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      Ligustrum lucidum (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service) - Click for full size   Ligustrum lucidum flowers (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service) - Click for full size   Ligustrum lucidum fruits (Photo: James H. Miller, USDA Forest Service) - Click for full size   Ligustrum lucidum (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size
    Taxonomic name: Ligustrum lucidum Ait. f.
    Synonyms: Esquirolia sinensis H.Lev., Faulia verrucosa Raf., Ligustrum esquirolii H.Lev., Ligustrum hookeri Decne., Ligustrum lucidum Aiton f.  var. esquirolii (H.Lev.) H.Lev., Ligustrum nepalense Wall.  var. glabrum Hook., Ligustrum roxburghii Blume, Olea clavata G.Don, Phillyrea paniculata Roxb., Visiania paniculata (Roxb.)DC.
    Common names: broadleaf privet, glossy privet, large leaf privet, ligustrum privet, privet, tree privet
    Organism type: tree
    Ligustrum lucidum (tree privet) is a native of Asia and has been introduced to many different locations, mainly for gardens and hedges. Its ability to grow in different habitats has made it an extremely noxious weed in several places, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Mozambique and some parts of Continental America.
    Description
    Tree privet is a fast-growing evergreen tree approximately 8m to 14m in height with a 8m to 12m spread. It has a dense canopy of bending branches composed of glossy green leaves which have narrow, translucent margins, (Gilman & Watson, 1993). Leaves are dark green, with a paler green undersurface. Flowers are produced in large clusters and are small, cream-coloured and strongly scented (Environment B.O.P). After pollination by insects fruits ripen into bunches of small, oblong, 1cm long, purplish black berries.
    Both leaves and fruit are poisonous to humans, (South Coast Weeds, Eurobodalla Shire Council).
    Similar Species
    Acmena smithii, Backhousia myrtifolia, Cinnamomum camphora

    More
    Occurs in:
    agricultural areas, coastland, natural forests, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed
    Habitat description
    L. lucidum survive easily in dry, moist, and wet forests, forest margins, forest remnants, farm hedgerows, shrublands, open areas, gardens, roadsides, wasteland, riverbanks, wetlands, coastal dunes and coastal cliffs, (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998, Batcher, 2000 and Auckland Regional Council, 1999). L. lucidum grows up to at least 6000 ft (2000m.) elevation in Hawai‘i, (PIER, 2002).
    General impacts
    L. lucidum has the potential to replace mid-canopy trees in forests and completely dominate an area of forest or forest fragments if not controlled (New Zealand Weeds Web Site 1999, in Batcher, 2000). Tree privet often displaces native species in regenerating communities and if left undisturbed, may eventually dominate an area of forest (Auckland Regional Council, 1999). It is widely believed to contribute to allergies and asthma, though it does not produce any wind-blown pollen as the plant is insect-pollinated,, (Common Weeds of New Zealand).
    Uses
    Since ancient times, ligustrum berries have been employed as a 'yin' tonic in traditional Chinese medicine. Ligustrum was used for a wide range of conditions, including premature aging and ringing in the ears, (FredMeyer, Health guide).
    Geographical range
    Native range: China, Japan, Korea.
    Known introduced range: Continental USA, Hawai‘i, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Mozambique, Tonga, Norfolk Island, Japan.
    Introduction pathways to new locations
    For ornamental purposes: Introduced to New Zealand as ornamental plants and widely grown as hedging. (Auckland Regional Council, 1998)


    Local dispersal methods
    Agriculture (local): Widely grown as hedging. (Auckland Regional Council, 1998)
    Consumption/excretion: Seeds distributed by frugiferous birds. (PIER, 2002)
    Garden escape/garden waste: Escaped from original garden plantings and has rapidly invaded other gardens, roadsides, bush margins and stream banks, (Auckland Regional Council, 1998). Seed dumped in garden waste, (South Coast Weeds, Eurobodalla Shire Council).
    Other (local): Root suckers can come up after the parent plant is removed. (South Coast Weeds, Eurobodalla Shire Council)
    Management information
    Physical: Small plants may be hand pulled; older individuals need to be dug out.

    Chemical: For overall spray application, the following herbicides are suitable: Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup G2): knapsack: 100ml per 10 litres of water handgun: 1 litre per 100 litres of water NB: The addition of Pulse penetrant at a rate of 100ml per 100 litres water is recommended to improve herbicide uptake. Escort: knapsack: 5g per 10 litres of water handgun: 20g per 100 litres of water NB: The addition of Pulse, Boost or Freeway at 100ml per 100 litres of water will improve herbicide uptake. Tordon Brushkiller: knapsack: 100ml per 10 litres of water handgun: 1 litre per 100 litres of water. The stem cut and inject method is suitable for privet plants with a stem diameter of 50mm or more. Ring bark the base of the stem with downward axe/machete strokes, cutting into the sap wood. Apply herbicide to the point of runoff into each downward cut immediately after cuts have been made. Suitable herbicides and dilution rates for cut and inject treatment are: Glypohosate (e.g. Roundup G2): Use neat (i.e. undiluted) Escort: 20 g (+ 10ml Pulse penetrant) per litre of water Stump treatment Cut plant off about 50mm above ground level. Apply herbicide mixtures to top and sides of the stump. Pulse penetrant will aid uptake of the herbicide. Suitable herbicides and dilution rates for stump treatment of Privet are: Glyphosate: 2 litres (+10ml Pulse) per 10 litres of water Escort: 5g (+10ml Pulse) per 10 litres of water NB: Herbicide must be applied immediately after stumps have been cut. Herbicide is most effective when applied during Privet's active growing season - spring or autumn in fine weather. If using Escort, avoid use over or nearby desirable plants, or in areas where their roots may extend. (Environment B.O.P. 1998).

    Biological: An investigation of possible biological control agents is under way on La Réunion. (Environment B.O.P. 1998)

    Please see 'The Nature Conservancy's' Stewardship Abstract for detailed information on control methods.

    Reproduction
    Flowering occurs in the summer months (varies depending on location). Strongly scented flowers attract pollinating insects, (Auckland Regional Council, 1999). The fruits ripen and are dispersed by frugiferous birds (PIER, 2002). Annual seed production is enormous. Root suckers can also come up after the parent plant is removed, (South Coast Weeds, Eurobodalla Shire Council).
    Reviewed by: Expert review underway: Dr Richard Milne. University of St Andrews UK
    Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS) Programme (Copyright statement)
    Last Modified: Thursday, 15 June 2006


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland