Species Notes for this Location: Recorded from Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Lan'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. May occur in the few smaller islands where permanent human settlements are present; known also from Ford Island in Pearl Harbour. …sometimes locally common in and about lowland sugar cane fields ... also middle elevation planted forests ... Extreme known elevation is 5,800 feet... (Tomich, 1986; 40-41).
Management Notes for this Location:
Impacts: Predation: Rattus norvegicus in Hawaii are thought to be responsible for suppressing seed regeneration of endemic plants, reducing populations of native snails, and significantly limiting breeding success of many native birds (Pitt, 2004).