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   Miconia calvescens (乔木)  English  français   
生态 分布 管理 影响 参考数据 联系


      Landslide under Miconia forrest on Tahiti (Photo: Jean-Yves Meyer) - Click for full size   Miconia on a mountainside in Tahiti (Photo: Peter Thomas, TNC) - Click for full size   Miconia calvescens fruit (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr) - Click for full size   Miconia calvescens seedlings (Photo: Forest & Kim Starr) - Click for full size   General appearance of Miconia calvescens - Click for full size   Large leaf of Miconia calvescens - Click for full size   Detail of Miconia leaves and the shade they cause - Click for full size
    学名: Miconia calvescens D.C.
    同种异名: Cyanophyllum magnificum Groenland 1859, Miconia magnifica Triana 1871
    俗名: bush currant (English), cancer vert (French), cancer vert, miconia (English), purple plague (English), velvet tree (English)
    生物类型: 乔木
    米氏野牡丹(Miconia calvescens)是南美洲的一种高装饰性树,在 1937 年被引进大溪地岛上的一个植物园。它的大型红色与紫色的树叶,深受各庭园喜爱,引进后经由食果实鸟类,传布到野外。今天,大溪地超过一半的地区,严重被此植物入侵。米氏野牡丹(Miconia calvescens)的浅须根,容易造成山崩土质流失。 它已经成为大溪地的大区域优势树冠层,遮住整个森林的下层植物的阳光。科学家估计一些岛上特有种用品种正因栖地消失,面临灭绝威胁,由于米氏野牡丹占据栖地的结果。它有被引进其它太平洋岛屿,包括夏威夷,1960 年代作为一个装饰性树被引入。此植物因此在夏威夷群岛上的许多地方都有。热带地区,仍然当作的一个装饰性的植物销售。
    物种描述
    中型乔木,可达15公尺。叶对生,长可达80 cm,上表面深绿,具三条明显淡绿色脉,下表面蓝紫色。花小型,白色,具淡香气,排列成30 公分长的圆锥花丛。肉质浆果,直径约7mm,成熟后为紫黑色。
    出现在:
    人造林, 天然林, 市区, 杂草 /受干扰, 河岸区, 沼泽地, 沿岸地区, 矮丛/灌木
    栖息地描述
    Miconia calvescens thrives in tropical montane climate regimes; it is capable of establishing in areas that receive at least 1800-2000 mm of rain per year. It grows in lowland to montane tropical rainforest at altitudes between 300 and 1800 meters. Preferred microsites include mineral soil, dead tree boles and dead tree fern trunks.
    一般影响
    米氏野牡丹形成的致密单种立地,以其大型叶压迫原生植物,使位居下层地被之原生种生长及更新受抑制。在大溪地岛,它覆盖超过 70% 的岛。在大溪地(社会群岛)有约40-50种稀有本土植物因而直接受到威胁。其脆弱的根系易容受土壤冲蚀、地滑之害。
    用途
    Also known as Miconia magnifica in horticulture, miconia has attractive bicoloured foliage and enormous inflorescences comprised of panicles of up to 3000 white or pink flowers that made it a highly attractive ornamental plant. When the alarm was raised against miconia in Hawaii in 1991-1992 (e.g. Gagné et al. 1992), all 1000+ spp. of the genus Miconia were declared noxious and prohibited under Hawaii’s Noxious Weed regulations, with the aim of preventing problems with other species in the genus. The entire family Melastomataceae is considered notorious for its perceived high percentage of invasive members (Meyer and Medeiros 2010).
    Notes
    1. Miconia calvescens is referred to as miconia in this species profile which should not be confused with the genus Miconia.
    2. Invasions of Tahitian rainforests by M. calvescens dramatically accelerate after damage and disturbance caused by cyclones (Merlin & Juvik 1995, in Murphy et al. 2008b).
    3. There are 15 invading melastomes described for Hawaii (Almeda 1990, in Baruch Pattison & Goldstein 2000), including the forest tree M. calvescens, the shrub Clidemia hirta, and the herbs from open sites, Arthrostema ciliatum and Tibouchina herbacea (Baruch Pattison & Goldstein 2000).
    4. According to botanists studying the tropical Americans miconia "never […] occurs in monospecific formations" in its native region (F. Almeda, in a letter dated November 1988 to P. Birnbaum, in Meyer 1998b); this is in stark contrast to its growth form in introduced regions. P. Morat (director of the Laboratoire de Phanerogamie of the Natural History Museum of Paris) considered that, with only some 40 herbarium specimens present in Paris, this species has been little collected and in its native countries "is obviously a very banal species" (letter dated September 1988 to J. Florence, in Meyer 1998b)
    地理分布
    原生地:原产于美洲热带地区。
    管理信息
    预防措施夏威夷与其它太平洋岛屿的米氏野牡丹(Miconia calvescens)风险评估,由 Kaulunani 都市的林业计划与美国森林服务赞助,执行者是柯蒂斯博士 Daehler(UH 波特尼) 。外来植物检查系统衍生自 Pheloung et al。(1999) 经过小幅修正使用在太平洋岛屿.(Daehler et al.2004) 结果是 14 分,建议如下:可能在夏威夷与其它太平洋岛屿上引起重要的生态或者经济的伤害,WRA 分数很高,以夏威夷和其它世界各地公开的生物学描述信息为依据 。

    物理方法:动手移除苗木与幼木(<3 公尺)。

    化学方法:使用除草剂削减残枝。(Garlon, Triclopyr+2,4-D)

    营养
    无可利用之信息。但本属植物在适当湿度下,可忍受较差之生长条件。
    繁殖
    有性繁殖、以扦插方式行无性(营养)繁殖。自交。异株异花杂交。每年有三次盛花期。一植株可产生220个花序,每个花序平均有1330个花,每个平均有208个果实,每个果实平均有195个种子。它的种子能在土壤中活到超过 10 年。
    生命阶段
    为感旋光性种子但亦可在浓荫下发芽(0.02%全日照)。发芽率15-至20天即可达90%以上。土壤种子库> 50,000 seeds/m2, 其寿命超过6至8年。生长4至5年后首次开花。小苗和幼植株之生长率约为1 m/yr。
    这个物种被列为世界百大入侵种
    校订者:: Lloyd Loope, USGS, Maui, Hawaii, USA
    编辑者: Profile revision: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    最后修改: Tuesday, 29 June 2010


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland