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      Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Photo: MAFFisheries, NZ) - Click for full size
    Taxonomic name: Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758)
    Synonyms: Cyprinus caeruleus Yarrell, 1833, Cyprinus compressus Hollberg, 1822, Cyprinus erythrophthalmus Linnaeus, 1758, Cyprinus erythrops Pallas, 1814, Cyprinus fuscus Vallot, 1837, Cyprinus scardula Nardo, 1827, Leuciscus apollonitis Richardson, 1857, Leuciscus erythrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758), Rutilus erythrophthalmus scardata (Bonaparte, 1837), Scardinius crocophthalmus Walecki, 1863, Scardinius dergle Heckel & Kner, 1858, Scardinius erithrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758), Scardinius eruthrophthalmus (Linnaeus, 1758), Scardinius erythrophthalmus achrus Stephanidis, 1950, Scardinius erythrophthalmus dojranensis Karan, 1924, Scardinius erythrophthalmus racovitzai Müller, 1958, Scardinius erythrophthalmus rutiloides Vladykov, 1931, Scardinius hesperidicus Bonaparte, 1845, Scardinius macrophthalmus Heckel & Kner, 1858, Scardinius platizza Heckel, 1845, Scardinius plotizza Heckel & Kner, 1858, Scardinius racovitzai Müller, 1958, Scardinius scardafa ohridana Vladyko & Petit, 1930, Scardinius scardafa (non Bonaparte, 1837)
    Common names: about (French), almindelig Rudskalle (Danish), cervenica (Czech), cervenica obycajná (Slovak), chervenoperka (Bulgarian), deargan (Gaelic, Irish), gardí (Spanish), gardon carpe (French), gardon de roche (French), gardon rouge (French), kizilkanat baligi (Turkish), kokkinoftera (Greek), krasnoperka (Russian), lloska-ë (Albanian), louzou (French), Meefischli (German), pearl roach (English), perlín ostrobrichý (Czech), perlin rudoploutvy (Czech), plate (French), platelle (French), platitsa (Greek), rdeceperka (Slovene), redeye (English), rietvoorn (Dutch), rosioara (Romanian), rossard (French), rotengle (French), Rotfeder (German), rothfeden (French), rottle (French), rudd (English), rudskalle (Danish), Sarv (Swedish), scardola (Italian), sergent (French), sorkh Baleh (Farsi-Iran), sorkh Pareh (Farsi-Iran), sorv (Norwegian), sørv (Norwegian), sorva (Finnish), søv (Norwegian), suce-roseaux (French), Weißfisch (German), wzdrega (Polish), wzdrega a. krasnopiórka (Polish)
    Organism type: fish
    Scardinius erythrophthalmus (rudd) are mainly herbivorous freshwater fish that are found throughout Eurasia. They have been introduced to a number of countries as a sport fish. Concerns have been raised about the effects of Scardinius erythrophthalmus on aquatic communities.
    Description
    The back is golden-olive, paling to a silvery-olive on the sides and silvery-white on the belly. The fins are coloured a bright orange-red and the eyes are pink to gold (McDowall, 2000)
    Occurs in:
    lakes, water courses, wetlands
    Habitat description
    Found in lakes, rivers, marshes, canals and ponds (FishBase, 2004). Prefers waters that contain large weed beds (McDowall, 2000). Tolerates a pH range of 7.0 - 7.5 and temperature range of 10 - 22°C. Can live in brackish waters (FishBase, 2004).
    General impacts
    Rudd maybe a potential pest in some areas, due to their consumption of aquatic plants. Experiments in New Zealand have suggested that rudd may be putting vulnerable native aquatic plant communities at risk (Lake et al., 2002).In New Zealand the introduction of rudd to a small put-and-take trout fishery ruined the fishery because they stunted and outcompeted trout for anglers lures (Rowe & Champion, 1994).
    Uses
    Valued as a sporting fish by coarse anglers (McDowall, 2000).
    Notes
    Rudd are unpopular with trout anglers, as they will take a fly and therefore make it more difficult to catch trout .
    Geographical range
    Native range: Eurasia: widely spread in Europe and middle Asia in the basins of the North, Baltic Black, Caspian (from Emba, Ural and Volga to the rivers of the southern coast) and Aral seas.
    Known introduced range: Introduced to Canada, Morocco, New Zealand, Spain, Tunisia and the USA (FishBase, 2004).
    Introduction pathways to new locations
    Natural dispersal: Rudd are able to disperse within connected water bodies.
    Smuggling: Rudd have been introduced illegally by anglers in some countries.
    Stocking: Angling organisations may realease rudd as a sport fish.


    Local dispersal methods
    Intentional release: Due to its value as a sport fish, rudd may be released by angling organisations.
    Natural dispersal (local): Rudd are able to disperse within connected water bodies.
    Management information
    Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

    Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

    Physical: A study has shown that the use of fine-mesh monofilament gill nets is a potentially viable but short term option for the control of rudd in small lakes (Neilson et al. 2004). Ruud were eliminated from a 2 ha lake using a combination of grass carp to removee weed beds and then Rotenone to remove the unwanted fish exposed by weed removal (Rowe & Champion, 1994).

    Nutrition
    Largely carnivorous. When small rudd feed on aquatic crustaceans, snails and insects. As they grow larger they include small fish, worms, detritus, aquatic plants and terrestrial insects in their diet (McDowall, 2000).
    Reproduction
    Reproduction is by external fertilisation, with large numbers of small eggs (1 - 1.4mm in diameter) deposited amongst aquatic vegetation. Spawning occurs once per year over spring/summer, when water temperatures rise above about 18°C (McDowall, 1990)
    Lifecycle stages
    Males mature at the age of one, females at one to two. Lifespan exceeds four years (McDowall, 2000).

    Newly hatched fish attach themselves to aquatic plants using adhesive organs. They stay attached for several days while the sustenance contained within the yolk sac is used up(McDowall, 1990).

    Reviewed by: Dr. David Rowe, NIWA (National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research). Hamilton New Zealand.
    Principal sources: McDowall, R. M. 2000. The Reed field guide to New Zealand freshwater fishes. Auckland, Reed.
    FishBase, 2004. Species profile Scardinius erythrophthalmus Rudd
    Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Terrestrial and Freshwater Biodiversity Information System (TFBIS) Programme (Copyright statement)
    Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Last Modified: Monday, 4 October 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland