Agrostis capillaris (grass)
A. capillaris is a highly variable species; plants can differ greatly in size, habit, presence of absence of stolons or rhizomes, type of inflorescence and in spikelet structure. Some of this variation may be the result of hybridisation with A. stolonifera and A. castellana (Edgar & Forde, 1991).
A. capillaris is also a known carrier of the Barley yellow-dwarf virus (BYDV), which reduces populations of native grasses in New Zealand (Davis, 2001).
A. capillaris is highly variable with many cultivars recognised. There is wide phenotypic and genotypic variation in populations (Grime et al., 1988). Common bent forms hybrids with creeping bent (A. stolonifera).
Chemical: The gramicides cycloxydim and fluazifop-p-butyl have been used in the effective management of A. capillaris (Clay, 2006). A. capillaris is also susceptible to the herbicide dalapon (Evans, 1964). A study found that the application of the herbicide BAS 9052 OH on A. capillaris produced a 100% mean control rate (Hosaka, 1984). Glyphosate applied to soil before emergence of A. capillaris has been found to be effective in reducing growth (Salazar, 1982). Hexazinone has also been used in successful treatment and control of various weed and grass species including A. capillaris (White, 1990).
Biological: There are no known biological agents available for A. capillaris (Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team, 2003; Froude, 2002).
In the Northern hemisphere flowering begins in early June, with flowering peaking in early July). Anthesis (time when flower is open and fully functional) occurs about 14 days after first emergence of inflorescences (Philipson, 1937 in Rapson & Wilson, 1992). In New Zealand inflorescence emergence occurred in December-January with anthesis occurring about 26 days later. There were some latitudinal trends with more southerly populations flowering earlier (Rapson & Wilson, 1992).