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   Psittacula krameri (bird)
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         Interim profile, incomplete information
    Taxonomic name: Psittacula krameri (Scopoli, 1769)
    Common names: Perruche À Collier (French), ring-necked parakeet, rose-ringed parakeet, rose-ringed Parrakeet
    Organism type: bird
    The rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri, is native to central Africa and Asia and is a colourful, distinctive-looking bird. It is known as one of the most successful avian invaders in the world, with established populations in over 35 countries outside its native range. P. krameri has been shown to have adverse impacts on native bird species and carry diseases. It is thought that its reproductive success, establishment and range expansion in non-native areas is related to climate similarities of non-native areas to that of its native range.
    Occurs in:
    agricultural areas, scrub/shrublands, urban areas
    Four subspecies recognised include: Psittacula krameri borealis (Neumann, 1915), Psittacula krameri krameri (Scopoli, 1769), Psittacula krameri manillensis (Bechstein, 1800), Psittacula krameri parvirostris (Souance, 1856)
    Geographical range
    Native range: Afghanistan; Bangladesh; Benin; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; China; Côte d'Ivoire; Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; India; Liberia; Mali; Mauritania; Myanmar; Nepal; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Togo; Uganda; Viet Nam (BirdLife International 2009)
    Known introduced range: Established: Bahrain; Belgium; Cuba; Germany; Hong Kong; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Israel; Italy; Japan; Jordan; Kenya; Kuwait; Lebanon; Macao; Maldives; Mauritius; Netherlands; Oman; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States; Venezuela; Yemen. Reported: Cape Verde and Somalia (BirdLife International 2009)
    Introduction pathways to new locations
    Ignorant possession:
    Natural dispersal:
    Pet/aquarium trade:

    Local dispersal methods
    Escape from confinement:
    Intentional release:
    Natural dispersal (local):
    Management information
    Preventative measures: The Bureau of Rural Sciences, Australia, recently developed a risk assessment model (Bomford, 2003) which has been endorsed by the National Vertebrate Pests Committee and may be used as the basis for future exotic species import applications.To assign an exotic species to a threat category, three risk scores are calculated: the risk that (1) an escaped or released individual would harm people, (2) escaped or released individuals would establish a wild free-living population (3) the species would be a pest if a wild population did establish. These three risk scores are then used to assign the exotic species to one of four threat categories: extreme, serious, moderate or low.

    Psittacula krameri has been assigned an Extreme threat catergory for Australia. These animals should not be allowed to enter, nor be kept in any State or Territory. (Special consideration may be given to scientific institutions on a case by case basis.) Any species that has not been assessed previously should be considered to be in the Extreme Threat Category and should be treated accordingly, until a risk assessment is conducted.

    Mechanical: Trapping has been conducted in Australia to remove individuals from the wild (Shwartz & Shirley 2007).

    Compiled by: !UCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment
    Last Modified: Friday, 19 February 2010

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland