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   Dendroctonus valens insect
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    Dendroctonus beckeri


    A Central American form was described earlier as a separate species Dendroctonus beckeri (Thatcher) from specimens collected in Guatemala (Thatcher 1954). Shortly thereafter it was made a synonym with Dendroctonus valens by Wood (1963) without comment. The original description of D. barberi is brief, and it does not describe how D. beckeri and D. valens differ other than in average size and adult color. There are small but consistent morphological differences between North American specimens (British Columbia, Minnesota USA) and Central American individuals (Honduras, Guatemala). D. beckeri is larger and mature adults are reddish brown rather than black. There are also subtle but consistent differences in the frons and elytral declivity (Kirkendall, unpublished data, in Cai et al. 2008). NB: The frons is the anterior uppermost part of the head of an insect. The elyta is the hard modified forewing-covering of certain insect orders, notably beetles. The elytra declivity is the sloping part of the elytra.
    Dendroctonus terebrans


    In North America the range of D. valens is quite similar to the range of ponderosa pine in the West and of eastern white pine in the East. In the extreme Southeastern United States, this insect is replaced by a very closely related species, the black turpentine beetle and where their ranges touch or overlap, the identity of the two species is often confused (Smith 1971).
    Ips emarginatus


    Engraver beetles are present in North America. Red turpentine beetles are larger than engraver beetles, reddish brown, and have a rounded tip to the abdomen. Red turpentine beetles usually pack about 60% of their egg-laying galleries with a sawdust-like boring dust called frass (whereas engraver beetles maintain clean, open adult galleries) (Seybold Paine & Dreistadt 2008).
    Ips mexicanus


    Engraver beetles are present in North America. Red turpentine beetles are larger than engraver beetles, reddish brown, and have a rounded tip to the abdomen. Red turpentine beetles usually pack about 60% of their egg-laying galleries with a sawdust-like boring dust called frass (whereas engraver beetles maintain clean, open adult galleries) (Seybold Paine & Dreistadt 2008).
    Ips paraconfusus


    Engraver beetles are present in North America. Red turpentine beetles are larger than engraver beetles, reddish brown, and have a rounded tip to the abdomen. Red turpentine beetles usually pack about 60% of their egg-laying galleries with a sawdust-like boring dust called frass (whereas engraver beetles maintain clean, open adult galleries) (Seybold Paine & Dreistadt 2008).
    Ips pini


    Engraver beetles are present in North America. Red turpentine beetles are larger than engraver beetles, reddish brown, and have a rounded tip to the abdomen. Red turpentine beetles usually pack about 60% of their egg-laying galleries with a sawdust-like boring dust called frass (whereas engraver beetles maintain clean, open adult galleries) (Seybold Paine & Dreistadt 2008).
    Ips plastographus


    Engraver beetles are present in North America. Red turpentine beetles are larger than engraver beetles, reddish brown, and have a rounded tip to the abdomen. Red turpentine beetles usually pack about 60% of their egg-laying galleries with a sawdust-like boring dust called frass (whereas engraver beetles maintain clean, open adult galleries) (Seybold Paine & Dreistadt 2008).

ISSG Landcare Research NBII IUCN University of Auckland