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   Passiflora foetida (vine, climber)  français     
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      Passiflora foetida (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size   Passiflora foetida (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size   Habit of Passiflora foetida (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size   Passiflora foetida fruit (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size   Immature fruit of Passiflora foetida (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size   Passiflora foetida (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr (USGS)) - Click for full size
    Taxonomic name: Passiflora foetida L. (Linnaeus, 1753)
    Synonyms: Dysosmia ciliata (Dryand.) M.Roem., Dysosmia fluminensis M.Roem., Dysosmia foetida (L.) M.Roem., Dysosmia gossypifolia (Desv. ex Ham.) M.Roem., Dysosmia hastata (Bertol.) M.Roem., Dysosmia hibiscifolia (Lam.) M.Roem., Dysosmia nigelliflora (Hook.) M.Roem., Granadilla foetida (L.) Gaertn., Passiflora baraquiniana Lem., Passiflora ciliata Dryand., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. polyadena Griseb., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. quinqueloba Griseb., Passiflora ciliata Dryand. var. riparia C.Wright ex Griseb., Passiflora foetida L. forma suberecta Chodat & Hassl., Passiflora foetida L. var. lanuginosa Killip, Passiflora foetida L. forma latifolia Kuntze, Passiflora foetida L. forma longifolia Kuntze, Passiflora foetida L. forma quinqueloba (Griseb.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. acapulcensis Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. arizonica Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. balansae Chodat, Passiflora foetida L. var. ciliata (Dryand.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. eliasii Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. fluminensis (M.Roem.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. galapagensis Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. gardneri Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. glaziovii Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. gossypifolia (Desv. ex Ham.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hastata (Bertol.) Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hibiscifolia (Lam.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. hirsuta Mast., Passiflora foetida L. var. hirsutissima Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. hispida (DC. ex Triana & Planch.) Killip, Passiflora foetida L. var. isthmia Killip
    Common names: bedoca (Spanish-Galapagos Islands), bombom (Chuuk), dulce (Saipan), fetid pa, grenadier marron (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), ka thoc rock, kinahulo' atdao (Saipan), kudamono (Palau), lani wai (Hawaii (Ni'ihau)), loliloli ni kalavo (Fiji), love-in-a-mist (English), mossy passionflower, pasio vao (Samoa), passiflore (French), passiflore fétide (French), passiflore poc-poc (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), passionflower (English), pohapoha (Hawaii), pompom (Pohnpei), pwomwpwomw (Pohnpei), qaranidila (Fiji), running pop, scarlet fruited passionflower, sou (Fiji), stinking passionflower (English), tea biku (Kiribati), ti grenadelle (French-Reunion (La Réunion)), tomates (Yap), vaine 'ae kuma, vaine 'initia (Tonga), vine vao (Niue), wild passion fruit (English), wild water lemon
    Organism type: vine, climber
    Passiflora foetida is a perennial herbaceous vine that originates from tropical America, but is now a pantropic weed. It is a common weed in many places of the Pacific and Atlantic, where it climbs over low vegetation on roadsides and in other disturbed places. Monitoring and management of this toxic plant is recommended in tropical areas where it is present.
    "Perennial vine, the stems hispid, with tendrils; leaves 3-parted; segments-apices acute; leaf base cordate; both sides hispid-hirsute; blades 3,5-10cm long, 4-12cm wide; petiole 2-6cm long; flowers solitary in axils, 3-5cm wide, purple and white on pedicels 2-7cm long; fruit yellow to orange; subglobose, thin leathery-skinned, nearly 2cm think, with many seeds; pulp scanty, sweetly tart. The very finely laciniate bracts enclosing the fruit probably gave rise to the curious common name" (Stone, 1970, in PIER, 2002).
    The whole plant has an unpleasant smell, but the ripe fruit is edible (Randall, 1998).
    Similar Species
    Passiflora edulis

    Occurs in:
    agricultural areas, ruderal/disturbed
    Habitat description
    P. foetida is an invader on disturbed sites. It favours wet areas (PIER, 2002) but can tolerate arid conditions (Randall, 2003). In Guam wild passionfruit grows on both volcanic and limestone soils and is commonly seen on abandoned land that has been previously cleared (Moore & McMakin, 2002). A common weed of disturbed areas on river and creek banks from Kimberley to Carnarvon in Australia (Randall, 1998). In Hawai‘i it is locally abundant, growing over low vegetation on lava flows and in disturbed places, such as pastures and roadsides up to 500m elevation (Whistler, 1995). In Bolivia and Argentina it can grow up to 1500m elevation. Management of this toxic plant is recommended in tropical areas where it is present.
    General impacts
    P. foetida forms a dense ground cover which prevents or delays the establishment of other species, (PIER, 2002). Sometimes on rice or cotton fields.
    Cultivated - Medicinal/culinary purposes (Randall, 2003).
    The fruit is edible, but not a common food item because it contains little pulp. It has a sweet taste, similar to the large fruited passifloras that are popular in other areas of the Pacific (Moore & McMakin, 2002) and Atlantic areas too.
    Geographical range
    Native range: South America, now a pan-tropical weed.
    Known introduced range:Widely distributed in South America, American Samoa, Cocos Islands, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, French Polynesia, Galapagos Islands, Guam, Hawai‘i, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna Islands. Christmas Island and Réunion.
    Local dispersal methods
    Consumption/excretion: Readily eaten and dispersed by birds (Whistler, 1983).
    Seed, commonly eaten and dispersed by birds, (PIER, 2002).
    Lifecycle stages
    Perennial vines
    Reviewed by: Dra. Norma B. Deginani. Curadora Herbario, Instituto de Botánica Darwinion (SI), San Isidro, Argentina.
    Compiled by: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Last Modified: Thursday, 23 March 2006

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland