Linaria vulgaris (herb)
Physical: Most physical methods of control for Linaria vulgaris alone are not satisfactory, and not recommended for medium to large stands (Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). Mowing can prevent the plant from going to seed, but mowing also stimulates vegetative reproduction from the lateral roots and rhizomes which can exasberate the problem further (Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). Fire is also not effective because the underground rhizome system is not damaged and will just resprout shoots(Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). Tilling on arable lands can be effective in eradicating L. vulgaris, but tilling needs to be done every 7-10 days over the course of the season and repeated yearly for several years in order to eradicate resprouting root fragments (Ogden & Renz, 2005). Grazing by livestock is also not recommended as it stimulates vegetative growth with viable seeds passing through the digestive tract (Ogden & Renz, 2005). Overgrazing can reduce competition and increase the disturbance to the site creating an ideal environment for toadflax establishment (Kadrmas & Johnson, undated). The plant is not preferred by grazing livestock and contains poisonous glucosides that are moderately toxic to livestock (ANHP, 2006).
Cultural: Some cultural options for control of L. vulgaris is proper timing of seeding agricultural crops, overseeding, fertilizing, using high quality seed, planting at high densities, and using species that are adapted to your region (Curran & Lingenfelter, 2001). Revegetating with native species in particular perennial grasses which are more competitive to perennial forbs is another option (Curran & Lingenfelter, 2001).
Chemical: Chemicals that have shown to be effective in controlling L. vulgaris are glyphosates, a nonselective herbicide, and Telar and Tordon, two selective herbicides, among many others. Repeated applications may be required periodically every few years for up to twelve years. Applications should be timed around flowering when the plants are most vulnerable or after a hard frost (Ogden & Renz, 2005). Integrated management by seeding competitive species shortly after a chemical application has shown to be effective in preventing reemergence (Beck, 2006). Always follow labled instructions for any chemical and make sure that any chemical being applied is not going to kill or reduce the competitive ability of any native species(Kadrmas & Johnson, undated).