Taxonomic name: Pinus pinaster Soland., non Ait.
Synonyms: Pinus maritima, Pinus mesogeneensid
Common names: cluster pine (English), maritime pine (English)
Organism type: tree
Pinus pinaster, originally from the Mediterranean Basin, has been planted in temperate regions within and outside its natural range for a wide range of reasons. It regenerates readily almost everywhere it is planted and in many places it invades natural shrubland, forest and grassland. Pinus pinaster forms dense thickets which supress native plants, changes fire regimes and hydrological properties and alters habitats for many animals.
An evergreen coniferous tree, growing 20-35m tall, with 2 needle-shaped leaves per fascicle (leaves usually 15-20cm long and stiff). Cones 10-22cm long.
agricultural areas, coastland, natural forests, planted forests, range/grasslands, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed, scrub/shrublands, urban areas
This species regenerates profusely after fire, often resulting in dense thickets of plants close to killed adult plants. These dense thickets supress native plants, change fire regimes and hydrological properties and alter habitats for many animals.
Local dispersal methods
On animals (local):
Physical: Mechanical control is currently the most effective way of dealing with invasive Pinus pinaster stands. All plants are felled and allowed to lie for 12-18 months.
Pinus pinaster reproduces exclusively from seeds (it does not sprout). The small, winged seeds are held in serotinous cones. Some seeds are released every year, especially during hot spells when cones open partially. Trees have thin bark and a poor re
This species has been nominated as among 100 of the "World's Worst" invaders
Reviewed by: Dr. Dave Richardson, University of Capetown
Compiled by: Dr. Dave Richardson, University of Capetown & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Last Modified: Thursday, 16 June 2005