et al. 1999), so these predators affected M. mandarina in the 1980s, and subsequently in the 1990s, the invasion of P. manokwari might have been the final blow for M. mandarina.
    Bonin Islands (Ogasawara-gunto) (Japan) English 
    捕食: Mandarina snail species have suffered serious destruction of habitat due to cultivating land for crops since 100 years ago (Kurozumi 1988; Tomiyama 1994 in Satoshi 2003). However, the most serious problem is predation by introduced species. For example, the predatory flatworm, Platydemus manokwari, other predatory flatworms and the carnivorous land snail E. rosea (Kawakatsu et al. 1999, Ohkouchi et al. 1999, Tomiyama 2002, in Satoshi 2003). The effect of these introduced predators on native land snail fauna is so serious that they may rapidly cause the extinction of many of the native land snails in the Ogasawaras.
    Mauritius English 
    捕食: Most prey of Euglandina rosea are eaten whole. Achatina spp., which Euglandina was originally introduced to control, was not positively identified in the diet. Even if all unidentified prey fragments were from Achatina then this would form less than 5% of the total number of items in the stomachs. Habitat destruction, together with predation by Euglandina, appear to be major contributors to the extinctions of native Mauritian snails (Griffiths Cook & Wells 1993).
    Hawaii (United States (USA)) English 
    捕食: Achatinellaines are poorly adapted to predation pressure and are unable to cope with Euglandina rosea (Hadfield 1986, Hadfield and Miller 1989, in Howarth 1991). Disease or unknown mortality factors may also have been important (Hadfield 1986 in Howarth 1991).

    降低本地生物多样性: Non-target impacts of Euglandina rosea included the consumption of native snails (Hoddle 2004). The best documented cases of native snail reduction in Hawaii due to E. rosea are those of the achatinelline tree snails, which are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Hadfield 1986; Hadfield et al. 1993, in Cowie and Cook 2001). The complete extermination of a well-studied population of the endemic Oahu tree snail Achatinella mustelina corresponded with the arrival and increase of E. rosea in the study site (Hadfield and Mountain 1981, in Howarth 1991). Most of the 41 recognised species of Achatinella are extinct, and the remaining populations are officially listed as endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act. E. rosea even enters shallow water to prey on aquatic snails and has been implicated in the decimation of the native Hawaiian lymnaeid snails (Kinzie in prep, in Howarth 1991).



ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland