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   Lachnellula willkommii (fungus)
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    Taxonomic name: Lachnellula willkommii (Hartig) Dennis
    Synonyms: Dasyscypha willkommii, Trichoscyphella willkommii
    Common names: European larch canker
    Organism type: fungus
    Lachnellula willkommii is a tree disease identified first in Europe and has since made its way to North America. It spreads easily from branch to branch infecting each tree (Larix decidua). Lachnellula willkommii is found in areas that have a high moisture content, in which it thrives.
    Description
    Lachnellula willkommii is visible by bulges on the trunk and branches. The bark of Larix decidua when infected will become wide and cracked. On the tree, fructifications of fungus will appear at a size of a few millimetres. They are orange and are saucer-like (Surini, 2004).
    Occurs in:
    coastland
    Habitat description
    Maritime climates are best suited for L. willkommii to grow because of high moisture content (Surini, 2004).
    General impacts
    Lachnellula willkommii is a fungus that attacks Larix decidua. The fungus does not kill the tree, although in some cases , but it does inhibit growth (Pãques et al. 1999). The potential for L. willkommii to damage in North America is high and this has caused state and federal agencies to issue flyers to the public to warn and tell people to be cautious when trasporting cuttings or seedlings (Campbell, 2004).
    Notes
    Symptoms of L. willkommii are bark necrosis, pathogenic resins, and fructification (Pãques et al. 1999).
    Geographical range
    Native range: France, Russian Federation (Tkacz, 2002; Surini, 2004)
    Known introduced range: Maine, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick (CDFA, 1999; CFIA, 2001)
    Local dispersal methods
    On animals (local): L. willkommii is propagated by wind and if tree braches are close together the fungus is easily spread (Surini, 2004).
    On animals (local): L. willkommii is propagated by wind and if tree braches are close together the fungus is easily spread (Surini, 2004).
    Management information
    Preventative measures: In Maine, regulated articles consist of "logs, pulpwood, branches, twigs, plants, scions, and other propagative materials of Larix spp. and Pseudolarix spp. except seeds." Regulations, such as having a permit, have been put in place to help control the spread of L. willkommii (CDFA, 1999).

    Physical: To limit the spread of L. willkommii, infected branches are cut off the tree. This is done under specific conditions when the weather is dry and during winter. Some problems associated with the cutting of branches is sometimes the tools used are not sanitized properly, which in turn means that spores can be found on the tool and be easily transferred to another tree (Surini, 2004).

    Reproduction
    L. willkommii is propagated by wind and if tree braches are close together the fungus is easily spread (Surini, 2004).
    Principal sources: Surini, T. 2004. Le Chancre du Mélèze - Larch Canker, Lachnellula willkommii. Inforets.
    Compiled by: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
    Last Modified: Tuesday, 7 August 2007


ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland