此物种详细信息 United States (USA)
来源： USDA, NRCS, 2002
Probably introduced to North America in the 1600s as a contaminant of crop seed and/or ship's ballast.
C. arvense is classified as a noxious weed.
农业: Thunhorst and Swearingen (1997) report that Cirsium arvense has long been recognized as a major agricultural pest. Nuzzo (2001) states that infestations reduce crop yield through competition for water, nutrients and minerals, and through interference with harvest. It is a host for bean aphid and stalk borer, insects that affect corn and tomatoes, and for sod-web worm (Crampus sp.), which damages corn.
竞争: It threatens natural communities by directly competing with and displacing native vegetation, decreasing species diversity, and changing the structure and composition of some habitats (Nuzzo, 1997).
经济 /民生: Zouhar (2001) states that it is considered one of the most tenacious and economically important agricultural weeds. It presents an economic threat to farmers and ranchers (Nuzzo, 1997), costing tens of millions of dollars in direct crop losses annually and additional millions for control (Thunhorst and Swearingen, 1997).
最后修改 ： 18/10/2004 9:45:12 a.m.